Federal districts of Russia
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)|
The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are president's groupings of federal subjects of Russia for the convenience of operation and governing by a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. The institution of Plenipotentiary Representatives and federal districts was created in 2000 by presidential decree "in order to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.
Federal districts are not created by the Russian constitution or any law and are not the constituent units of Russia. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative). The official task of the Plenipotentiary Representative is simply to oversee the work of federal agencies in the regions, although in practice this oversight is extensive and of considerable consequence.
Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with federal laws.
List of federal districts
|Name of district||Area
(2010 Russian Census)
|Central Federal District||652,800||38,438,600||18||Moscow|
|Southern Federal District||418,500||13,856,700||6||Rostov-on-Don|
|Northwestern Federal District||1,677,900||13,583,800||11||Saint Petersburg|
|Far Eastern Federal District||6,215,900||6,291,900||9||Khabarovsk|
|Siberian Federal District||5,114,800||19,254,300||12||Novosibirsk|
|Ural Federal District||1,788,900||12,082,700||6||Yekaterinburg|
|Volga Federal District||1,038,000||29,900,400||14||Nizhny Novgorod|
|North Caucasian Federal District||170,700||9,496,800||7||Pyatigorsk|
On January 19, 2010, new North Caucasian Federal District was split from Southern Federal District.
In June 2011, the President of Russia, Dmitry Medvedev mentioned that a plan exists to create the Capital Federal District which would include the territories of the federal city of Moscow and of Moscow Oblast.
The Plenipotentiary Representatives and their staff ascertain the extent of a subjects' violation of federal laws and norms.
Federal agencies, particularly in the justice system, had been "captured" by subjects' governments during the segmented federalism of the Yeltsin period. This process is being forestalled as Plenipotentiary Representatives ensure that agencies do the work for which they are intended rather than being brought under the influence of powerful local elites with vested interests.
The federal districts coincide closely with the Interior Ministry forces' military regions and the Defense Ministry regions.
Presidential plenipotentiary envoys
- Central Federal District
- Southern Federal District
- Northwestern Federal District
- Far Eastern Federal District
- Siberian Federal District
- Urals Federal District
- Volga Federal District
- North Caucasian Federal District
- Alexander Khloponin (since January 2010)
- Economic regions of Russia, similar grouping of the federal subjects of Russia for economic and statistical purposes.
- УКАЗ Президента РФ от 13.05.2000 N 849 "О ПОЛНОМОЧНОМ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ В ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОМ ОКРУГЕ". Graph.document.kremlin.ru (2000-05-13). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- "The Russian Federation". BackGround Places. Russia Profile. Retrieved 5 November 2013.