Fayan school

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Fayan school, or Fayan House (Chinese: 法眼宗; pinyin: Fǎyǎn Zōng) was one of the Five Houses of Chán, the major schools of Chinese Chán during the later Tang Dynasty.

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The Fayan school was named after Chinese Zen Master Fayan Wenyi (885–958).[1]

Via Xuefeng Yicun the Fayang school and Yunmen school are traced back to Shitou Xiqian and Huineng. Xuefeng was one of the most influential Chán-teachers at the end of the Tang Dynasty,[2] when "a widely influential zen center formed around Xuefeng Yicun".[3] The loss of control by the Tang Dynasty, and the accompanying loss of support for Buddhist institutions, lead to a regionally based Chan of Xuefeng and his students.[4]

The Zutang ji (祖堂集 "Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall), compiled in 952, the first document which mentions Linji Yixuan, was written to support the Xuefeng Yicun lineage.[5] It pictures this lineage as heir to the legacy of Mazu and the Hongzhou-school,[5] though Xuefeng Yicun's lineage is traced back to Shitou Xiqian (700-790). It was written by two students of Zhaoqing Wendeng (884-972), a dharma descendant of Xuefeng Yicun.

Six Patriarchs
Huineng (638-713)
(WG: Hui-neng. Jpn: Enō)
Qingyuan Xingsi (660-740)
(WG: TCh'ing yüan Hsing-ssu. Jpn: Seigen Gyōshi)
Shitou Xiqian (700-790)
(WG: Shih-t'ou Hsi-ch'ien. Jpn: Sekitō Kisen)
Tianhuang Daowu (748-807)
(WG: T'ien-huang Tao-wu. Jpn: Tennō Dago)
Longtan Chongxin (8th/9th century)
(WG: Lung-t'an Ch'ung-hsin; Jpn: Ryūtan Sōshin)
Deshan Xuanjian (782-865)
(WG: Te-shan Hsüan-chien; Jpn: Tokusan Senkan)
0 Xuefeng Yicun (822-908)(雪峰 义 存)
(WG: Hsüeh-feng I-ts'un. Jpn: Seppō Gison)
1 Jingqing Daotu (ca.863-937)
(WG: Ching-ch'ing Tao-fu. Jpn: Kyōsei Dōfu)
Yunmen Wenyan (864-949)
(WG: Yün-men Wen-yen. Jpn: Ummon Bun'en)
2 Xuansha Shibei (835-908) Dongshan Shouchu (910-990)
3 Luohan Guichen (867-928) Yunmen school
4 Fayan Wenyi (885-958)
Fayan school

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960/979)[edit]

During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period the Fayan school became the dominant school in the southern kingdoms of Nan-T'ang (Jiangxi, Chiang-hsi) and Wuyue (Che-chiang).[6] It propagated chiao-ch'an i-chih, "harmony between Ch'an and the Teaching", in opposition to chiao-wai pieh-ch'uan, "a special transmission outside the teaching", the latter eventually becoming one of the defining slogans of Chán.[7]

Absorption into the Linji school[edit]

Over the course of Song Dynasty (960–1279), the Fayan school, along with the Guiyang and Yunmen schools were gradually absorbed into the Linji school.

References[edit]

  1. ^ ""一切现成"法眼宗" (in Chinese). March 1, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  2. ^ McRae 2003, p. 13.
  3. ^ Dumoulin 2005-A, p. 169.
  4. ^ Welter 2006, p. 90.
  5. ^ a b Welter year unknown-B.
  6. ^ Welter 2000, p. 86-87.
  7. ^ Welter 2000, p. 86-91.

Sources[edit]