Federal subjects of Russia

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The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation consists of eighty-five federal subjects,[2] although the two most recently added subjects are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.[3][4]

In 1992, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor),[5] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). In 1993, when the current Constitution of Russia was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[6] Three Russian cities of federal importance have a status of both city and separated federal subject.

Every subject of the Russian Federation has own president/governor/head (executive branch), regional parliament (legislative branch) and regional constitutional/charter court (higher judicial branch in a region). Federal subjects shall have their own constitution/charter and legislation (adopted by regional parliaments). Subjects shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All federal subjects of the Russian Federation shall be equal with one another in relations with federal government bodies.[7][8] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).

Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight Federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia, are much larger and each encompass many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia specially for presidential envoys.

Terminology[edit]

The official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states:[9] "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."

How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject".[10] This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[11]

Types[edit]

Federal subjects of Russia

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

  46 oblasts (provinces; область, oblast) — most common type of federal subjects with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
  22 republics (республика, respublika) — nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
  krais (territories; край, kraĭ) — essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
  autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts; автономный округ, avtonomnyĭ okrug) — with substantial or predominant ethnic minority
  federal cities (город федерального значения, gorod federal'nogo znacheniya) — major cities that function as separate regions.
  autonomous oblast (autonomous province; автономная область, avtonomnaya oblast) — the only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast

List of federal subjects[edit]

Federal subjects of Russia (by number).svg

The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 92[citation needed], although nine of them (41, 59, 75, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, and 88) are no longer in use after mergers.

Code Name Capital/administrative centre
(Largest city given if not capital)
Flag Coat of arms Federal district Economic region Area (km²)[12] Population[13] Establishment Year
01 Adygea, Republic of Maykop Flag of Adygea.svg Adygeya - Coat of Arms.png Southern North Caucasus 7,600 447,109 1922
02 Bashkortostan, Republic of Ufa Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Coat of Arms of Bashkortostan.svg Volga Ural 143,600 4,104,336 1919
03 Buryatia, Republic of Ulan-Ude Flag of Buryatia.svg Coat of Arms of Buryatiya.svg Siberian East Siberian 351,300 981,238 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Flag of Altai Republic.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Republic.svg Siberian West Siberian 92,600 202,947 1922
05 Dagestan, Republic of Makhachkala Flag of Dagestan.svg Coat of Arms of Dagestan.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 50,300 2,576,531 1921
06 Ingushetia, Republic of Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Flag of Ingushetia.svg Coat of Arms of Ingushetia.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 4,000 467,294 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkar Republic Nalchik Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Coat of Arms of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 12,500 901,494 1936
08 Kalmykia, Republic of Elista Flag of Kalmykia.svg Coat of Arms of Kalmykia.svg Southern Volga 76,100 292,410 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkess Republic Cherkessk Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Coat of Arms of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 14,100 439,470 1957
10 Karelia, Republic of Petrozavodsk Flag of Karelia.svg Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia.svg Northwestern Northern 172,400 716,281 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Flag of Komi.svg Coat of Arms of the Komi Republic.svg Northwestern Northern 415,900 1,018,674 1921
12 Mari El Republic Yoshkar-Ola Flag of Mari El.svg Coat of Arms of Mari El.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 23,200 727,979 1920
13 Mordovia, Republic of Saransk Flag of Mordovia.svg Coat of Arms of Mordovia.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 26,200 888,766 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk Flag of Sakha.svg Coat of Arms of Sakha (Yakutia).svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 3,103,200 949,280 1922
15 North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of Vladikavkaz Flag of North Ossetia.svg Wapen Ossetien.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 8,000 710,275 1924
16 Tatarstan, Republic of Kazan Flag of Tatarstan.svg Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg Volga Volga 68,000 3,779,265 1920
17 Tuva Republic Kyzyl Flag of Tuva.svg Coat of arms of Tuva.svg Siberian East Siberian 170,500 305,510 1944
18 Udmurt Republic Izhevsk Flag of Udmurtia.svg Coat of arms of Udmurtia.svg Volga Ural 42,100 1,570,316 1920
19 Khakassia, Republic of Abakan Flag of Khakassia.svg Coat of arms of Khakassia.svg Siberian East Siberian 61,900 546,072 1930
20 Chechen Republic Grozny Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Coat of arms of Chechnya.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 15,300 1,103,686 1991
21 Chuvash Republic Cheboksary Flag of Chuvashia.svg Coat of Arms of Chuvashia.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 18,300 1,313,754 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul Flag of Altai Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Altai Krai.svg Siberian West Siberian 169,100 2,607,426 1937
92 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Siberian East Siberian 431,500 1,155,346 2008
91 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 472,300 358,801 2007
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Krasnodar Kray.svg Southern North Caucasus 76,000 5,125,221 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk KrasnoyarskKray-Flag.svg Coat of arms of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Siberian East Siberian 2,339,700 2,966,042 1934
90 Perm Krai Perm Flag of Perm Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Perm Krai.svg Volga Ural 160,600 2,819,421 2005
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Coat of arms of Primorsky Krai.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 165,900 2,071,210 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg Coat of arms of Stavropol Krai.svg North Caucasian North Caucasus 66,500 2,735,139 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Coat of Arms of Khabarovsky kray (N2).png Far Eastern Far Eastern 788,600 1,436,570 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Amur oblast.png Far Eastern Far Eastern 363,700 902,844 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Arkhangelsk oblast.svg Northwestern Northern 587,400 1,336,539 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Герб Астраханской области.svg Southern Volga 44,100 1,005,276 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg Lob Coat of Arms of Belgorod Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 27,100 1,511,620 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Bryansk Oblast.svg Central Central 34,900 1,378,941 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vladimiri Oblast.svg Central Central 29,000 1,523,990 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Volgograd oblast.svg Southern Volga 113,900 2,699,223 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Flag of Vologda oblast.svg Coat of arms of Vologda oblast.svg Northwestern Northern 145,700 1,269,568 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Voronezh Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 52,400 2,378,803 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Central Central 21,800 1,148,329 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Герб Иркутской области.svg Siberian East Siberian 767,900 2,581,705 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Oblast Coat of Arms 2006.svg Northwestern Kaliningrad 15,100 955,281 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kaluga Oblast.svg Central Central 29,900 1,041,641 1944
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo
(Largest city: Novokuznetsk)
Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kemerovo Oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 95,500 2,899,142 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Flag of Kirov Region.svg Coat of arms of Kirov Region.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 120,800 1,503,529 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kostroma Oblast.svg Central Central 60,100 736,641 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Kurgan Oblast.svg Ural Ural 71,000 1,019,532 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Kursk oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 29,800 1,235,091 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[a] Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Leningrad Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 84,500 1,669,205 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Lipetsk oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 24,100 1,213,499 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Magadan oblast.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 461,400 182,726 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[b] Flag of Moscow oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow oblast.svg Central Central 45,900 6,618,538 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Герб Мурманской области.svg Northwestern Northern 144,900 892,534 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Volga Volga-Vyatka 76,900 3,524,028 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novgorod Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 694,355 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 178,200 2,692,251 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Omsk Oblast.svg Siberian West Siberian 139,700 2,079,220
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Flag of Orenburg Oblast.png Coat of arms of Orenburg Oblast.svg Volga Ural 124,000 2,179,551
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Oryol Oblast (small).svg Central Central 24,700 860,262
58 Penza Oblast Penza Flag of Penza Oblast.png Gerb of Penza region.jpg Volga Volga 43,200 1,452,941
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov Flag placeholder.svg Coat of Arms of Pskov Oblast.svg Northwestern Northwestern 55,300 760,810
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Rostov oblast coa.png Southern North Caucasus 100,800 4,404,013
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Flag of Ryazan Oblast.png Coat of Arms of Ryazan oblast.png Central Central 39,600 1,227,910
63 Samara Oblast Samara Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Samara oblast.png Volga Volga 53,600 3,239,737
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Flag of Saratov Oblast.png Coat of Arms of Saratov oblast.svg Volga Volga 100,200 2,668,310
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin Oblast Coat of Arms.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 87,100 546,695
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Sverdlovsk oblast.svg Ural Ural 194,800 4,486,214
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Coat of arms of Smolensk oblast.svg Central Central 49,800 1,049,574
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tambov Oblast.svg Central Central Black Earth 34,300 1,178,443
69 Tver Oblast Tver Flag of Tver Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tver oblast.png Central Central 84,100 1,471,459
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk TomskOblastFlag.png Coat of arms of Tomsk Oblast.png Siberian West Siberian 316,900 1,046,039
71 Tula Oblast Tula Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Tula oblast.png Central Central 25,700 1,675,758
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Tyumen Oblast.svg Ural West Siberian 1,435,200 3,264,841
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png Coat of Arms of Ulyanovsk Oblast.png Volga Volga 37,300 1,382,811
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Coat of arms of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Ural Ural 87,900 3,603,339
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Coat of Arms of Yaroslavl Oblast (2011) full.svg Central Central 36,400 1,367,398
77 Moscow Flag of Moscow.svg Coat of Arms of Moscow.svg Central Central 1,100 10,382,754
78 Saint Petersburg Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).svg Northwestern Northwestern 1,439 4,662,547
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Coat of arms of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 36,000 190,915
83 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of arms of Nenets Autonomous Okrug.svg Northwestern Northern 176,700 41,546
86 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Flag of Yugra.svg Coat of Arms of Yugra.svg Ural West Siberian 523,100 1,432,817
87 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Flag of Chukotka.svg Coat of Arms of Chukotka.svg Far Eastern Far Eastern 737,700 53,824 1930
89 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Coat of Arms of Yamal Nenetsia.svg Ural West Siberian 750,300 507,006 1930
Crimea, Republic of [c] Simferopol Flag of Crimea.svg Emblem of Crimea.svg Crimean[14] 26,964[15] 1,966,801[16] 2014
Sevastopol[d] Flag of Sevastopol.svg COA of Sevastopol.svg Crimean[14] 864[17] 379,200[17] 2014

Source:[2]

Mergers[edit]

Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Original territories Original codes New code Date of referendum Date of merger Merger
1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 December 7, 2003 December 1, 2005 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) → Perm Krai
2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 April 17, 2005 January 1, 2007 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) → Krasnoyarsk Krai
3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 October 23, 2005 July 1, 2007 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) → Kamchatka Krai
4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 April 16, 2006 January 1, 2008 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) → Irkutsk Oblast
5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 March 11, 2007 March 1, 2008 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) → Zabaykalsky Krai

Further proposals for mergers[edit]

The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.[citation needed]

Proposals Federal subjects Map
6, 6a Arkhangelsk Oblast + Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
7, 7a, 7b Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai Map of Russia - Khabarovsk Krai (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Jewish Autonomous Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Amur Oblast (2008-03).svg
8, 8a Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai Map of Russia - Magadan Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
9, 9a, 9b Irkutsk Oblast + Buryat Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baykalsky Krai Map of Russia - Irkutsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Buryat Republic (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Zabaykalsky Krai (2008-03).svg
10, 10a, 10b Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
11, 11a, 11b Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai Map of Russia - Novosibirsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Omsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Tomsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
12, 12a, 12b Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai Map of Russia - Kemerovo Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
13 St. Petersburg + Leningrad Oblast = St. Petersburg Oblast Map of Russia - St. Petersburg (federal city) (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
14 Moscow + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast Map of Russia - Moscow (federal city) (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Moscow Oblast (2008-03).svg
15, 15a Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslavl Krai Map of Russia - Yaroslavl Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Kostroma Oblast (2008-03).svg
16, 16a Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai Map of Russia - Novgorod Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Pskov Oblast (2008-03).svg
17, 17a Krasnodar Krai + Republic of Adygea = Krasnodar Krai Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Republic of Adygea (2008-03).svg
18, 18a Republic of Ingushetia + Chechen Republic = Checheno-Ingushetia Map of Russia - Republic of Ingushetia (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Chechen Republic (2008-03).svg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 3, The Federal Structure". Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  2. ^ a b "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved 2013-04-28. 
  3. ^ Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (Russian)
  4. ^ Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions
  5. ^ this treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  6. ^ http://www.constitution.ru/en/10003000-02.htm
  7. ^ http://eng.constitution.kremlin.ru/#article-5
  8. ^ Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System | The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Constitution.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  9. ^ [3][dead link]
  10. ^ SlavFile Archive | Slavic Languages Division. Ata-divisions.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  11. ^ http://eulita.eu/sites/default/files/Tammy_presentation.pdf
  12. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  13. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  14. ^ a b "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  16. ^ http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/operativ/operativ2014/ds/kn/kn_e/kn0214_e.html
  17. ^ a b "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).