Father of modern surgery
Sushruta (c. 600 BCE) taught and practiced surgery on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Benares in Northern India. Much of what is known about Sushruta is in Sanskrit contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita. It is the oldest known surgical text and it describes in detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures such as cosmetic surgery and rhinoplasty. Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery, Sushruta has been called "Father of Surgery". The Samhita has some writings that date as late as the 1st century, and some scholars believe that there were contributions and additions to his teachings from generations of his students and disciples.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi 
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (born in Córdoba, Spain; 936-1013), also called Abulcasis, wrote a 30-part medical encyclopedia in Arabic. The last part of the encyclopedia, dealing with surgery, was later translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona. Al-Zahrawi has been called the "father of modern surgery". Some of his works include: the first to describe and prove the hereditary pattern behind hemophilia, the first to describe ectopic pregnancy and the first to describe stone babies.
Guy de Chauliac 
The Frenchman Guy de Chauliac (c. 1300-1368) is said by the Encyclopaedia Britannica to have been the most eminent surgeon of the European Middle Ages. He wrote the surgical work Chirurgia magna, which was used as a standard text for some centuries. He has been called the "father of modern surgery".
Ambroise Paré 
The French surgeon Ambroise Paré (1517–1590) worked as a military doctor. He reformed the treatment of gunshot wounds, rejecting the practice, common at that time, of cauterizing the wound, and ligatured blood vessels in amputated limbs. His collected works were published in 1575. He has been called the "father of modern surgery".
Hieronymus Fabricius 
John Hunter 
Philip Syng Physick 
The American surgeon Philip Syng Physick (1768–1837) worked in Philadelphia and invented a number of new surgical methods and instruments. He has been called the "father of modern surgery".
Joseph Lister 
Theodor Billroth 
The German Theodor Billroth (1829–1894) was an early user of antisepsis, and was the first to perform a resection of the esophagus, and various other operations. He has been called the "father of modern surgery".
William Stewart Halsted 
The American William Stewart Halsted (1852–1922) pioneered the radical mastectomy, and designed a residency training program for American surgeons. He has been called "the most innovative and influential surgeon the United States has produced", and also a "father of modern surgery".
See also 
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