Fathers of Confederation

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A Canadian 3 cent stamp from 1917 based on Robert Harris's 1884 painting "Fathers of Confederation"

The Fathers of Confederation are the people who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[1][2]

There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[3] The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation."[1] In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation.[4] As well, Joey Smallwood referred to himself as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he helped lead Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949.

Table of participation[edit]

Participant[2] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald
Adams George Archibald.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
George Brown
Brown-sm.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Alexander Campbell
Sir Alexander Campbell.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes No
Sir Frederick Carter
FrederickCarter.jpg
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier
George-Etienne Cartier.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir Edward Barron Chandler
Edward Barron Chandler.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Jean-Charles Chapais
Jean-Charles Chapais.jpg
Quebec No Yes No
Sir James Cockburn
James Cockburn.jpg
Ontario No Yes No
George Coles
George Coles.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Robert B. Dickey
Robert B. Dickey.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes No
Charles Fisher
CharlesFisher23.jpg
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt
Sir Alexander Galt.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Sir John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray (1811-1887).jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John Hamilton Gray
John Hamilton Gray.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Thomas Heath Haviland
Thomas Heath Haviland 2.jpg
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
William Alexander Henry
William Alexander Henry.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland
WilliamPearceHowland23.jpg
Ontario No No Yes
John Mercer Johnson
John Mercer Johnson.jpeg
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin
HectorLangevin23.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald
Andrew Archibald Macdonald.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
Sir John A. Macdonald
Macdonald-sm.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Jonathan McCully
Jonathan McCully.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
William McDougall
William McDougall.jpg
Ontario Yes Yes Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee
McGee-sm.jpg
Quebec Yes Yes No
Peter Mitchell
Peter Mitchell.jpg
New Brunswick No Yes Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat
Oliver Mowat.jpg
Ontario No Yes No
Edward Palmer
Edward Palmer.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
William Henry Pope
William Henry Pope.jpg
Prince Edward Island Yes Yes No
John William Ritchie
John William Ritchie.jpg
Nova Scotia No No Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea
Ambrose Shea.jpg
Newfoundland and Labrador No Yes No
William H. Steeves
William Henry Steeves.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché
Étienne-Paschal Taché.jpg
Quebec No Yes No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley
Samuel Leonard Tilley.jpg
New Brunswick Yes Yes Yes
Sir Charles Tupper
Chas Tupper - GG Bain.jpg
Nova Scotia Yes Yes Yes
Edward Whelan
Edward Whelan.jpg
Prince Edward Island No Yes No
Robert Duncan Wilmot
Robert Duncan Wilmot.jpg
New Brunswick No No Yes

Historic photographs[edit]

Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, gathering on the steps of Prince Edward Island's Government House for the Charlottetown Conference - Photo by George P. Roberts on September 11, 1864. 
Delegates of the Legislatures of Canada gathering at the Quebec Conference - Photo by Jules I. Livernois on October 27, 1864. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CandianHistory. 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  2. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  3. ^ Harrison,, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  4. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]