Fathers of Confederation
The Fathers of Confederation are the people who attended the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.
There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation. The later "Fathers" who brought the other provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as "Fathers of Confederation." In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation. As well, Joey Smallwood referred to himself as "the Last Father of Confederation", because he helped lead Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949.
Table of participation 
|Participant||Portrait||Province (Current)||Charlottetown||Quebec City||London|
|Sir Adams George Archibald||Nova Scotia|
|Sir Alexander Campbell||Ontario|
|Sir Frederick Carter||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|Sir George-Étienne Cartier||Quebec|
|Sir Edward Barron Chandler||New Brunswick|
|Sir Jean-Charles Chapais||Quebec|
|Sir James Cockburn||Ontario|
|George Coles||Prince Edward Island|
|Robert B. Dickey||Nova Scotia|
|Charles Fisher||New Brunswick|
|Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt||Quebec|
|Sir John Hamilton Gray||Prince Edward Island|
|Sir John Hamilton Gray||New Brunswick|
|Sir Thomas Heath Haviland||Prince Edward Island|
|William Alexander Henry||Nova Scotia|
|Sir William Pearce Howland||Ontario|
|John Mercer Johnson||New Brunswick|
|Sir Hector-Louis Langevin||Quebec|
|Andrew Archibald Macdonald||Prince Edward Island|
|Sir John A. Macdonald||Ontario|
|Jonathan McCully||Nova Scotia|
|Thomas D'Arcy McGee||Quebec|
|Peter Mitchell||New Brunswick|
|Sir Oliver Mowat||Ontario|
|Edward Palmer||Prince Edward Island|
|William Henry Pope||Prince Edward Island|
|John William Ritchie||Nova Scotia|
|Sir Ambrose Shea||Newfoundland and Labrador|
|William H. Steeves||New Brunswick|
|Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché||Quebec|
|Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley||New Brunswick|
|Sir Charles Tupper||Nova Scotia|
|Edward Whelan||Prince Edward Island|
|Robert Duncan Wilmot||New Brunswick|
Historic photographs 
See also 
- "Fathers of Confederation". CandianHistory. 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
- Harrison,, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
- McCreery, Christopher (2005). The Order of Canada: its origins, history, and development. University of Toronto Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-8020-3940-5. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
Further reading 
- Coucill, Irma (2005). Canada's Prime Ministers, Governors General and Fathers of Confederation. Pembroke Publishers. ISBN 1-55138-185-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fathers of Confederation|
- Fathers of Confederation - Library and Archives Canada