Federal prisons are prisons which are operated under the jurisdiction of a federal government as opposed to state or provincial government. Federal prisons may be used for convicts who have violated a federal law (U.S., Mexico), to handle dangerous criminals (Brazil) or to handle prisoners sentenced to longer terms of imprisonment (Canada). Not all federated countries have a legal concept of "federal prison".
There are no federal prisons in Australia. The Directors of Public Prosecutions are responsible for all criminal offenders, whether the charges are state or federal. However, federal prosecution takes place in the territory of the crime committed as the federal courts have no jurisdiction. The offender, if convicted, will be sentenced to the correctional facility closest to their territory. 
The Brazil federal prison system (Sistema Penitenciário Federal) was implemented in 2006 based on the provisions of the 1984 law "Lei de Execução Penal". It receives the most dangerous criminals who would be disruptive in state prisons.
The prisons in Germany are run solely by the federal states, although governed by a federal law.
See also: List of U.S. federal prisons
- "Overview of Australian Justice and Prison Systems". Attorney General & Justice. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Quinto presídio de segurança máxima do país será construído no DF, Brazil Ministry of Justice, 29/11/2013
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Correctional Service Canada. Retrieved December 1, 2013.
- Mexico: Government builds 8 maximum-security prisons, Sergio Ramos, Infosurhoy.com, 04/12/2012
- "Federal Penitentiary Service". Government of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Bosworth, Mary (2002). The US Federal Prison System. p. 4. ISBN 0761923047.
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