Federal subjects of Russia

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The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation consists of eighty-five federal subjects,[2] although the two most recently added subjects are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.[3][4]

In 1992, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor),[5] establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic). In 1993, when the current Constitution of Russia was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation.[6] Three Russian cities of federal importance have a status of both city and separated federal subject.

Every subject of the Russian Federation has its own president/governor/head (executive branch), regional parliament (legislative branch) and regional constitutional/charter court (higher judicial branch in a region). Federal subjects shall have their own constitution/charter and legislation (adopted by regional parliaments). Subjects shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All federal subjects of the Russian Federation shall be equal with one another in relations with federal government bodies.[7][8] The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).

Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight Federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia, are much larger and each encompass many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia specially for presidential envoys.

Terminology[edit]

An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states:[9] "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."

Another translation of the Constitution of Russia gives for article 65: "The Russian Federation includes the following subjects of the Russian Federation:".[10]

How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject".[11] This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[12]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian (Cyrillic) Russian (Latin) English - official translation of the constitution [13] English - unofficial translation of the constitution[10] ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
- субъект Российской Федерации subyekt Rossiskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika republic republic republic
2 край kraĭ kray territory administrative territory
3 область oblast oblast region administrative region
4 город федерального значения gorod federal'nogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city (the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblast autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyĭ okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district

Types[edit]

Federal subjects of Russia

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend Description
  46 oblasts
most common type of federal subjects with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
  22 republics
nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
  krais
essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
with substantial or predominant ethnic minority
major cities that function as separate regions.
the only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast

Lists of federal subjects[edit]

Mergers[edit]

Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

Further proposals for mergers[edit]

The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.[citation needed]

Proposals Federal subjects Map
6, 6a Arkhangelsk Oblast + Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai Map of Russia - Arkhangelsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
7, 7a, 7b Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai Map of Russia - Khabarovsk Krai (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Jewish Autonomous Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Amur Oblast (2008-03).svg
8, 8a Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai Map of Russia - Magadan Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
9, 9a, 9b Irkutsk Oblast + Buryat Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baykalsky Krai Map of Russia - Irkutsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Buryat Republic (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Zabaykalsky Krai (2008-03).svg
10, 10a, 10b Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
11, 11a, 11b Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai Map of Russia - Novosibirsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Omsk Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Tomsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
12, 12a, 12b Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai Map of Russia - Kemerovo Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Altai Krai (2008-03).svg
13 St. Petersburg + Leningrad Oblast = St. Petersburg Oblast Map of Russia - St. Petersburg (federal city) (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
14 Moscow + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast Map of Russia - Moscow (federal city) (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Moscow Oblast (2008-03).svg
15, 15a Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslavl Krai Map of Russia - Yaroslavl Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Kostroma Oblast (2008-03).svg
16, 16a Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai Map of Russia - Novgorod Oblast (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Pskov Oblast (2008-03).svg
17, 17a Krasnodar Krai + Republic of Adygea = Krasnodar Krai Map of Russia - Krasnodar Krai (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Republic of Adygea (2008-03).svg
18, 18a Republic of Ingushetia + Chechen Republic = Checheno-Ingushetia Map of Russia - Republic of Ingushetia (2008-03).svg Map of Russia - Chechen Republic (2008-03).svg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).