Grand Prince of the Hungarians
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The Grand Prince (Nagyfejedelem) was probably elected by the leaders of the federation of the seven Hungarian tribes, and, the three Kabar tribes (dissident Khazar tribes) that joined the Hungarians after 881. However, the first Grand Prince, Álmos, father of Árpád, was more likely appointed by the Khagan of the Khazars. It is still under discussion whether the Grand Prince was the spiritual leader of the federation (kende), the military commander of the Hungarian tribes (gyula), or, the title was a new creation.
When the Hungarians were pushed out of Etelköz and moved to the Carpathian Basin (Honfoglalás), the Grand Prince's power seemed to be decreasing. By the time of Géza, Transylvania had been ruled by a (semi-)independent leader (gyula). Stephen (Vajk) had to conquer not only the territories of the gyula, but also the lands of Ahtum (Ajtony) and the Black Magyars.
The title disappeared by the coronation of Stephen I (Vajk) on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001.
Grand Princes of the Hungarians
- Álmos (c. 820 - c. 850)
- Árpád (c. 850– c. 907)
- Solt (c. 907 – c. 948)
- Fajsz (c. 948)
- Taksony (c. 955 – c. 973)
- Géza (c. 973 – 997)
- Stephen / Vajk (997 – 1000, became the first king of the Hungarians)
- Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
- Kristó, Gyula: A Kárpát-medence és a magyarság régmúltja (1301-ig) (Szegedi Középkortörténeti Könyvtár, Szeged, 1993)