|Fazlur Rahman Khan
ফজলুর রহমান খান
Fazlur Rahman Khan
|Born||3 April 1929
Dhaka, British Raj
|Died||27 March 1982
Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
|Education||Bengal Engineering & Science University, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign|
|Engineering discipline||Architectural, civil, structural|
|Significant design||John Hancock Center, Willis Tower, Hajj Terminal, King Abdulaziz University, One Magnificent Mile, Onterie Center|
|Significant awards||Aga Khan Award for Architecture
Independence Day Award,
AIA Institute Honor for Distinguished Achievement
Fazlur Rahman Khan (Bengali: ফজলুর রহমান খান, Fozlur Rôhman Khan) (3 April 1929 – 27 March 1982) was a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer and architect, who initiated structural systems that form the basis of tall building construction today. Considered the Father of tubular designs for high-rises, Khan became an icon in both architecture and structural engineering. He was also a pioneer in computer-aided design (CAD) and helped in initiating the widespread use of computers for structural engineering. He is the designer of the Willis Tower, the second tallest building in the United States (and tallest in the world for many years) and the John Hancock Center, a 100-story tall building. He also designed structures that are not high rises such as Hajj Terminal in Saudi Arabia.
Khan, more than any other individual, ushered in a renaissance in skyscraper construction during the second half of the twentieth century, making it possible for people to live and work in "cities in the sky". He has been called the "Einstein of structural engineering" and the "greatest structural engineer of the 20th century" for his innovative use of structural systems that remain fundamental to modern skyscraper construction. CTBUH named an award after him called Fazlur Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal. Khan's seminal work of developing tall building structural systems are still used today as the starting point when considering design options for tall buildings.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Innovations
- 3 Hajj Terminal and non-skyscrapers
- 4 Computers for structural engineering and architecture
- 5 Life cycle and sustainabilty civil engineering
- 6 Professional milestones
- 7 Charity
- 8 Death
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Fazlur Rahman Khan was born on 3 April 1929 in Dhaka, Bangladesh (then part of British India). He was brought up in the village of Bhandarikandii, in the Faridpur district near Dhaka. His father Abdur was a well-respected high school mathematics teacher and the author of several seminal textbooks on the subject. He eventually became the Director of Public Instruction in the region of Bengal and after retirement served as Principal of Jagannath College, Dhaka.
Khan received his matriculation from Armanitola Government High School, in Dhaka.After completing undergraduate coursework at the Bengal Engineering College, now Bengal Engineering & Science University, University of Calcutta.He received his Bachelor of Civil Engineering degree from Ahsanullah Engineering College, University of Dhaka, (now Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology). He received a Fulbright Scholarship and a Pakistan government scholarship which enabled him to travel to the United States in 1952 where he pursued advanced studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In three years Khan earned two Master's degrees – one in structural engineering and one in theoretical and applied mechanics — and a PhD in structural engineering.
Khan's structural innovations exerted an unprecedented and lasting influence on the profession, both nationally and internationally. Khan introduced design methods and concepts that set new standards for efficient use of material and suggested new possibilities for building architecture. His first building to employ the tube structure the Chestnut De-Witt apartment building is considered to be a major development in modern architecture.
In 1955, employed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, he began working in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He was made a partner in 1966 and became a naturalized American citizen in 1967. During the 1960s and 1970s, he became noted for his designs for Chicago's 100-story John Hancock Center and 108-story Sears Tower, the tallest building in the world in its time, topping out the Empire State Building (1931), and still the tallest in the United States since its completion in 1974. He is also responsible for designing notable buildings in Bangladesh, Australia and Saudi Arabia.
Khan left a legacy of many innovations. He was not only a creative structural engineer, he was also regarded as a philosopher, visionary, educator and humanitarian. He said, "Think logically and find the relationships which exist in every system, because it will help you understand nature itself, making living more meaningful and exciting." According to John Zils, senior engineer and associate partner with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, "It was his unique ability to bridge the gap between architectural design and structural engineering that truly set Khan apart from other structural engineers." Because of that, Khan is regarded an icon in both architecture and structural engineering. He believed that engineers needed a broader perspective on life, saying, "The technical man must not be lost in his own technology; he must be able to appreciate life, and life is art, drama, music, and most importantly, people."
Khan's personal papers, the majority of which were in his office at the time of his death, are held by the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The Fazlur Khan Collection includes manuscripts, sketches, audio cassette tapes, slides and other materials regarding his work.
Outside of work, Khan enjoyed spending time with his family (wife Liselotte and daughter Yasmin). He enjoyed singing, poetry – his favourite poet was Rabindranath Tagore. He also liked playing table tennis.
Khan realised that the rigid steel frame structure that had dominated tall building design and construction so long was not the only system fitting for tall buildings, marking the beginning of a new era of skyscraper revolution in terms of multiple structural systems.
Tube structural systems
Khan's central innovation in skyscraper design and construction was the idea of the "tube" structural system for tall buildings, including the "framed tube", "trussed tube" and "bundled tube" variations. His "tube concept," using all the exterior wall perimeter structure of a building to simulate a thin-walled tube, revolutionised tall building design. Most buildings over 40-storeys constructed since the 1960s now use a tube design derived from Khan's structural engineering principles.
The tubular designs are for resisting lateral loads (horizontal forces) such as wind forces, seismic forces, etc. The primary important role of structural system for tall Buildings is to resist lateral loads. The lateral loads begin to dominate the structural system and take on increasing importance in the overall building system when the building height increases. Forces of winds become very substantial and forces of earthquake etc. are very important as well. It is the tubular designs that are used for tall buildings to resist such forces. Tube structures are very stiff and have numerous significant advantages over other framing systems. They not only make the buildings structurally stronger and more efficient, they significantly reduce the usage of materials while simultaneously allowing buildings to reach even greater heights. The reduction of material makes the buildings economically much more efficient and reduces environmental issues as it results in the least carbon emission impact on the environment. Tubular systems allow greater interior space and further enable buildings to take on various shapes, offering unprecedented freedom to architects. These new designs opened an economic door for contractors, engineers, architects, and investors, providing vast amounts of real estate space on minimal plots of land. Khan more than any other individual brought in a rebirth in skyscrapers construction after a hiatus for over thirty years.
Khan's tubular designs have dominated skyscraper construction design since the 1960s. The tubular systems have yet to reach their limit when it comes to height. Another important feature of the tubular systems is that buildings can be constructed using steel or concrete, or a composite of the two to reach greater heights. His clear approaches to structural systems have often led to expressive structures.
The population explosion, beginning with the baby boom of the 1950s, created widespread concern about the amount of available living space. Khan had the solution — building up. More than any other 20th-century engineer, Fazlur Rahman Khan made it possible for people to live, and work in “cities in the sky.” Mark Sarkisian (Director of Structural and Seismic Engineering at Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) said, "Khan was a visionary who transformed skyscrapers into sky cities while staying firmly grounded in the fundamentals of engineering."
Khan's initial projects were the 43 stories DeWitt-Chestnut (1964) and 35 stories Brunswick Building (1965). He then did the John Hancock Center (1969), a 100 stories tall building and would later go on to America's tallest building the iconic Willis Tower (formerly called Sears Tower).
Since 1963, the new structural system of framed tubes became highly influential in skyscraper design and construction. Khan defined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation." Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads, for example from wind and earthquakes, are supported by the structure as a whole. About half the exterior surface is available for windows. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more usable floor space. The bundled tube structure is more efficient for tall buildings, lessening the penalty for height. The structural system also allows the interior columns to be smaller and the core of the building to be free of braced frames or shear walls that use valuable floor space. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity.
The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments building that Khan designed and was completed in Chicago in 1963. This laid the foundations for the framed tube structure used in the construction of the World Trade Center.
Trussed tube and X-bracing
Khan pioneered several other variations of the tube structure design. One of these was the concept of X-bracing, or the "trussed tube", first employed for the John Hancock Center. This concept reduced the lateral load on the building by transferring the load into the exterior columns. This allows for a reduced need for interior columns thus creating more floor space. This concept can be seen in the John Hancock Center, designed in 1965 and completed in 1969. One of the most famous buildings of the structural expressionist style, the skyscraper's distinctive X-bracing exterior is actually a hint that the structure's skin is indeed part of its 'tubular system'. This idea is one of the architectural techniques the building used to climb to record heights (the tubular system is essentially the spine that helps the building stand upright during wind and earthquake loads). This X-bracing allows for both higher performance from tall structures and the ability to open up the inside floorplan (and usable floor space) if the architect desires. Original features such as the skin, pioneered by Fazlur Khan, have made the John Hancock Center an architectural icon.
In contrast to earlier steel-frame structures, such as the Empire State Building (1931), which required about 206 kilograms of steel per square metre and Chase Manhattan Bank Building (1961), which required around 275 kilograms of steel per square metre, the John Hancock Center was far more efficient, requiring only 145 kilograms of steel per square metre. The trussed tube concept was applied to many later skyscrapers, including the Onterie Center, Citigroup Center and Bank of China Tower.
One of Khan's most important variations of the tube structure concept was the "bundled tube," which he used for the Sears Tower and One Magnificent Mile. The bundle tube design was not only the most efficient in economic terms, but it was also "innovative in its potential for versatile formulation of architectural space. Efficient towers no longer had to be box-like; the tube-units could take on various shapes and could be bundled together in different sorts of groupings."
Concrete tube structures
The last major buildings engineered by Khan were the One Magnificent Mile and Onterie Center in Chicago, which employed his bundled tube and trussed tube system designs respectively. In contrast to his earlier buildings, which were mainly steel, his last two buildings were concrete. His earlier DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments building, built in 1963 in Chicago, was also a concrete building with a tube structure. The Brunswick Building, a 35 stories tall building built in 1965 also used this structural system.
Khan's seminal work of developing tall building structural systems in structural steel and reinforced concrete based on building height are still used today as starting point when considering design options for tall buildings. Tube structures have since been used in many skyscrapers, including the construction of the World Trade Center, Aon Centre, Petronas Towers, Jin Mao Building, Bank of China Tower and most other buildings in excess of 40 stories constructed since the 1960s. The strong influence of tube structure design is also evident in the world's current tallest skyscraper, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. According to Stephen Bayley of The Daily Telegraph:
Khan invented a new way of building tall. [...] So Fazlur Khan created the unconventional skyscraper. Reversing the logic of the steel frame, he decided that the building's external envelope could – given enough trussing, framing and bracing – be the structure itself. This made buildings even lighter. The "bundled tube" meant buildings no longer need be boxlike in appearance: they could become sculpture. Khan's amazing insight – he was name-checked by Obama in his Cairo University speech last year – changed both the economics and the morphology of supertall buildings. And it made Burj Khalifa possible: proportionately, Burj employs perhaps half the steel that conservatively supports the Empire State Building. [...] Burj Khalifa is the ultimate expression of his audacious, lightweight design philosophy.
The first sky lobby was also designed by Khan for the John Hancock Center. Later buildings with sky lobbies include the World Trade Center, Petronas Twin Towers, Taipei 101 and the Burj Khalifa. The 44th-floor sky lobby of the John Hancock Center also features the first high-rise indoor swimming pool, which remains the highest in America. This was the first time that people could have the opportunity to work and live "in the sky".
A sky lobby is an intermediate floor, where people change from an express elevator that stops only there to a local elevator that stops at every floor within a segment of the building. When designing very tall buildings supplying enough elevators is a problem. Travellers wanting to reach a specific higher floor may conceivably have to stop at a very large number of other floors on the way up to let other passengers off and on. This increases travel time, and indirectly requires many more elevator shafts to still allow acceptable travel times – thus reducing effective floor space on each floor for all levels. To resolve this issue he invented the sky lobby.
Hajj Terminal and non-skyscrapers
Besides designing many notable super tall buildings with his groundbreaking structural systems, Khan also designed other notable structures that are not skyscrapers. Examples include the Hajj Terminal (completed in 1981), which consists of tent like roofs that are folded up when not in use. The Hajj terminal's structure is unique and has been made to adapt to the harsh desert conditions. The tent-like tensile structures advanced the theory and technology of fabric as a structural material and led the way to its use for other types of terminals and large spaces. The Hajj Terminal has won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture – "An outstanding contribution to architecture for muslims"; 2010 • AIA • National 25 Year Award; 1983 • AIA • National Honor Award for Architecture; 1983 • World Architecture • AIA – New York City Chapter • Distinguished Architecture Award; 1982 • Industrial Fabrics Association • International President's Award of Merit; 1981 • Progressive Architecture • P/A Award: Architectural Design.
King Abdulaziz International Airport, King Abdulaziz University, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, and the Baxter Travenol Laboratories in Deerfield, whose roof is suspended from cables were also designed by Khan.
Computers for structural engineering and architecture
In the 1970s, engineers were just beginning to use computer structural analysis on a large scale. SOM was at the center of these new developments, with undeniable contributions from Khan. Graham and Khan lobbied SOM partners to purchase a mainframe computer, a risky investment at a time when new technologies were just beginning to take shape. The partners agreed, and Khan began programming the system to calculate structural engineering equations and, later on, to develop architectural drawings.
Life cycle and sustainabilty civil engineering
Fazlur khan also made seminal contributions to life cycle civil engineering. For that reason International Association for Life Cycle Civil Engineering named an award after him.
He introduced the shock absorbing soft-story concept, for protecting structures from abnormal loading, particularly strong earthquakes, over a long period of time. This concept is widely used today for siesmic engineering, to maintain safety and structural integrity. This design concept enables the structure to behave naturally during earthquakes where traditional concepts of material ductility are replaced by mechanisms that allow for movement during ground shaking while protecting material elasticity. It also allows the structure to be self healing if violated naturally or unnaturally (neighboring elements assume newly imposed loads if violated in earthquake or man made explosive attacks). The next era of skyscrapers will focus on the environment, including performance of structures, types of materials, construction practices, absolute minimal use of materials\natural resources, emboided energy within the structure, and a holistically integrated building systems approach.
List of buildings
Some the most famous buildings Khan was responsible for performing as structural engineer include the following:
- DeWitt-Chestnut Apartments, Chicago, 1963
- Brunswick Building, Chicago, 1965
- John Hancock Center, Chicago, 1965–1969
- One Shell Square, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1972
- 140 William Street (formerly BHP House), Melbourne, 1972
- Sears Tower, Chicago, 1970–1973
- U.S. Bank Center, Milwaukee, 1973
- Hajj Terminal, King Abdulaziz International Airport, Jeddah, 1974–1980
- King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 1977–1978
- Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1982
- One Magnificent Mile, Chicago, completed 1983
- Onterie Center, Chicago, completed 1986
- United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Awards and Chair
Among Khan's other accomplishments, he received the Wason Medal (1971) and Alfred Lindau Award (1973) from the American Concrete Institute (ACI); the Thomas Middlebrooks Award (1972) and the Ernest Howard Award (1977) from ASCE; the Kimbrough Medal (1973) from the American Institute of Steel Construction; the Oscar Faber medal (1973) from the Institution of Structural Engineers, London; the International Award of Merit in Structural Engineering (1983) from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering IABSE; the AIA Institute Honor for Distinguished Achievement (1983) from the American Institute of Architects; and the John Parmer Award (1987) from Structural Engineers Association of Illinois and Illinois Engineering Hall of Fame from Illinois Engineering Council (2006).
Khan was cited five times by Engineering News-Record as among those who served the best interests of the construction industry, and in 1972 he was honoured with ENR's Man of the Year award. In 1973 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. He received Honorary Doctorates from Northwestern University, Lehigh University, and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich.
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) named an award after him called the Fazlur Khan Lifetime Achievement Medal and several other awards have been established in his honour since his passing, along with a chair at Lehigh University. Promoting educational activities and research, the Fazlur Rahman Khan Endowed Chair of Structural Engineering and Architecture honours Khan's legacy of engineering advancement and architectural sensibility. Dan Frangopol, the first holder of the chair, said, "Dr. Khan's legacy is the creativity, practicality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of his work. I try to incorporate these same qualities into my own work."
In 1971 the Bangladesh liberation war brokeout. Khan was heavily involved with creating public opinion and garnering emergency funding for Bengali people during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. He created the Chicago-based organisation known as Bangladesh Emergency Welfare Appeal.
Khan died of a heart attack on 27 March 1982 while on a trip in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, at the age of 52. He was the general partner in SOM, the only engineer holding that high position at the time. His body was returned to the United States and was buried in Chicago.
- Engineering Legends
- Fazlur Rahman Khan Distinguished Lecture Series
- Fazlur khan lifetime achievement medal
- Fazlur R. Khan Life-Cycle Civil Engineering Medal
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- Letter from Governor Jim Edgar recognizing Fazlur Khan
- Honorary Fazlur R. Khan Way
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- Exhibition at Princeton University
- Chicago school (architecture)
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- John Hancock Center, Emporis
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- (Engineering Legends, Richard Weingardt)
- Weingardt, Richard G. "Engineering Legends: Great American Civil Engineers." ASCE Press, 2005.
- Khan, Y. S. "Engineering Architecture: the vision of Fazlur R. Khan." New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004.
- Ali, Mir M. (2001). "Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers". Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering 1 (1). Retrieved 2007-05-14.
- Khan, Yasmin S. lehigh.edu "Dr. Fazlur R. Khan (1929–1982): Engineering Pioneer of Modern Architecture". Lehigh University. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
- "Top 10 world's tallest steel buildings". ConstructionWeekOnline.com. September 27, 2010. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
- Fazlur Rahman Khan information at Structurae
- Fazlur Rahman Khan Collection in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA)