Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture

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Fatyanovo-Balanovo culture is shown in pink.
Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)

Anatolia, Caucasus, Elam, Egypt, Levant, Mesopotamia, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

South Asia (c. 3000–1200 BC)

Ochre Coloured Pottery
Cemetery H

Europe (c. 3200–600 BC)

Aegean, Caucasus, Catacomb culture, Srubna culture, Beaker culture, Unetice culture, Tumulus culture, Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, Apennine culture
Atlantic Bronze Age, Bronze Age Britain, Nordic Bronze Age

China (c. 2000–700 BC)

Erlitou, Erligang

arsenical bronze
writing, literature
sword, chariot

Iron age

The Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture, 3200 BC-2300 BC, is an eastern extension of the Corded Ware culture into Russia.

It runs from Lake Pskov in the west to the middle Volga in the east, with its northern reach in the valley of the upper Volga. It is really two cultures, the Fatyanovo in the west, the Balanovo in the east. The Fatyanovo culture emerged at the northeastern edge of the Middle Dnieper culture, and probably was derived from an early variant of the Middle Dnieper culture.[1]

Fatyanovo migrations correspond to regions with hydronyms of a Baltic language dialect mapped by linguists as far as the Oka river and the upper Volga. Spreading eastward down the Volga they discovered the copper ores of the western Ural foothills, and started long term settlements in lower Kama river region. The Balanovo culture occupied the region of the Kama–Vyatka–Vetluga interfluves[2] where metal resources ( local copper sandstone deposits[3] ) of the region were exploited.[4]

Fatyanovo ceramics show mixed Corded Ware / Globular Amphorae traits. The later Abashevo culture pottery looked somewhat like Fatyanovo-Balanovo Corded Ware, but Abashevo kurgans were unlike Fatyanovo flat cemeteries, although flat graves[5] were a recognizable component of the Abashevo burial rite. Balanovo burials ( like the Middle Dnieper culture [6]) were both of the flat and kurgan type, containing individual and also mass graves.[7]

Settlements are scant, and bear evidence of a degree of fortification. The villages were usually situated on the high hills of the riverbanks, consisting of several above-ground houses built from wooden logs with saddle roofs, and also joined by passages.[8] The economy seems to be quite mobile, but then we are cautioned that domestic swine are found, which suggests something other than a mobile society. The Fatyanovo culture is viewed as introducing an economy based on domestic livestock ( sheep, cattle, horse & dog ) into the forest zone of Russia.[9] The Balanovo also used draught cattle and two wheeled wagons.[10]

As is usual with such ancient cultures, our main knowledge comes from their inhumations. Shaft graves were evident, which might be lined with wood. The deceased were wrapped in animal skins or birch bark and placed into wooden burial chambers in subterranean rectangular pits.[11] The interments are otherwise in accord with Corded Ware practices, with males resting on their right side and females on their left.[12] Local metal objects of a Central European provenance type were present. Copper ornaments and tools have been found in Balanovo burials. Burial goods depended on sex, age, and social position. Copper axes primarily accompanied persons of high social position, stone axe-hammers were given to men, flint axes to children and women. Amulets are frequently found in the graves[13] as well as metal working implements.[14]

The theory for an intrusive culture is based upon the physical type of the population, flexed burial under barrows, the presence of battle-axes and ceramics. There are similarities between Fatyanovo and Catacomb culture stone battle-axes.[15] The Volosovo culture of indigenous forest foragers was different in its ceramics, economy, and mortuary practices. It dispersed when the Fatyanovo people pushed into the Upper and Middle Volga basin.[citation needed][16] Ceramic finds indicate Balanovo coexisted with the Finno-Permic Volosovo people ( mixed Balanovo-Volosovo sites ), and also displace them.[17] Note that the ethnic and linguistic attribution of the Volosovo culture is uncertain; Häkkinen maintains that their language was neither Uralic nor Indo-European, but a substratum to Finno-Permic.[18] The cultures of the Prikamsky subarea in the Late Bronze Age continued preceding traditions in pottery, house designs, and stable animal husbandry with the breeding of horse, cattle, and to a lesser extent, pigs and sheep. Scholars interpret some of these cultures with stages in the development of the proto-Permian language.[19] Some have argued that this culture represents the acculturation of Pit-Comb Ware culture people of this area from contacts with Corded Ware agriculturists in the West.[20] It does not seem to represent a northern extension of the Indo-European Yamna culture horizon further south.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007, p 380
  2. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  3. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 102
  4. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 197
  5. ^ Elena E. Kuz'mina, The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, Volume 3, edited by J. P. Mallory, Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 2007, p 221
  6. ^ David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007, p 380
  7. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  8. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  9. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 196
  10. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 102
  11. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  12. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 196
  13. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  14. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 196
  15. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 197
  16. ^ David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007, p 380
  17. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 100
  18. ^ Häkkinen, Jaakko (2012). "Early contacts between Uralic and Yukaghir" (PDF). Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Toimituksia − Mémoires de la Société Finno-Ougrienne (Helsinki: Finno-Ugric Society) (264): 96. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  19. ^ L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1, p 102
  20. ^ J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997, p 196

Sources[edit]

  • David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007.
  • Marija Gimbutas 1963. The Balts. London : Thames and Hudson, Ancient peoples and places 33.
  • J. P. Mallory, "Fatyanovo-Balanovo Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • L. Koryakova, A. Epimakhov, The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages, Cambridge University Press, NY, NY, 2007 ISBN 978-0-521-82928-1

See also[edit]