Fecal-oral route

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The fecal–oral route (or alternatively the oral–fecal route or orofecal route) is a route of transmission of a disease, when pathogens in fecal particles passing from one host are introduced into the oral cavity of another host. One main cause of fecal-oral disease transmission in developing countries is lack of adequate sanitation.

The process of transmission may be simple or involve multiple steps. Some examples of routes of fecal-oral transmission include:

  • water that has come in contact with feces (for example due to groundwater pollution from pit latrines) and is then inadequately treated before drinking;
  • food that has been prepared in the presence of fecal matter;
  • disease vectors, like houseflies, spreading contamination from inadequate fecal disposal such as open defecation;
  • poor or absent hand washing after using the toilet or handling feces (such as changing diapers)
  • poor or absent cleaning of anything that has been in contact with feces;
  • sexual practices that may involve oral contact with feces, such as anilingus, coprophilia or "ass to mouth".

Diseases[edit]

Some of the diseases that can be passed via the fecal-oral route are:

Transmission of Helicobacter pylori by oral-fecal route has been demonstrated in murine models.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Meyer EA (1996). Other Intestinal Protozoa and Trichomonas Vaginalis in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ Zuckerman AJ (1996). Hepatitis Viruses in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  3. ^ Wang L, Zhuang H (2004). "Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research". World J Gastroenterol 10 (15): 2157–62. PMID 15259057. 
  4. ^ a b c d Intestinal Parasites and Infection fungusfocus.com - Retrieved on 2010-01-21
  5. ^ Hale TL, Keusch GT (1996). Shigella in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  6. ^ Giannella RA (1996). Salmonella:Epidemiology in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  7. ^ Finkelstein RA (1996). Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  8. ^ Cellini et al. (1998). "Evidence for an oral-faecal transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection in an experimental murine model". APMIS 107(1–6): 477–484.