Fedora (operating system)
Fedora 18 (Spherical Cow) with GNOME Shell 3.6
|Company / developer||Fedora Project,
(owned by Red Hat, Inc.)
|OS family||Unix-like (Independent)|
|Source model||Free and open source software (with exceptions)|
|Initial release||2003-11-16 It was codenamed Yarrow. Fedora Core 1 was based on Red Hat Linux 9 and shipped with version 2.4.19 of the Linux kernel, version 2.4 of the GNOME desktop environment, and K Desktop Environment 3.1.|
|Latest stable release||18 (Spherical Cow) / 15 January 2013|
|Update method||Yum (PackageKit)|
|Package manager||RPM Package Manager|
|Supported platforms||i686, x86-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||GNOME 3|
|License||Various free software licenses, plus proprietary binary blobs.|
Fedora (pron.: //), formerly Fedora Core, is an RPM-based, general purpose collection of software, including an operating system based on the Linux kernel, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and owned by Red Hat. The Fedora Project's mission is to lead the advancement of free and open source software and content as a collaborative community.
One of Fedora's main objectives is not only to contain software distributed under a free and open source license, but also to be on the leading edge of such technologies. Fedora developers prefer to make upstream changes instead of applying fixes specifically for Fedora—this ensures that their updates are available to all Linux distributions.
A version of Fedora has a relatively short life cycle—the maintenance period is only 13 months: there are 6 months between releases, and version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2. This promotes leading-edge software because it frees developers from some backward compatibility restraints, but it also makes Fedora a poor choice for product development (e.g., embedded systems), which usually requires long-term vendor-support, unavailable with any version of Fedora.
The Fedora Project was created in late 2003, when Red Hat Linux was discontinued. Red Hat Enterprise Linux was to be Red Hat's only officially supported Linux distribution, while Fedora was to be a community distribution. Red Hat Enterprise Linux branches its releases from versions of Fedora.
The name of Fedora derives from Fedora Linux, a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora used in Red Hat's "Shadowman" logo. Warren Togami began Fedora Linux in 2002 as an undergraduate project, intended to provide a single repository for well-tested third-party software packages so that non-Red Hat software would be easier to find, develop, and use. The key difference between the approaches of Fedora Linux and Red Hat Linux was that Fedora's repository development would be collaborative with the global volunteer community. Fedora Linux was eventually absorbed into the Fedora Project, carrying with it this collaborative approach. Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, and although this had previously been disputed by the creators of the unrelated Fedora repository management software, the issue has now been resolved.[dead link]
Features of Fedora 
The Fedora Project distributes Fedora in several different ways:
- Fedora DVD/CD set – a DVD or CD set of all major Fedora packages at time of shipping;
- Live images – CD or DVD sized images that can be used to create a Live CD or boot from a USB flash drive and optionally install to a hard disk;
- Minimal CD – used for installing over HTTP, FTP or NFS.
The Fedora Project also distributes custom variations of Fedora which are called Fedora spins. These are built from a specific set of software packages and have a combination of software to meet the requirements of a specific kind of end user. Fedora spins are developed by several Fedora special interest groups. It is also possible to create Live USB versions of Fedora using Fedora Live USB creator, UNetbootin or dd.
Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) is a volunteer-based community effort from the Fedora project to create a repository of high-quality add-on packages that complement the Fedora-based Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its compatible spinoffs such as CentOS or Scientific Linux.
Software package management is primarily handled by the yum utility. Graphical interfaces, such as pirut and pup are provided, as well as puplet, which provides visual notifications in the panel when updates are available. apt-rpm is an alternative to yum, and may be more familiar to people used to Debian or Debian-based distributions, where Advanced Packaging Tool is used to manage packages. Additionally, extra repositories can be added to the system, so that packages not available in Fedora can be installed.
Software repositories 
Before Fedora 7, there were two main repositories – Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that was included from Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs.
Also prior to Fedora 7 being released, there was a third repository called Fedora Legacy. This repository was community-maintained and was mainly concerned with extending the life cycle of older Fedora Core distributions and selected Red Hat Linux releases that were no longer officially maintained. Fedora Legacy was shut down in December 2006.
Third party repositories exist that distribute more packages that are not included in Fedora either because it does not meet Fedora's definition of free software or because distribution of that software may violate US law.
Desktops and Spins 
The default desktop in Fedora is the GNOME desktop environment, with Fedora offering the GNOME Shell as its default interface since the release of Fedora 15. Other desktop environments are available from the Fedora package repositories, and can also be installed from the Fedora installer, including the KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce, and LXDE desktop environments. In Fedora 18 both the MATE and Cinnamon desktops were made available in the package repositories. In addition, specialized "spins" are available offering these alternative desktops custom configured and offered by default. Other spins are also available targeting specific niche interests, such as gaming, security, design, and robotics.
Security features 
Security is one of the most important features in Fedora. One of the security features in Fedora is Security-Enhanced Linux, a Linux feature that implements a variety of security policies, including mandatory access controls, through the use of Linux Security Modules (LSM) in the Linux kernel. Fedora is one of the distributions leading the way with SELinux. SELinux was introduced in Fedora Core 2. It was disabled by default, as it radically altered how the operating system worked, but was enabled by default in Fedora Core 3 and introduced a less strict, targeted policy.
The current release of the operating system is Fedora 18, codenamed "Spherical Cow", which was released on 15 January 2013.
Some of the features of Fedora 18 include:
- Support for UEFI Secure Boot
- A rewrite of the Anaconda installer
- A new system upgrade utility called FedUp
- Default desktop upgraded to GNOME 3.6.2
- Updated to KDE 4.9 and Xfce 4.10
- Inclusion of MATE and Cinnamon desktops
- Better Active Directory support
- Support for NetworkManager hotspots
- Support for 256 color terminals by default
- Offline system updates utilizing systemd and PackageKit
- Better cloud computing support with the inclusion of Eucalyptus, Heat, and OpenStack Folsom
- firewalld replaces system-config-firewall as default
Version history 
|Red||Release no longer supported|
|Green||Release still supported|
|Project Name||Version||Code name||Release date||End-of-life date||Kernel version|
|17||Beefy Miracle||2012-05-29||Mid 2013||3.3.4|
|18||Spherical Cow||2013-01-15||Late 2013||3.6.0|
- Notable Fedora Derivative Linux Distributions:
- Source: DistroWatch list of Fedora derived Linux distributions
- Source: Fedora WIKI list of derived distributions.
- Berry Linux – a medium-sized Fedora based distribution that provides support for Japanese and English.
- BLAG Linux and GNU – a stripped down 1-CD Fedora.
- Fusion Linux — remix with full multimedia support and some influence from Linux Mint
- Hanthana Linux – from Sri Lanka
- Kororaa – is a complete and easy to use system for general computing that “just works” out of the box.
- Linpus – made by Taiwanese company Linpus Technologies for the Asian market.
- MythDora – based around MythTV's media center capabilities.
- Ojuba Linux – an Arabic Linux distribution.
- Open Xange – is an easy-to-use, Fedora-based desktop Linux distribution featuring the KDE desktop.
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux – enterprise Linux offering from Red Hat, which branches from the current Fedora baseline.
- Russian Fedora Remix – version of Fedora, adapted for Russia. Contains proprietary drivers and software.
- PLS Linux – high client-server-performance version issued by the Government of Venezuela.
- Ekaaty – Brasilian distribution using the KDE desktop.
- Not active (no release for over 12 months):
- Fuduntu – Optimized for netbooks, development headed by Jupiter creator Fewt.
- Moblin – a distribution mainly for MIDs, netbooks and embedded devices.
- Aurora SPARC Linux – for the SPARC platform.
- Linux XP – a commercial Linux distribution aimed at replacing Windows XP as a home-use desktop operating system.
- Yellow Dog Linux – for the PowerPC platform.
See also 
- "Frequently Asked Questions about Fedora Licensing". Fedora Project wiki. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
- Red Hat (2003-11-06). "Announcing Fedora Core 1". Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- "Fedora Core 1 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "Fedora Project Overview". Retrieved 2009-11-04.
- Max Spevack. "Fedora Project Leader Max Spevack Responds". Retrieved 2006-12-17.
- "Fedora Project Objectives". 2006-12-19. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
- Paul W. Frields (2008-05-12). "Fedora 9". Fedora Project. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- Fedora Project life cycle and maintenance, accessed 2009–04–07.
- Richard Morris (2008-07-17). "Linus Torvalds, Geek of the Week". Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "Fedora Project: Announcing New Direction". 2003-09-22. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- "The Fedora Project and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, part 4". 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2007-10-18.
- "Warren Togami on the new Fedora Project". Retrieved 2010-02-09.
- "Why Fedora? (.odp presentation)". Retrieved 2011-04-30.
- "Red Hat Inc.'s Use of The Fedora Name". Archived from the original on 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- "Fedora goes to a community-dominated board". Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- Fedora Project. "New Users – How Do I Download Installation Files?". Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- Fedora Project. "Alternative Install Methods". Retrieved 2009-04-03.
- CustomSpins - Fedora Project Wiki.
- Fedora Project (2007-11-19). "Custom Spins". Retrieved 2007-11-19.
- Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL), accessed 2009–05–15.
- Stuart Ellis. "Software Management Tools in Fedora Core". Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- Fedora Project. "APT and Fedora". Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- Stuart Ellis. "Using Repositories". Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- "Fedora 15 and the Desktop: Is it Ready?". Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "Fedora 17 now available for download". Retrieved 2012-05-30.
- "Mandatory Access Control with SELinux" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-07.
- "Fedora Core 2 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "Fedora Core 3 Release Notes". Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- Fedora Project. "Releases". Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "End of life". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Fedora 11 Release Schedule". The Fedora Project. 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- "Releases/12". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Releases/13/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Releases/14/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Fedora 14 Release Schedule and Codename - Softpedia". News.softpedia.com. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Releases/15". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Reminder: Fedora 15 end of life on 2012-06-26". FedoraProject. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "kernel". Admin.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
- "Releases/16/Schedule". FedoraProject. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- Gilmore, Dennis. "Reminder: Fedora 16 end of life on 2013-02-12". lists.fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Fedora 16 Release Notes". Retrieved 2012-11-10.
- "Fedora Project Wiki". FedoraProject. 2012-01-16. Retrieved 2012-01-25.
- "Releases/17/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- "Releases/18/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2013-01-05. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
- "Results of Fedora 19 release name". FedoraProject. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "Releases/19/Schedule - FedoraProject". FedoraProject. 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Designed and developed in Venezuela. The Web site is in Spanish.
- Fuduntu - Punny Name, Serious Distro, accessed 2011-03-18.
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