Federalist No. 62 is an essay by James Madison, the sixty-second of The Federalist Papers. It was published on February 27, 1788 under the pseudonymPublius, the name under which all The Federalist Papers were published. This is the first of two essays by Madison detailing, and seeking to justify, the organization of the United States Senate. It is titled, "The Senate." Five key considerations are brought up in the introductory paragraph, of which only three and a part of the fourth are discussed in Federalist No. 62. Madison's thoughts on this subject are completed in Federalist No. 63: 1. The qualifications of senators (thirty years of age or older/citizen for nine years). 2. The appointment of Senators by the State legislatures - later changed to direct popular vote by the 17th amendment in 1913. 3. The equality of representation in the Senate. And 4, the number of senators.