|This article does not cite any references or sources. (July 2013)|
|Overseas collectivity||French Polynesia|
|• Mayor||Henri Tuieinui|
|• Land||85 km2 (33 sq mi)|
|Population (August 2007 census)|
|• Population1 Density||6.9/km2 (18/sq mi)|
|INSEE/Postal code||98718 / 98740|
|Elevation||0–1,125 m (0–3,691 ft)|
|1 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
Fatu Hiva (the "H" is not pronounced, see name section below) is the southernmost island of the Marquesas Islands, in French Polynesia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. With Motu Nao as its closest neighbor, it is also the most isolated of the inhabited islands.
The name of the island in Marquesan is Fatu Iva (without "h": [ˈfatu ˈiva]). However, the name was recorded by Europeans as Fatu Hiva, perhaps under the influence of other Marquesan islands containing the element Hiva (Nuku Hiva and Hiva Oa) and also because in French the letter "h" is silent. The spelling Fatu Hiva has now become official.
The island was named Isla Magdalena ("Magdalene Island") by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, a name rarely used.
The eastern coastline of Fatu Hiva is characterized by a number of narrow valleys, carved by streams that lead to the interior. Between these valleys are headlands which terminate in cliffs that plunge directly into the sea, making travel between them possible only by travelling over the high mountain ridges between them, or by boat. The largest of these valleys is at Uia.
The western coastline has two significant bays, Hana Vave (also known as Bay of Virgins or Baie des Vierges) in the north, one of the most picturesque sites in the South Pacific, and the well protected harbor of Omoa near the south. There are several smaller valleys between these two.
The center of the island is a plateau which is covered largely by tall grasses and pandanus trees. To the south of the plateau, running to the south, is a mountain ridge, called Tauauoho, its highest peak, at 1,125 m (3,691 ft.) is the highest point on Fatu Hiva. Proceeding to the north and northwest from the plateau is a mountain ridge called Fa‘e One, the highest peak of which is 820 m (2,690 ft.).
Administratively Fatu Hiva forms the commune (municipality) of Fatu-Hiva, part of the administrative subdivision of the Marquesas Islands. This commune consists solely of the island of Fatu Hiva itself.
The administrative centre of the commune is the settlement of Omoa, on the south-western side of the island.
The 2007 population of Fatu Hiva was 587, primarily spread across three villages:
- Sharp, Andrew The discovery of the Pacific Islands Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1960, p.51.