Fauna of Colombia

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The Pink Dolphin of Amazon River is an endangered species.

The Fauna of Colombia is characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide.[1]

Endemisms[edit]

Colombia has the largest number of endemisms (species that are not found naturally anywhere else)worldwide. About 10% of the species in the world live in Colombia. [2] Some determinant factors In the distribution range of the species are the weather conditions, temperature, humidity and sunlight availability.

Endemics can easily become endangered or extinct due to their restricted habitat and vulnerability to the actions of man, including the introduction of new organisms.

Ecoregions with high endemism[edit]

According to the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of endemic species:

Environmental issues[edit]

Birds[edit]

White-throated Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus)inhabits in the Amazon Basin
Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus)
Emerald Toucanet, Aulacorhynchus prasinus
Northern Helmeted Curassow, (Pauxi pauxi) lives in the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia mountain range
Oilbird can be seen in Cueva de los Guacharos National Park
Collared Inca, Coeligena torquata
Long-billed Starthroat, Heliomaster longirostris
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)
White-crowned Pigeon (Patagioenas leucocephala)
Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas)
Tree Swallow(Tachycineta bicolor)
Townsend's Warbler(Dendroica townsendi)
Blue-gray Tanager(Thraupis episcopus)
White-throated Tinamou(Tinamus guttatus)

Over 1800 species of birds have been described in Colombia, (more than the number of existent bird species in North America and Europe, combined).[2] Some of the bird species in Colombia are:

The national bird[edit]

The Vultur gryphus also known as the Andean Condor is the national bird of Colombia.

The Andean condor inhabits the Andes mountain range. Although it is primarily a scavenger, feeding on carrion, this species belongs to the New World vulture family Cathartidae.

The condor is one of the largest birds on Earth with a wingspan ranging from 274–310 cm (108–122 in) and weighting up to 11–15 kg (24–33 lb) for males and 7.5–11 kg (16–24 lb) for females, but overall length can range from 117 to 135 cm (46 to 53 inches).

The adult plumage is of a uniform black, with the exception of a frill of white feathers nearly surrounding the base of the neck and, especially in the male, large patches or bands of white on the wings which do not appear until the completion of the first moulting.

Mammals[edit]

There are 456 reported species of mammals in Colombia. [3] Of these, about 22% are endangered or critically endangered. Most of the threatened species status are due to human activities, in particular destruction of plant and animal habitats driven by local consumption of organic resources, especially related to tropical forest destruction.[4]

While most of the species that are becoming extinct are not food species, their biomass is converted into human food when their habitat is transformed into pasture and cropland.

Colombia has the largest number of terrestrial mammals species in the world, including among others:

Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

Amphibians[edit]

Colombia has the largest number of amphibians in the world (including frogs, toads, salamanders and caecilians) with 208 endangered species, being the zoological group with the highest rate of endangerment. Some causes related with the decline of the amphibians are: chytridiomycosis, habitat destruction, drought, air pollution, water pollution and illegal trade.

Reptiles[edit]

Fish[edit]

Molluscs[edit]

There are more than 80 genera of land gastropods in (continental) Colombia.[5]

Insects[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]