Fatty acid methyl ester
Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are a type of fatty acid ester that are derived by transesterification of fats with methanol. The molecules in biodiesel are primarily FAMEs, usually obtained from vegetable oils by transesterification. They are used to produce detergents and biodiesel. FAMES are typically produced by an alkali-catalyzed reaction between fats and methanol in the presence of base such as sodium hydroxide or sodium methoxide.
Since every microorganism has its specific FAME profile (microbial fingerprinting), it can be used as a tool for microbial source tracking (MST). The types and proportions of fatty acids present in cytoplasm membrane and outer membrance (gram negative) lipids of cells are major phenotypic traits.
Clinical analysis can determine the lengths, bonds, rings and branches of the FAME. To perform this analysis, a bacterial culture is taken, and the fatty acids extracted and used to form methyl esters. The volatile derivatives are then introduced into a gas chromatagraph, and the patterns of the peaks help identify the organism. This is widely used in characterizing new species of bacteria, and is useful for identifying pathogenic strains.
- Anneken, David J.; Both, Sabine; Christoph, Ralf; Fieg, Georg; Steinberner, Udo; Westfechtel, Alfred (2006). "Fatty Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_245.pub2.
- Vyas, Amish P.; Verma, Jaswant L.; Subrahmanyam, N. "A review on FAME production processes" Fuel (2009), Volume Date2010, 89(1), 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2009.08.014
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