Code of Federal Regulations
|Code of Federal Regulations|
|Publisher||Office of the Federal Register (United States)|
|Administrative law in
common law jurisdictions
|Administrative law in
civil law jurisdictions
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation.
Under the delegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized to promulgate regulations (rulemaking) by so-called enabling legislation. The process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act (APA): generally, the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, and adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR.
The Federal Register Act had originally provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years. The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, and beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters.
Effect of administrative law
The rules and regulations are first promulgated or published in the Federal Register. Each is given a CFR citation, such as 42 CFR 260.11(a)(1), that can be cited immediately, without waiting for a page number from the physical copy. The aforementioned citation would be read, "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph (a)(1)."
The Office of the Federal Register also keeps an online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, which is normally updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective.
While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule:
- Titles 1–16 are updated on January 1
- Titles 17–27 are updated on April 1
- Titles 28–41 are updated on July 1
- Titles 42–50 are updated on October 1
List of CFR titles
The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas:
- Title 1: General Provisions
- Title 2: Grants and Agreements
- Title 3: The President
- Title 4: Accounts
- Title 5: Administrative Personnel
- Title 6: Domestic Security
- Title 7: Agriculture
- Title 8: Aliens and Nationality
- Title 9: Animals and Animal Products
- Title 10: Energy
- Title 11: Federal Elections
- Title 12: Banks and Banking
- Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance
- Title 14: Aeronautics and Space (also known as the Federal Aviation Regulations, administered by the Federal Aviation Administration)
- Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade
- Title 16: Commercial Practices
- Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges
- Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources
- Title 19: Customs Duties
- Title 20: Employees' Benefits
- Title 21: Food and Drugs (administered by the US Food and Drug Administration and the US Drug Enforcement Administration)
- Title 22: Foreign Relations
- Title 23: Highways
- Title 24: Housing and Urban Development
- Title 25: Indians
- Title 26: Internal Revenue
- Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms
- Title 28: Judicial Administration
- Title 29: Labor
- Title 30: Mineral Resources
- Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury
- Title 32: National Defense
- Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters
- Title 34: Education
- Title 35: Reserved (formerly Panama Canal)
- Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property
- Title 37: Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights
- Title 38: Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief
- Title 39: Postal Service
- Title 40: Protection of Environment (administered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency)
- Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management
- Title 42: Public Health
- Title 43: Public Lands: Interior
- Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance
- Title 45: Public Welfare
- Title 46: Shipping
- Title 47: Telecommunication (including rules administered by the Federal Communications Commission and other agencies)
- Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System
- Title 49: Transportation
- Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries
- "Federal Administrative Law". Duke University School of Law. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- 5 U.S.C. § 553
- "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Printing Office. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "A Research Guide to the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations". Law Librarians' Society of Washington, D.C. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "Electronic Code of Federal Regulations". Office of the Federal Register. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Printing Office.
- "A Research Guide to the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations". Law Librarians' Society of Washington, D.C. July 21, 2012.
- "Report to Congress on the Costs and Benefits of Federal Regulations". Office of Management and Budget. September 30, 1997.
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- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR) from the GPO
- Code of Federal Regulations (annual edition) on FDsys from the GPO
- Code of Federal Regulations (cross-referenced to U.S. Code) from Cornell LII