Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria
|Regions with significant populations|
|United States ( California)|
|English, Pomo, Miwok language|
|Roundhouse religion, Christianity, Kuksu|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Miwok and Pomo people|
The Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, formerly known as the Federated Coast Miwok, is a federally recognized American Indian tribe of Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo Indians. The tribe was officially restored to federal recognition by the U.S. government pursuant to the Graton Rancheria Restoration Act, Pub. L. No. 106-568, Title XIV (114 Stat. 2939), 25 U.S.C. § 1300n et. seq. (2000).
Prior to European contact, the residents of Marin and Sonoma Counties were bands of Native Californians belonging to two linguistic and cultural groups: the Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo, living in close proximity to each other and indigenous to Marin and southern Sonoma Counties in Northern California.
Occupied at various times during more than thirty centuries, over 600 village sites have been identified in the Coast Miwok territory, stretching from Bodega Bay to the north, eastward beyond the towns of Cotati and Sonoma, and along the Point Reyes National Seashore and the shores of Tomales Bay. The year 1579 was the earliest recorded account made by the Europeans of the Coast Miwok people on the coast of Marin in the Point Reyes area, as documented in a diary by Chaplain Fletcher who was aboard Sir Francis Drake’s ship. During the Mission Period of 1779-1823, Mission San Francisco de Asís (also called "Mission Dolores"), Mission San Rafael Arcángel and Mission San Francisco Solano used Indians, including the Coast Miwok and Southern Pomo people, as a key source of labor.
The territorial lands of the Southern Pomo are in Sonoma County, south of the Russian River to the southern Santa Rosa area. The Southern Pomo were the first inhabitants of what is now the town of Sebastopol, with several smaller traditional Southern Pomo villages located southeast of Sebastopol along the Laguna de Santa Rosa. California anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber stated:
- Batiklechawi, at Sebastapol at the head of the slough known as Laguna de Santa Rosa, was an important town, and therefore presumably the headquarters of a division [of the Southern Pomo]. Another group tentatively may be inferred as having occupied the bulk of the shores of the laguna.
Most of the Coast Miwok continued to live in their traditional lands through the 20th century. They worked in sawmills, as agricultural laborers, and fished to supplement their incomes. The US government terminated their federal recognition in the 1950s, but the tribe initiated the procedure to regain recognition in 1992. Federal recognition was achieved on December 27, 2000 through the Graton Rancheria Restoration Act.
The Graton Rancheria was a 15-acre (61,000 m2) Indian rancheria near Sebastopol in Sonoma County. The rancheria was established for Coast Miwok, Southern Pomo, and other Indians living in the region, but much of the land was inhospitable. Gloria Armstrong (Miwok) privately owned a 1-acre (4,000 m2) lot of the previous rancheria. On April 18, 2008, the tribe was able to acquire 254 acres (1.03 km2) of land.
Since 2007, the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria has collaborated with Occidental Arts and Ecology in Occidental, California to create workshops called Tradition Environmental Knowledge on organic farming, herbology, native plant restoration, and ethnobotany.
The tribe has approximately 1,200 members (1,202 as of April 1, 2010). The tribe’s government offices are located in Rohnert Park, California. Tribal governmental programs and services include sacred sites preservation and protection, Indian housing, Indian education, membership, cultural arts, social services, and tribal health.
The Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria are governed by a seven-member Tribal Council who are elected to two-year terms by the adult tribal membership. The current administration includes:
Notable tribal members
- Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria (retrieved 6 Jan 2010)
- Federal Register Notice at 74 FR 40219, dated August 11, 2009
- Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
- Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress)
- Kroeber, 233
- Pritzker, 134
- "Omnibus Indian Advancement Act." Public Law 106-568, 106th Congress. Page 2867. (retrieved 6 Jan 2009)
- "California Indians and Their Reservations." San Diego State University Library and Information Access. (retrieved 6 Jan 2010)
- "Land Acquisitions; Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, California." Federal Register (Volume 73, Number 89). 7 May 2008 (retrieved 6 Jan 2009)
- "Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria." Occidental Arts and Ecology. 2009 (retrieved 12 May 2011)
- Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria
- "Tribal Council." Federated Indians of the Graton Rancheria. (retrieved 6 January 2010)
- Kroeber, Alfred L. Handbook of the Indians of California, Volume 1. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2006 (Reprint). ISBN 978-1-4286-4492-2.
- Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
- Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, official website
- Friends of Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria
- Graton Rancheria Restoration Act
- Graton Rancheria Restoration Act (Introduced in House) H.R. 4434 August 6, 1998
- Graton Rancheria Casino and Hotel Project EPA notice