Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic.

Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be dependent upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

List of federal parliamentary republics[edit]

Federation Style Formerly Subdivisions Head of state Head of government Parliamentary republic adopted Head of state elected by
Austria Republic One-party state States of Austria President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1955 Direct, by second-round system
Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Germany Federal Republic One-party state States of Germany President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949 Federal assembly (Parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority
India Republic Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm) States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College,

Parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote

Iraq Republic One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Nepal Federal Democratic Republic Constitutional monarchy Yet to decide by the constituent assembly President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2008 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Pakistan Islamic Republic Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm) Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 1956 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority