Hippocrates

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Hippocrates of Kos
Hippocrates rubens.jpg
Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638
Born c. 460 BC
Kos, ancient Greece
Died c. 370 BC
Larissa, ancient Greece
Occupation Physician

Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (/hɪˈpɒkrəˌtz/; Greek: Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; c. 460 – c. 370 BC), was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of western medicine[1][2][3] in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields that it had traditionally been associated with (notably theurgy and philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.[4][5]

However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine, and the actions of Hippocrates himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did. Hippocrates is commonly portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. He is also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.[4][6]

Biography[edit]

Historians agree that Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC on the Greek island of Cos, and became a famous ambassador for medicine against the strong opposing infrastructure of Greece. For this opposition he endured a 20-year prison sentence during which he wrote well known medical works such as The Complicated Body, encompassing many of the things we know to be true today. Other biographical information, however, is likely to be untrue.[7]

Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek gynecologist,[8] was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Later biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, and in the works of John Tzetzes, which date from the 12th century AD.[4][9] Hippocrates is mentioned in passing in the writings of two contemporaries Plato in "Protagoras" and "Phaedrus" [10] Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC[11]

Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, and his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane. The two sons of Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were his students. According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates.[12][13]

Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, and studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was probably trained at the asklepieion of Kos, and took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad";[14][15] while in Phaedrus, Plato suggests that "Hippocrates the Asclepiad" thought that a complete knowledge of the nature of the body was necessary for medicine.[15] Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly, Thrace, and the Sea of Marmara.[13] Several different accounts of his death exist. He died, probably in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100.[13]

Hippocratic theory[edit]

"It is thus with regard divine nor more sacred than other diseases, but has a natural cause from the originates like other affections. Men regard its nature and cause as divine from ignorance and wonder..."

On the Sacred Disease[16]

Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine.[17] He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.[18][19][20]

Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split (into the Knidian and Koan) on how to deal with disease. The Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew almost nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans. The Knidian school consequently failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms.[21] The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments. Its focus was on patient care and prognosis, not diagnosis. It could effectively treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice.[22][23]

Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school. This shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of particularly strong denunciations; for example, the French doctor M. S. Houdart called the Hippocratic treatment a "meditation upon death".[24]

Crisis[edit]

Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover. After a crisis, a relapse might follow, and then another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him.[25]

Illustration of a Hippocratic bench, date unknown

Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature" ("vis medicatrix naturae" in Latin). According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).[26] Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization [were] of capital importance."[27] In general, the Hippocratic medicine was very kind to the patient; treatment was gentle, and emphasized keeping the patient clean and sterile. For example, only clean water or wine were ever used on wounds, though "dry" treatment was preferable. Soothing balms were sometimes employed.[28]

Hippocrates was reluctant to administer drugs and engage in specialized treatment that might prove to be wrongly chosen; generalized therapy followed a generalized diagnosis.[28][29] A couple examples of generalized treatments he prescribed include fasting and the consumption of apple cider vinegar. Hippocrates once said that "to eat when you are sick, is to feed your sickness." However, potent drugs were used on certain occasions.[30] This passive approach was very successful in treating relatively simple ailments such as broken bones which required traction to stretch the skeletal system and relieve pressure on the injured area. The Hippocratic bench and other devices were used to this end.

One of the strengths of Hippocratic medicine was its emphasis on prognosis. At Hippocrates' time, medicinal therapy was quite immature, and often the best thing that physicians could do was to evaluate an illness and predict its likely progression based upon data collected in detailed case histories.[20][31]

Professionalism[edit]

A number of ancient Greek surgical tools. On the left is a trephine; on the right, a set of scalpels. Hippocratic medicine made good use of these tools.[32]

Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strict professionalism, discipline, and rigorous practice.[33] The Hippocratic work On the Physician recommends that physicians always be well-kempt, honest, calm, understanding, and serious. The Hippocratic physician paid careful attention to all aspects of his practice: he followed detailed specifications for, "lighting, personnel, instruments, positioning of the patient, and techniques of bandaging and splinting" in the ancient operating room.[34] He even kept his fingernails to a precise length.[35]

The Hippocratic School gave importance to the clinical doctrines of observation and documentation. These doctrines dictate that physicians record their findings and their medicinal methods in a very clear and objective manner, so that these records may be passed down and employed by other physicians.[13] Hippocrates made careful, regular note of many symptoms including complexion, pulse, fever, pains, movement, and excretions.[31] He is said to have measured a patient's pulse when taking a case history to discover whether the patient was lying.[36] Hippocrates extended clinical observations into family history and environment.[37] "To him medicine owes the art of clinical inspection and observation."[20] For this reason, he may more properly be termed as the "Father of Medicine".[38]

Direct contributions to medicine[edit]

Clubbing of fingers in a patient with Eisenmenger's syndrome; first described by Hippocrates, clubbing is also known as "Hippocratic fingers".

Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic suppurative lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic fingers".[39] Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis. Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of Falstaff's death in Act II, Scene iii. of Henry V.[40][41]

Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence."[31][42] Another of Hippocrates' major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema, i.e. suppuration of the lining of the chest cavity. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.[43] Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings and techniques, while crude, such as the use of lead pipes to drain chest wall abscess, are still valid.[43]

The Hippocratic school of medicine described well the ailments of the human rectum and the treatment thereof, despite the school's poor theory of medicine. Hemorrhoids, for instance, though believed to be caused by an excess of bile and phlegm, were treated by Hippocratic physicians in relatively advanced ways.[44][45] Cautery and excision are described in the Hippocratic Corpus, in addition to the preferred methods: ligating the hemorrhoids and drying them with a hot iron. Other treatments such as applying various salves are suggested as well.[46][47] Today, "treatment [for hemorrhoids] still includes burning, strangling, and excising."[44] Also, some of the fundamental concepts of proctoscopy outlined in the Corpus are still in use.[44][45] For example, the uses of the rectal speculum, a common medical device, are discussed in the Hippocratic Corpus.[45] This constitutes the earliest recorded reference to endoscopy.[48][49] Hippocrates often used lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise to treat diseases such as diabetes, what is today called lifestyle medicine. He is often quoted with "Let food be your medicine, and medicine be your food" and "Walking is man's best medicine".[50]

Hippocratic Corpus[edit]

Main article: Hippocratic Corpus
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross

The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum) is a collection of around seventy early medical works from Alexandrian Greece.[51] It is written in Ionic Greek. The question of whether Hippocrates himself was the author of the corpus has not been conclusively answered,[52] but the volumes were probably produced by his students and followers.[53] Because of the variety of subjects, writing styles and apparent date of construction, scholars believe Hippocratic Corpus could not have been written by one person (Ermerins numbers the authors at nineteen).[30] The corpus was attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity, and its teaching generally followed his principles; thus it came to be known by his name. It might be the remains of a library of Kos, or a collection compiled in the 3rd century BC in Alexandria.[14][34]

The Hippocratic Corpus contains textbooks, lectures, research, notes and philosophical essays on various subjects in medicine, in no particular order.[52][54] These works were written for different audiences, both specialists and laymen, and were sometimes written from opposing view points; significant contradictions can be found between works in the Corpus.[55] Notable among the treatises of the Corpus are The Hippocratic Oath; The Book of Prognostics; On Regimen in Acute Diseases; Aphorisms; On Airs, Waters and Places; Instruments of Reduction; On The Sacred Disease; etc.[30]

Hippocratic Oath[edit]

Main article: Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath, a seminal document on the ethics of medical practice, was attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity although new information shows it may have been written after his death. This is probably the most famous document of the Hippocratic Corpus. Recently the authenticity of the document's author has come under scrutiny. While the Oath is rarely used in its original form today, it serves as a foundation for other, similar oaths and laws that define good medical practice and morals. Such derivatives are regularly taken today by medical graduates about to enter medical practice.[14][56][57]

Legacy[edit]

Mural painting showing Galen and Hippocrates. 12th century; Anagni, Italy

Hippocrates is widely considered to be the "Father of Medicine".[53] His contributions revolutionized the practice of medicine; but after his death the advancement stalled.[58] So revered was Hippocrates that his teachings were largely taken as too great to be improved upon and no significant advancements of his methods were made for a long time.[14][27] The centuries after Hippocrates' death were marked as much by retrograde movement as by further advancement. For instance, "after the Hippocratic period, the practice of taking clinical case-histories died out," according to Fielding Garrison.[59]

After Hippocrates, the next significant physician was Galen, a Greek who lived from AD 129 to AD 200. Galen perpetuated Hippocratic medicine, moving both forward and backward.[60] In the Middle Ages, the Islamic world adopted Hippocratic methods and developed new medical technologies.[61] After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in Europe and even further expanded in the 19th century. Notable among those who employed Hippocrates' rigorous clinical techniques were Thomas Sydenham, William Heberden, Jean-Martin Charcot and William Osler. Henri Huchard, a French physician, said that these revivals make up "the whole history of internal medicine."[62]

The most severe form of hair loss and baldness is called the Hippocratic form.[63]

Image[edit]

A conventionalized image in a Roman "portrait" bust (19th-century engraving)

According to Aristotle's testimony, Hippocrates was known as "The Great Hippocrates".[64] Concerning his disposition, Hippocrates was first portrayed as a "kind, dignified, old country doctor" and later as "stern and forbidding".[14] He is certainly considered wise, of very great intellect and especially as very practical. Francis Adams describes him as "strictly the physician of experience and common sense."[21]

His image as the wise, old doctor is reinforced by busts of him, which wear large beards on a wrinkled face. Many physicians of the time wore their hair in the style of Jove and Asklepius. Accordingly, the busts of Hippocrates that have been found could be only altered versions of portraits of these deities.[58] Hippocrates and the beliefs that he embodied are considered medical ideals. Fielding Garrison, an authority on medical history, stated, "He is, above all, the exemplar of that flexible, critical, well-poised attitude of mind, ever on the lookout for sources of error, which is the very essence of the scientific spirit."[62] "His figure... stands for all time as that of the ideal physician," according to A Short History of Medicine, inspiring the medical profession since his death.[65]

Greek doctors had started to look at the issue of poor health and disease by using a process of reasoning and observation. The most famous of these was Hippocrates. He is thought to have been born in Cos in 460 BC. In fact, very little is known about Hippocrates as a person but his fame was such that Plato and Aristotle wrote about him. While Hippocrates has found fame in medical history, there were other Ancient Greek doctors who were not so lucky.

Ancient Greek medical knowledge is demonstrated in what is known as the Hippocratic Collection. This is a collection of sixty medical books of which Hippocrates wrote just some. It is not known who wrote most of them but they cover a time span of 150 years so they could not have all been written by Hippocrates.

Hippocrates and other Greek doctors believed that the work done by a doctor should be kept separate from the work done by a priest. They believed that observation of a patient was a vital aspect of medical care. Ancient Greek doctors did examine their patients but Hippocrates wanted a more systematic period of observation and the recording of what was observed. Today, this would be called "clinical observation". Such ideas have led to Hippocrates being called[by whom?] the "Father of Medicine".

The Hippocratic Collection gave Greek doctors detailed advice on what to do with their patients:

"First of all the doctor should look at the patient's face. If he looks his usual self this is a good sign. If not, however, the following are bad signs – sharp nose, hollow eyes, cold ears, dry skin on the forehead, strange face colour such as green, black, red or lead coloured. If the face is like this at the beginning of the illness, the doctor must ask the patient if he has lost sleep, or had diarrhoea, or not eaten." From "On forecasting diseases".

In the book On Epidemics, doctors were told to note specific symptoms and what was observed on a day-to-day basis. By doing this they could make a natural history of an illness. Hippocrates and other doctors believed that by doing this they could forecast the development of the illness in future:

"I believe that it is an excellent thing for a physician to practice forecasting. He will carry out the treatment best if he knows beforehand from the present symptoms what will take place later." From On forecasting diseases

The ideas of Hippocrates and others spread in the eastern Mediterranean and others took to writing down what they saw with regards to illnesses. These writings have survived and have given historians a vast resource to study.

Hippocrates and other doctors worked on the assumption that all diseases had a natural cause rather than a supernatural one. Priests believed that an illness such as epilepsy was caused by the gods. Hippocrates believed that with all other illnesses it had a natural cause.

"Men believe only that it is a divine disease because of their ignorance and amazement." From 'The Sacred Disease'.

Genealogy[edit]

Hippocrates' legendary genealogy traces his paternal heritage directly to Asklepius and his maternal ancestry to Heracles.[30] According to Tzetzes's Chiliades, the ahnentafel of Hippocrates II is:[66]

An image of Hippocrates on the floor of the Asclepieion of Kos, with Asklepius in the middle

1. Hippocrates II. "The Father of Medicine"
2. Heraclides
4. Hippocrates I.
8. Gnosidicus
16. Nebrus
32. Sostratus III.
64. Theodorus II.
128. Sostratus, II.
256. Thedorus
512. Cleomyttades
1024. Crisamis
2048. Dardanus
4096. Sostratus
8192. Hippolochus
16384. Podalirius
32768. Asklepius

Namesakes[edit]

Some clinical symptoms and signs have been named after Hippocrates as he is believed to be the first person to describe those. Hippocratic face is the change produced in the countenance by death, or long sickness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the like. Clubbing, a deformity of the fingers and fingernails, is also known as Hippocratic fingers. Hippocratic succussion is the internal splashing noise of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax. Hippocratic bench (a device which uses tension to aid in setting bones) and Hippocratic cap-shaped bandage are two devices named after Hippocrates.[67] Hippocratic Corpus and Hippocratic Oath are also his namesakes. The drink hypocras is also believed to be invented by Hippocrates. Risus sardonicus, a sustained spasming of the face muscles may also be termed the Hippocratic Smile.

In the modern age, a lunar crater has been named Hippocrates. The Hippocratic Museum, a museum on the Greek island of Kos is dedicated to him. In the Harry Potter book series, the main healer on Arthur Weasley's ward was named Hippocrates Smethwyck. The Hippocrates Project is a program of the New York University Medical Center to enhance education through use of technology. Project Hippocrates (an acronym of "HIgh PerfOrmance Computing for Robot-AssisTEd Surgery") is an effort of the Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science and Shadyside Medical Center, "to develop advanced planning, simulation, and execution technologies for the next generation of computer-assisted surgical robots."[68] Both the Canadian Hippocratic Registry and American Hippocratic Registry are organizations of physicians who uphold the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath as inviolable through changing social times.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Grammaticos PC, Diamantis A (2008). "Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus". Hell J Nucl Med 11 (1): 2–4. PMID 18392218. 
  2. ^ "Hippocrates". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  3. ^ Strong, W.F.; Cook, John A. (July 2007), "Reviving the Dead Greek Guys" (pdf), Global Media Journal, Indian Edition 
  4. ^ a b c Garrison 1966, pp. 92–93
  5. ^ Nuland 1988, p. 5
  6. ^ Garrison 1966, p. 96
  7. ^ Nuland 1988, p. 4
  8. ^ Britannica 2006
  9. ^ Nuland 1988, p. 7
  10. ^ Jones, W. H. S. "Hippocrates Collected Works I". Perseus Classics Collection. 
  11. ^ Aristotle. "Politics Book VII". Internet Classics Archive. 
  12. ^ Adams 1891, p. 19
  13. ^ a b c d Margotta 1968, p. 66
  14. ^ a b c d e Martí-Ibáñez 1961, pp. 86–87
  15. ^ a b Plato 380 B.C.
  16. ^ Plato 400 B.C.
  17. ^ Adams 1891, p. 4
  18. ^ Jones 1868, p. 11
  19. ^ Nuland 1988, pp. 8–9
  20. ^ a b c Garrison 1966, pp. 93–94
  21. ^ a b Adams 1891, p. 15
  22. ^ Margotta 1968, p. 67
  23. ^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 51
  24. ^ Jones 1868, pp. 12–13
  25. ^ Jones 1868, pp. 46,48,59
  26. ^ Garrison 1966, p. 99
  27. ^ a b Margotta 1968, p. 73
  28. ^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 98
  29. ^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 35
  30. ^ a b c d Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
  31. ^ a b c Garrison 1966, p. 97
  32. ^ Adams 1891, p. 17
  33. ^ Garrison 1966
  34. ^ a b Margotta 1968, p. 64
  35. ^ Rutkow 1993, pp. 24–25
  36. ^ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 88
  37. ^ Margotta 1968, p. 68
  38. ^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 45
  39. ^ Schwartz, Richards & Goyal 2006
  40. ^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 40
  41. ^ Margotta 1968, p. 70
  42. ^ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90
  43. ^ a b Major 1965
  44. ^ a b c Jóhannsson 2005, p. 11
  45. ^ a b c Jani 2005, pp. 24–25
  46. ^ Jóhannsson 2005, p. 12
  47. ^ Mann 2002, pp. 1, 173
  48. ^ Shah 2002, p. 645
  49. ^ NCEPOD 2004, p. 4
  50. ^ Chishti, Hakim (1988). The Traditional Healer's Handbook. Vermont: Healing Arts Press. p. 11. ISBN 0892814381. 
  51. ^ Iniesta, Ivan (20 April 2011), "Hippocratic Corpus", BMJ 342: d688, doi:10.1136/bmj.d688 
  52. ^ a b Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 27
  53. ^ a b Hanson 2006
  54. ^ Rutkow, p. 23
  55. ^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 28
  56. ^ Jones 1868, p. 217
  57. ^ Buqrat Aur Uski Tasaneef by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India, 1966, p. 56-62.
  58. ^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 100
  59. ^ Garrison 1966, p. 95
  60. ^ Jones 1868, p. 35
  61. ^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 102
  62. ^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 94
  63. ^ "The dilemma of balding solve by father of medicine Hippocrates". Healthy Hair Highlights News. 15 August 2011. 
  64. ^ Jones 1868, p. 38
  65. ^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 29
  66. ^ Adams 1891
  67. ^ Fishchenko & Khimich 1986
  68. ^ Project Hippocrates 1995

References[edit]

A woodcut of the reduction of a dislocated shoulder with a Hippocratic device
  • Adams, Francis (1891), The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, New York: William Wood and Company .
  • Boylan, Michael (2006), Hippocrates, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, retrieved September 28, 2006 .
  • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2006), Soranus of Ephesus, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), HIPPOCRATES V13, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., p. 519, retrieved October 14, 2006 .
  • Garrison, Fielding H. (1966), History of Medicine, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company .
  • Fishchenko, AIa; Khimich, SD (1986), "Modification of the Hippocratic cap-shaped bandage", Klin Khir 1 (72) . PMID 3959439
  • Hanson, Ann Ellis (2006), Hippocrates: The "Greek Miracle" in Medicine, Lee T. Pearcy, The Episcopal Academy, Merion, PA 19066, USA, retrieved December 17, 2006 
  • Hippocrates (2006), On the Sacred Disease, Internet Classics Archive: The University of Adelaide Library, archived from the original on September 26, 2007, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2006), Democritus, The University of Tennessee at Martin, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • Jani, P.G. (2005), "Management of Haemorrhoids: A Personal Experience", East and Central African Journal of Surgery 10 (2): 24–28 .
  • Jóhannsson, Helgi Örn (2005), Haemorrhoids: Aspects of Symptoms and Results after Surgery, Uppsala University, ISBN 91-554-6399-1 .
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  • Leff, Samuel; Leff, Vera. (1956), From Witchcraft to World Health, London and Southampton: Camelot Press Ltd. .
  • Mann, Charles V. (2002), Surgical Treatment of Haemorrhoids, Springer, ISBN 1-85233-496-7 .
  • Major, Ralph H. (1965), Classic Descriptions of Disease, Springfield, Illinois .
  • Margotta, Roberto (1968), The Story of Medicine, New York: Golden Press .
  • Martí-Ibáñez, Félix (1961), A Prelude to Medical History, New York: MD Publications, Inc., Library of Congress ID: 61-11617 .
  • National Library of Medicine (2006), Images from the History of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • National Library of Medicine (2000), Objects of Art: Tree of Hippocrates, National Institutes of Health, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • NCEPOD (2004), Scoping our practice, London: National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death .
  • Nuland, Sherwin B. (1988), Doctors, Knopf, ISBN 0-9539240-3-3 .
  • Pinault, Jody Robin (1992), Hippocratic Lives and Legends, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09574-8 .
  • Plato (2006), Protagoras, Internet Classics Archive: The University of Adelaide Library, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
  • Plato (2012), Phaedrus, Internet Classics Archive: The University of Adelaide Library, retrieved November 1, 2012 .
  • Project Hippocrates (1995), Project Hippocrates, Center for Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, retrieved December 30, 2006 .
  • Rutkow, Ira M. (1993), Surgery: An Illustrated History, London and Southampton: Elsevier Science Health Science div, ISBN 0-8016-6078-5 .
  • Schwartz, Robert A.; Richards, Gregory M.; Goyal, Supriya (2006), Clubbing of the Nails, WebMD, retrieved September 28, 2006 .
  • Shah, J. (2002), "Endoscopy through the ages", BJU International (London: Academic Surgical Unit and Department of Urology, Imperial College School of Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital) 89 (7): 645–652, doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02726.x, PMID 11966619 .
  • Singer, Charles; Underwood, E. Ashworth (1962), A Short History of Medicine, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, Library of Congress ID: 62-21080 .
  • Smith, William (1870), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 2, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, retrieved December 23, 2006 

Further reading[edit]

  • Adams, Francis (translator) (1891) (1994) [1891], Works by Hippocrates, The Internet Classics Archive: Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics © 1994–2000 .
  • Coulter, Harris L (1975), Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought: The Patterns Emerge: Hippocrates to Paracelsus 1, Washington, DC: Weehawken Book 
  • Craik, Elizabeth M. (ed., trans., comm.), The Hippocratic Treatise On glands (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2009) (Studies in ancient medicine, 36).
  • Di Benedetto, Vincenzo (1986), Il medico e la malattia. La scienza di Ippocrate, Turin: Einaudi 
  • Edelstein, Ludwig (1943), The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 
  • Goldberg, Herbert S. (1963), Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, New York: Franklin Watts 
  • Heidel, William Arthur (1941), Hippocratic Medicine: Its Spirit and Method, New York: Columbia University Press 
  • Hippocrates (1990), Smith, Wesley D, ed., Pseudepigraphic writings : letters, embassy, speech from the altar, decree, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-09290-0 
  • Jouanna, Jacques (1999), Hippocrates, M. B. DeBevoise, trans, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-5907-7 
  • Jori, Alberto (1996), Medicina e medici nell'antica Grecia. Saggio sul 'Perì téchnes' ippocratico, Bologna (Italy): il Mulino .
  • Kalopothakes, M. D. (1857), An essay on Hippocrates, Philadelphia: King and Baird Printers .
  • Langholf, Volker (1990), Medical theories in Hippocrates : early texts and the "Epidemics", Berlin: de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-011956-5 
  • Levine, Edwin Burton (1971), Hippocrates, New York: Twayne 
  • Lopez, Francesco (2004), Il pensiero olistico di Ippocrate. Percorsi di ragionamento e testimonianze. Vol. I, Cosenza (Italy): Edizioni Pubblisfera, ISBN 978-88-88358-35-2 .
  • Moon, Robert Oswald (1923), Hippocrates and His Successors in Relation to the Philosophy of Their Time, New York: Longmans, Green and Co 
  • Petersen, William F. (1946), Hippocratic Wisdom for Him Who Wishes to Pursue Properly the Science of Medicine: A Modern Appreciation of Ancient Scientific Achievement, Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas 
  • Phillips, E.D. (1973), Aspects of Greek Medicine, New York: St. Martin's Press 
  • Pliny the Elder, Natural History: Book XXIX., translated by John Bostock. See original text in Perseus program.
  • Sargent, II, Frederick (1982), Hippocratic heritage : a history of ideas about weather and human health, New York: Pergamon Press, ISBN 0-08-028790-5 
  • Smith, Wesley D. (1979), Hippocratic Tradition, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-1209-9 
  • Temkin, Owsei (1991), Hippocrates in a world of pagans and Christians, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-4090-2 

External links[edit]