|Part of Sovietization of Armenia|
The Republic of Mountainous Armenia was the last self-governing area after the Sovietization of Democratic Republic of Armenia
|Armenian Revolutionary Federation||11th Red Army|
|History of Armenia|
The February Uprising (Armenian: Փետրվարյան ապստամբություն P'etrvaryan apstambut'yun; Russian: Февральское восстание) was an anti-Soviet rebellion by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation which started on February 13 and was suppressed on April 2, 1921 by recaptuing of Yerevan by Bolshevik forces.
After Sovietization of Armenia in December 1920 about 1,000 officers of the Democratic Republic of Armenia were arrested by the Bolshevik authorities, including Tovmas Nazarbekian, Movses Silikyan, etc. They were forced to walk from Yerevan to Alaverdi by foot (about 160 kilometers) and some of them were killed on the road and others were made fun of. Later, arrested officers were sent to jails in Baku and Russia. In February 1921, many heroes of the Battle of Sardarabad were shot, including Daniel Bek-Pirumyan and his brother Poghos Bek-Pirumyan committed suicide after being tortured. Pro-ARF intellectuals were also harassed. The villagers were robbed. Wheat was taken away from them without any compensation.
The Uprising 
As a result of these, a rebellion started in February 13 by the signal of refugees from Sasun settled in the foot of Mount Aragats. By February 17 Ashtarak, Ejmiatsin, Garni and Hrazdan, etc. were taken over by Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces. On February 18 the rebellious forces entered Yerevan by the leadership of Kuro Tarkhanyan and Garnetsi Martiros. The Bolsheviks and the Red Army retreated to Artashat. Hovhannes Katchaznouni, Levon Shant, Nikol Aghbalian and 100 other political activists and intellectuals were freed from jails. After capturing Yerevan by the direct leadership of Simon Vratsian the “Committee for the Salvation of Fatherland” was founded, which was to govern the country until formation of a new government. The committee addressed the population on February 18 which invoked people to “protect order and rule, strictly fulfill all the orders of the committee”. Throughout the 42-day freedom, bloody battles took places between ARF forces and the Bolsheviks. On February 27 the Bolsheviks tried to attack Yerevan but on March 1 they were forced to retreat. After a two-week pause, Bolshevik units again attacked and took over Artashat on March 16 but the next day ARF forces started an offensive and recaptured Ashtarak. Regardless on heroic resistance of Armenian forces, the Bolsheviks had a great numerical superiority. Great offensives of the Bolsheviks started on March 24. They captured Aparan, Kotayk and gradually emerging, entered Yerevan on April 2. The ARF forces retreated without any serious battle to avoid the destruction of the capital.
The "Committee for the Salvation of Fatherland", ARF forces and many civilians retreaed to Zangezur, where they joined Garegin Nzhdeh's forces, where the Republic of Mountainous Armenia was formed. It was finally taken over by Bolshevik forces in July 1921. The Armenian leaders went to Persia to avoid arrest an possible execution by the Soviets.
The reasons of the revolt were later discussed by the Bolshevik government and was decided to treat the population with more tolerancy. After suppressing the February Uprising, Aleksandr Myasnikyan was appointed Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of Armenia, the newly installed government of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.
International reactions 
On February 18, the Committee send a message to the Armenian delegation in Paris and to the leaders of world powers (France, England, Italy), League of Nations, etc., but it remained not responded. A message was also sent to the Armenian delegation in Tiflis, Georgia, where after the Sovietization of Armenia, local Armenians were subjected to violence. Georgia responded to the message on February 21, when the Armenian embassy was reopened in Tiflis. Violence against Armenians was stopped after that. Georgia fell to the Soviets on February 25, so Armenian rebels were left alone against the Bolshevik forces. World powers didn’t help ARF forces, because it was obvious that sooner or later they would fall.
See also 
- (Armenian) 1921 Թ. ՓԵՏՐՎԱՐՅԱՆ ԱՊՍՏԱՄԲՈՒԹՅՈՒՆԸ