Fazal Ali Qureshi
|Fazal Ali Qureshi Naqshbandi|
|Born||Daud Khel, Punjab, Pakistan|
|Died||28 November 1935 = 1 Ramadan 1354 AH
Miskeenpur, Punjab, Pakistan
|School||Sunni Islam, Hanafi, Sufi, Naqshbandi|
Pir Fazal Ali Qureshi (Urdu: پیر فضل علی قریشی) was an Islamic scholar and the leading Naqshbandi shaikh of colonial India in the early twentieth century. He was born to Murad Ali Shah in 1270 AH (1853 or 1854) in Daud Khel, Punjab, and died at 84 in the first night of Ramadan 1354 AH (28 November 1935) and was buried at Miskeenpur shareef, district Muzaffargarh, Punjab.
He was a shaikh of Naqshbandi Sufi order. He first went to Khwaja Muhammad Usman Damani for Ba'yah, but he was too old to take new followers. So he took the oath of allegiance with Sayyad Laal Shah Hamdani who was a khalifa of Khwaja Usman. After the death of his shaikh, he then did second oath of allegiance with the son and successor of Khwaja Usman, Khwaja Sirajuddin Naqshbandi and received Ijazah and Khilafat from him.
He established the first spiritual center (dargah) named Faqirpur shareef in 1892 AH in district Muzaffargarh, Punjab. Due to hard-to-reach location of Faqirpur, he established another spiritual center named Miskeenpur shareef in the same district, near Shahar Sultan. He lived there for the rest of his life and was buried there.
His biographers have written that the number of days he spent in traveling for preaching, was greater than the days he spent at home. He traveled to many places of Sindh and Punjab, and also traveled to (current day) India for multiple times. He followed Hanafi school of law, and avoided the local schools of thought in India namely Deobandi Barelvi, rather followed the Naqshbandi school in all matters.
There are conflicting accounts from the shaikh's biography about his following the Deobandi branch of the Hanafi school of thought. Many of his followers follow this school and claim that the shaikh himself followed it. But there are others who claim that the shaikh never followed the Deobandi school, rather merely visited the Deoband Islamic school for preaching Islam and Naqshbandi tariqah. This difference of opinion is even evident in the immediate family of Pir Qureshi, where some of his grandsons follow the Deobandi school while others follow the shaykh himself and do not affiliate to the Deoband.
Pir Qureshi and scholars of Deoband
Mawlana Abdul Malik writes in Tajalliyat that once the shaykh was in madrasah of Deoband, and at the time of Zuhr prayer, Qari Muhammad Tayyab came to lead the congregation. He had covered his head with a cap. After the prayer, the Shaykh said "Lack of following the great Sunnah even in the center of learning?", pointing to the lack of following the Sunnah of Amama (turban) during prayer. At this, Qari sahib asked someone to bring the Amama and put it near the place of Imam, so whoever would lead the congregation, would take that and place it on the head.
In the same book, Mawlana Siddiqi narrates that the mentioned scholar Qari Muhammad Tayyab was indeed too happy to see the shaykh and invited him at his home for food. Pir Qureshi accepted it and visited him. When the shaykh was leaving from his home, Qari Tayyab, out of pleasure and deep respect, helped the shaykh put on his shoes. This is a sign of deep esteem and respect in Sufism, and shows esteem the scholars of Deoband gave to the shaykh.
Another famous Deobandi scholar, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari was also devoted to the shaykh. Once he was traveling and passed near the village of shaykh and visited him. Pir Qureshi was ploughing his farm at the time. When Syed Bukhari met him and requested for praying for him, the shaykh taught him the Zikr-e-Qalbi (the remembrance of heart, the first lesson of Naqshbandi Sufi order). Syed Ata'ullah narrates that his heart immediately started doing this Zikr. From that time, Syed Bukhari was deeply devoted to the shaykh and is reported to have met him multiple times.
Many of his followers maintain that Pir Qureshi believed in plain Sunni beliefs and did not follow any of the offshoots of Sunni Islam in India. Following points from the Malfuzat of Pir Mitha, who was one of his chief Khulafa, assert this idea.
Shaykh Fazal Ali himself built a covered room meant to be his final burial place, and told this to Pir Mitha and Mawlana Abdul Sattar (brothers and khulafa of Pir Qureshi) and asked them to bury him there. At the time of death, Mawlana Abdul Sattar was there and he told the people the Shaykh's will, so they buried him there. This is in contradiction to the Deobandi rulings that the grave must not be covered.
Pir Fazal Ali attended the Urs of Sufi saints of India and the gatherings of Mawlid. This also is in contradiction to the Deobandi doctrine that the practice of Urs is Bid'ah. The most famous is his attending the Urs of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti in Ajmer, India, where the shaykh not only attended the Urs but also listened to the Qawwali (sung with music) which is prohibited in the Deobandi doctrine. Though the shaykh himself never listened to the music neither allowed his followers, he listened to the Qawwali only due to the love of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti Ajmeri.
Shaykh Qureshi also believed that making the tombs at the shrines of Sufi saints is a righteous practice, and also believed in covering the graves of saints with embroidered clothes, a practice common on most of the Sufi shrines. Deobandi scholars strictly prohibit these practices.
Spiritual Chain of Succession
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Pir Fazal Ali Qureshi belongs to the Mujaddidi order of Sufism, which is the main branch of Naqshbandi Sufi tariqah. His spiritual lineage goes to Prophet Muhammad, through Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, the Mujaddid of eleventh Hijri century. The complete lineage is as under:
- Sayyadna Muhammad d.11AH, buried Madinah SA (570/571 - 632 CE)
- Sayyadna Abu Bakr Siddiq, radiya-l-Lahu'anh d.13AH, buried Madinah
- Sayyadna Salman al-Farsi, radiya-l-Lahu'anh d.35AH buried Madaa'in
- Imam Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr d.107AH buried Madinah.
- Imam Jafar Sadiq, alayhi-s-salam (after which moves to Iran) d 148AH buried Madinah.
- Shaikh Bayazid Bastami, radiya-l-Lahu canh d 261AH buried Bistaam, Iraq (804 - 874 CE).
- Shaikh Abul Hassan Kharqani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 425AH buried Kharqaan, Iran.
- Shaikh Abul Qasim Gurgani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d.450AH buried Gurgan, Iran.
- Shaikh Abu Ali Farmadi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah (after which moves to Turkmenistan) d 477AH buried Tous, Khorasan, Iran.
- Khwaja Abu Yaqub Yusuf Hamadani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 535AH buried Maru, Khorosan, Iran.
- Khwaja Abdul Khaliq Ghujdawani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 575AH buried Ghajdawan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Khwaja Arif Reogari, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 616AH buried Reogar, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Khwaja Mahmood Anjir-Faghnawi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 715AH buried Waabakni, Mawralnahar.
- Shaikh Azizan Ali Ramitani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 715AH buried Khwaarizm, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Muhammad Baba Samasi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 755AH buried Samaas, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Sayyid Amir Kulal, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 772AH buried Saukhaar, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Muhammad Baha'uddin Naqshband, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 791AH buried Qasr-e-Aarifan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan (1318–1389 CE).
- Shaikh Ala'uddin Attar Bukhari, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah buried Jafaaniyan, Mawranahar, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Yaqub Charkhi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 851AH buried Charkh, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Ubaidullah Ahrar, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 895AH buried Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Muhammad Zahid Wakhshi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 936AH buried Wakhsh, Malk Hasaar
- Shaikh Durwesh Muhammad, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 970AH buried Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Muhammad Amkanaki, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah (after which moves to India) d 1008AH buried Akang, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.
- Shaikh Muhammad Baqi Billah Berang, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 1012AH buried Delhi, India.
- Shaikh Ahmad Faruqi Sirhindi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 1034AH buried Sarhand, India (1564–1624 CE)
- Muhammad Masum Sirhindi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 1079AH buried Sarhand, India.
- Muhammad Saifuddin Faruqi Mujaddidi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah d 1096AH buried Sarhand, India
- Hafiz Muhammad Mohsin, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah
- Sayyid Nur Muhammad Badayuni, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, d.1135AH
- Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, d.1195AH
- Abdullah Dahlawi, alias Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlavi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, d.1240AH
- Shaikh Abu-Saeed Faruqi Mujaddidi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, buried in Dehli, India, d.1250AH
- Shaikh Ahmed Saeed Faruqi Mujaddidi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, buried in Madinah, d.1277AH
- Khwaja Dost Muhammad Qandhari, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, Musa Zai Sharif, d.1284AH
- Khwaja Muhammad Usman Damani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, Musa Zai Sharif, d.1314AH
- Sayyad Laal Shah Hamdani, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, Hamdan, Punjab, d.1323AH
- Khwaja Muhammad Sirajuddin, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, Musa Zai Sharif, d.1333AH
- Pir Fazal Ali Qureshi, qaddasa-l-Lahu sirrah, Miskeenpur, district Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan, d.1935
- Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Naqshbandi commonly known as Pir Mitha (Larkana, Sindh)
- Mawlana Abdul Sattar Naqshbandi, brother of Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Naqshbandi (Jalalpur-Pirwala, Punjab)
- Mawlana Abdul Malik Siddiqi (Ahmadpur Sharqia, Bahawalpur, Punjab)
- Mawlana Abdul Ghafoor Madani Abbasi (Madinah)
- Mawlana Muhammad Saeed Qureshi (Ahmadpur Sharqia, Bahawalpur, Punjab)
- Hafiz Qari Kareem Bakhsh (Bahawalpur, Punjab). Previously murid of Pir Meher Ali Shah
- Hazrat Moulana Abdul Rehman (medeh jee sindh)
The current successor or sajjada nasheen at khanqah naqshbandia fazlia miskeenpur sharif is Maulana Muhammad Shah Qureshi sahib. He is the son of Maulana Kaleemullah Shah sahib who was the son-in-law of Pir Qureshi and was affiliated with Maulana Abdul Ghafoor Abbasi Madni. Maulana Muhammad Shah Sahib received Ijazah of Naqshbandi tariqah from Maulana Kaleemullah Shah Sahib.
He is said to have about 66 Khulafa, many of whom became prominent shaikhs after his demise. The most famous of them was Hazrat Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar Naqshbandi Fazali. Born at Jalalpur-Pirwala near Mutan, he traveled to Sindh on the command of his shaikh, and later migrated to Rahmatpur, Larkana, Sindh. He had more than a hundred Khulafa. He died in 1964 and was buried in Rahmatpur, Larkana. He himself had about 143 Khulafa, and was succeeded by Hazrat Khwaja Allah Bakhsh Abbasi alias Sohna Saeen, whose son, Hazrat Khwaja Muhammad Tahir is currently living and a leading shaikh of Naqshbandi Sufi order in Pakistan.
Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar and his brother Khwaja Abdul Sattar were both Khulafa of Pir Qureshi. Pir Qureshi once told Khwaja Abdul Ghaffar that I have never given Khilafat (Ijazah) to any two brothers before. You belong to such a family that if your elder brother (Mawlana Muhammad Ashraf) and your father (Mawlana Yar Muhammad) were alive, I would have given Khilafat to both of them.
Pir Qureshi did have sons but not paternal grandsons. At dargah Miskeenpur sharif, his maternal grandsons reside who all are Islamic scholars and shaykhs.Mawlana Muhammad Rafiq Shah Qureshi sahib is an Islamic scholar who studied at dargah Allahabad near Kandiaro in Sindh, and received Ijazah of Naqshbandi tariqah from Hazrat Khwaja Sohna Saeen. He is currently associated with Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi, son and successor of Sohna Saeen. He is the son of Mawlana Abdul-Rauf Shah who was the son-in-law of Pir Qureshi and was affiliated with Shaykh Sohna Saeen.
- Jalwa Gah-e-Dost (Urdu) 2nd edition (2008) by Khwaja Muhammad Tahir AbbasiTemplate:Date=January 2012
- Seerat Pir Qureshi (Urdu) by Mawlana Habib-ur-Rahman GabolTemplate:Date=January 2012
- Tajalliyat (Urdu) by Mawlana Abdul Malik Siddiqi
- Malfuzat Hazrat Pir Mitha (Sindhi) by Mufti Abdur-Rahman AllahabadiTemplate:Date=January 2012
- Template:Date=January 2012
- Seerat Pir Fazal Ali Qureshi (Urdu) by Mawlana Habib-ur-Rahman Gabol: http://www.islahulmuslimeen.org/urdu/books/pir_qureshi/11.htm
- List of Khulafa of Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi: http://www.islahulmuslimeen.org/shaikh/khulafa.htm
- "Seerat Wali Kamil Vol-2 Chapter 6 (Urdu) Biography of Hazrat Sohna Saeen by Mawlana Habib-ur-Rahman Gabol". Islahulmuslimeen.org. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Very Short Biography in Urdu
- Short Biography in Urdu by Mukhtar Ahmed Khokhar
- Book about his biography (in Urdu) by Mawlana Habib-ur-Rahman Gabol
- Samples from his poetry
- Few letters of Pir Fazal Ali Qureshi
- Website of Miskeenpur under the supervision of Pir Muhammad Shah Qureshi
|Sufism and Tariqa|