Federal subjects of Russia
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The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation consists of eighty-five federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.
In 1992, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). In 1993, when the current Constitution of Russia was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.
According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. Three Russian cities of federal importance have a status of both city and separated federal subject.
Every subject of the Russian Federation has own president/governor/head (executive branch), regional parliament (legislative branch) and regional constitutional/charter court (higher judicial branch in a region). Federal subjects shall have their own constitution/charter and legislation (adopted by regional parliaments). Subjects shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All federal subjects of the Russian Federation shall be equal with one another in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).
Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight Federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia, are much larger and each encompass many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia specially for presidential envoys.
The official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."
How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject". This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".
Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:
List of federal subjects
The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 92, although nine of them (41, 59, 75, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, and 88) are no longer in use after mergers.
Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.
|Original territories||Original codes||New code||Date of referendum||Date of merger||Merger|
|1, 1a||59 (1), 81 (1a)||90||December 7, 2003||December 1, 2005||Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) → Perm Krai|
|2, 2a, 2b||24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)||24||April 17, 2005||January 1, 2007||Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) → Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|3, 3a||41 (3), 82 (3a)||91||October 23, 2005||July 1, 2007||Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) → Kamchatka Krai|
|4, 4a||38 (4), 85 (4a)||38||April 16, 2006||January 1, 2008||Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) → Irkutsk Oblast|
|5, 5a||75 (5), 80 (5a)||92||March 11, 2007||March 1, 2008||Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) → Zabaykalsky Krai|
Further proposals for mergers
The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.
|6, 6a||Arkhangelsk Oblast + Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai|
|7, 7a, 7b||Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai|
|8, 8a||Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai|
|9, 9a, 9b||Irkutsk Oblast + Buryat Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baykalsky Krai|
|10, 10a, 10b||Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai|
|11, 11a, 11b||Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai|
|12, 12a, 12b||Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai|
|13||St. Petersburg + Leningrad Oblast = St. Petersburg Oblast|
|14||Moscow + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast|
|15, 15a||Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslavl Krai|
|16, 16a||Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai|
|17, 17a||Krasnodar Krai + Republic of Adygea = Krasnodar Krai|
|18, 18a||Republic of Ingushetia + Chechen Republic = Checheno-Ingushetia|
- Subdivisions of Russia
- Federal districts of Russia
- Economic regions of Russia
- History of the administrative division of Russia
- Flags of the federal subjects of Russia
- List of heads of federal subjects of Russia
- List of Russian federal subjects by GRP
- "The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 3, The Federal Structure". Retrieved 2013-04-28.
- "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Russian Presidential Executive Office. Retrieved 2013-04-28.
- Kremlin.ru. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (Treaty Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on Ascension to the Russian Federation of the Republic of Crimea and on Establishment of New Subjects Within the Russian Federation) (Russian)
- Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions
- this treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions:  
- Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System | The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Constitution.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- [dead link]
- SlavFile Archive | Slavic Languages Division. Ata-divisions.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014.
- "Autonomous Republic of Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "A General data of the region". Sevastopol City State Administration. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
- 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).