Federalist Riograndense Revolution
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Portuguese Wikipedia. (July 2012)|
|Brazilian Federalist Revolution|
|Part of Brazilian Naval Revolt|
Gumercindo Saraiva and their commanders.
|First Brazilian Republic|| Federalist Rebel
|Commanders and leaders|
| Floriano Peixoto
Júlio Prates de Castilhos
Gen. Hipólito Ribeiro
Col. Gomes Carneiro †
Col. Antônio Moreira César
| Gumercindo SaraivaCustódio José de Melo
Saldanha Da Gama †
|Large number of troops, soldiers and volunteers castilhistas||+6,000 rebel soldiers|
|Casualties and losses|
unknown number of wounded
Inspired by the monarchist Gaspar Silveira Martins, it had as military head Gumercindo Saraiva. The revolutionaries, called Maragatos, were defeated in the Battle of the Pulador, in 1894, by the troops of Pinheiro Machado, and peace was concluded definitively the following year.
At the time the then President Marshal Floriano Peixoto summoned veteran of the Paraguayan War Colonel Gomes Carneiro, he did not repent. The order was to halt the Federalist Revolution in Southern Brazil. In five days, he came to the area to become one of the protagonists of history.
It was November 1893 and the revolutionary troops now advancing towards the Paraná.
The goal was to reach the Brazilian capital at the time, Rio de Janeiro, and overthrow the government of Floriano. The rebels also fought against the governor of Rio Grande do Sul, Julio de Castillos. With the revolution, which began 120 years ago, the three southern states became the scene of a bloodbath that left nearly 10,000 dead. During the battles, there were many degolas.
The Federalists won mood in the same year. In the national capital, eclodia the Revolt of the Navy, under the leadership of Admiral Custodio de Melo, who also fought Florian. After some exchange of gunfire with the army, the rebels went to the South. Landed in present Florianópolis, called Exile, and proclaimed the city as a new capital. Interests meant that the two revolts came to join, especially by Custódio de Melo.
"They have joined forces to overthrow Floriano. By sea, Custódio de Melo was responsible for making Paranaguá, which happened in January 1894, "says the judge and scholar Paul Hapner theme. The land, Gumercindo Saraiva advanced toward the capital of Paraná.
Siege of Lapa
In the same period that the coast was taken, the maragatos, as they were called rebel soldiers, passed Tijucas South and came to Lapa - 60 km from Curitiba.
The state of Paraná was chaos. With the advance of the rebels, the state governor, Vicente Machado, fled from Curitiba. With only 639 men, few weapons and food shortages, Colonel Ram had a mission to contain the Federalists in Lapa. During 26 days, Ram and his army, called woodpeckers, bravely resisted the attacks of 3000 fighters commanded by Gumercindo Saraiva.
"The troops of maragatos made a real siege to the city," says Hapner. During 26 days, Ram and his army, called woodpeckers, bravely resisted the attacks of 3000 fighters commanded by Gumercindo Saraiva.
At least 500 people died in the Siege of Lapa, including Carneiro. With the death of the commander in February, Lapa surrendered and left the passage open for the revolutionaries took every Curitiba.
Despite the defeat, the battle in Lapa was critical to the rebels come unstuck. Hapner considers a strategic error of maragatos. "If they wanted to go to Rio de Janeiro could not waste time in Lapa. This caused the Army Floriano be organized and defeated the Federalists, "he says.
For the historian Dennisson de Oliveira, "this is an episode that mythical, to the established power in Floriano, 'saved' the Republic."
Release of Curitiba
With taking Paranaguá, Tijucas South and Lapa, and the absence of governor and military force in Paraná, the rebels easily entered in Curitiba. According to scholar Paul Hapner, evacuation of loyalist troops caused chaos in the city. Gumercindo Saraiva and Custódio de Melo had no obstacle. Reached to appoint a governor - Colonel Theophilus Gomes Soares, who was only four days in power. "Then they gathered in a mansion that existed in the Alto da Glória and appointed another governor, João Menezes Doria, who remained until March," reports Hapner.
After him, two others were appointed governors. The last governor maragato Paraná was José Antonio Ferreira Braga, in early May 1894.
The federalists demanded further "war loans" not to sack the city. The population was restless. It was during this period that Ildefonso Correia Pereira, Baron Serro Azul exerted role to liberate maragatos of Curitiba.
He made the decision to take care of Curitiba through a junta. Considered unnecessary spilling more blood. So we decided to negotiate. In return for peace and the absence of looting, Baron lent, with the support of some traders, money Gumercindo Saraiva, head of maragatos. Trading, however, was seen as a betrayal by the defenders of Floriano. "He was a politician. But people did not understand it at the time, "says Hapner.
Thus, maragatos left the city in May and Vicente Machado returned to power. However, Serro Azul and five companions were arrested under the allegation that should be tried by the Military Council "helps" that would have given the maragatos. Were taken by train toward Paranaguá, under the pretext that they would board the ship to the Rio de Janeiro where they would receive the award. But it was an ambush. Baron Serro Azul and his friends were shot on the way.