Fejzi Alizoti

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Fejzi Alizoti
Fejzi Alizoti.jpg
Interim Prime Minister of Albania
In office
January 22, 1914 – March 7, 1914
Preceded by Ismail Qemali
Succeeded by Turhan Pashë Përmeti
Personal details
Born September 22, 1874[a]
Gjirokastër, Janina Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Died April 14, 1945 April 14, 1945(1945-04-14) (aged 70)
near Tirana, Albania
Profession Politician, economist, administrative clerk

Fejzi Alizoti (22 September 1874[a], Gjirokastër – 14 April 1945, Tirana)[1][2] also referred as Fejzi Bey Alizoti, was an Ottoman and later Albanian politician and Interim Prime Minister of Albania from January to March 1914. He is remembered as notoriously pro-Italian and corrupt.

Life[edit]

Alizoti was born in Gjirokastër, back then Ottoman Empire in a powerful family. His grand-grandfather was Alizot Pasha who had ruled for a very short time (1787) the Vilayet of Yannina after the death of Ahmet Kurt Pasha. His father Hasan Bey Alizoti was a local bey. At the age of 8, Alizoti was sent to study in Yannina. After that he finished the Classic Gymnasium of Salonika in 1890 and return to Gjirokastër. After that he left for Istanbul, where he studied at Mekteb-i Mülkiye economics and civic administration.[3] After the graduation he was sent in Syria where he worked as part of the Ottoman administration for 3 years. After succeeding the first assignment he was appointed Prefect of Homs in the Tripoli Eyalet, and later in the Bilecik province. In 1906 he wrote to the High Porte asking to be transferred somewhere in the Albanian areas. With the intervention of some friends of him in the capital, he was transferred as Prefect of Korçë. After the Young Turk Revolution and the new constitution he was sent Prefect in Prizren, Vilayet of Kosovo until March 1910 when the unrest in Albanian Vilayets would increase following with the Albanian rebellions. Alizoti was recalled to Istambul and sent to Romania for a specialization course. After 6 months he returned and started as Administrator of Urfa in Asia Minor, and after that as Governor of Al-Khums in Western Libya.[4]

According to Elsie, the Italians arrested him during the Italo-Turkish War for Libya and interned in a camp in Italy. There he would become one of the greatest Italophiles in Albanian history staying a loyal supporter of Italian interests.[4][5] According to Albanian sources, he was recalled from the Ottoman authorities and sent as Administrator in the Dodecanese islands. After that, with the start of the Albanian Revolt of 1912, the Ottoman authorities sent him together with Abdyl Ypi as a best-fit "mediator" to calm down the Albanian rebels of the Labëria region who had already gathered an Assembly in Cepo, near Gjirokastër, and aligned their demands with the rebels in the north.[3] The attempts were unsuccessful even though Ypi and Alizoti managed to organize a meeting with rebel leaders in Tepelenë on August 18.[6] Ismail Qemali wrote to Alizoti and asked to join him in Vlorë after the Declaration of Independence.

For a short time in 1914 Alizoti was an Interim Prime Minister under the auspices of the International Commission of Control. Under Prince Wied he served as secretary-general of the Ministry of the Interior, and Prefect of Shkodra, investigating Albanian officers who were suspected to had taken part in the Islamic Revolt. He strongly opposed Essad Toptani and his parallel government in Durrës. During World War I he worked with Austrian occupation forces as Financial Director of the Civilian Administration Council set up by August Ritter von Kral (1869-1953).[4]

Alizoti was Minister of Finances of Albania in 1918–1920. He was one of the prominent members of the Congress of Durrës. Later in 1920 he would take an opponent stance towards the Congress of Lushnjë, which replaced the pro-Italian government of Durrës with a new one, establishing the territorial sovereignty of Albania. According to Sejfi Vllamasi's (1883–1975) memories, Alizoti, together with Mustafa Merlika-Kruja, Myfit Libohova, and Sami Bey Vrioni would try to prohibit the delegates for joining the Lushnje event.[7] Ahmet Zogu would call him a "traitor" for that. After the attempts failed, Alizoti escaped shortly to Corfu avoiding any reaction from the congress supporters.[8]

During the June Revolution of 1924 he supported Ahmet Zogu, who needed him because of his good relations with the Italians. After Zogu's rise in power Alizoti took part in various negotiations between Albania and Italy,[5] always siding with Italy to the detriment of Albanian interests,[9] to the extent that he was called the "kavass of the Italians". From February to October 1927 he was Minister of Finance and shortly substituting his ally and friend Iliaz Vrioni. He played a major role in the proclamation of the Albanian Monarchy in 1928. Alizoti proposed that Zog was called not only "King of Albania" but "King of the Albanians" including so even the Albanian population outside the borders.[10] Anyway, since then he did not receive any political post, living mostly with Italian subsidies. He is reported to have been corrupt, and "a gross creature physically and morally, with a certain amount of low cunning".[4][11] During the Italian occupation he served again as Minister of Finances in Shefqet Vërlaci's government from April 12, 1939 to 1940. During the German Invasion, when most of Kosovo and other Albanian populated lands in Yugoslavia joined the Albanian puppet state, he served as State Minister, assigned as High Commissioner for Kosovo, Debar, and Struga.[3]

Arrested on April 14, 1945 by the Communist authorities. The Supreme Court of Albania sentenced him to death, executed by the firing squad in 1945,[2] leaving behind his wife and four offspring. His family would be persecuted. During all communist era, he would be recalled as "traitor, collaborationist, feudal, corrupt, and Italian agent". His son Riza Alizoti (1915-1947) was arrested and accused of being a spy and a saboteur of the petroleum fields of Kuçovë with a group of other engineers known as "Saboteurs group" (Albanian: Grupi i sabotatorëve).[12] He was executed in 10 October 1947 by hanging.[13]
A special reference would be made during the communist era to one Alizoti's famous sayings regarding higher education ("...there is intellectual overproduction in Albania"), considering that 80-85% of the Albanians were illiterate.[14][15]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

a. ^ Albanian sources place the year of birth as 1868[2][3][16] or 1876, while Elsie 1874[4][17] or 1876.[17] Mostly 1874 is more probable since Albanian sources accept as well that he finished high school in 1890.

References

  1. ^ Oliverta Lila (2012-12-02), Fejzi Alizoti, Dorëzohen kujtimet e ministrit të Ismail Qemalit [Fejzi Alizoti, the momeories of Ismail Qemali's minister were handed over] (in Albanian), Gazeta Shqip, retrieved 2014-01-29 
  2. ^ a b c Aliko, Tomor (2007), Genocide on the intellectual elite of the Albanian nation under the communist terror, Tirana: Shtypshkronja "MALUKA", p. 130, retrieved 2013-12-27 
  3. ^ a b c d Eugen Shehu (2013-09-08), Fejzi Alizoti, komisar i tokave te lirueme shqiptare [Fejzi Alizoti, commissioner of the liberated Albanian lands] (in Albanian), Dielli, retrieved 2014-01-29 
  4. ^ a b c d e Robert Elsie (March 19, 2010). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Scarecrow Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0810861886. 
  5. ^ a b Massimo Borgogni (Jan 1, 2007), Tra continuità e incertezza. Italia e Albania (1914-1939). La strategia politico-militare dell'Italia in Albania fino all'Operazione "Oltre Mare Tirana", Franco Angeli, p. 135, ISBN 978-8846487889, "...si intrattenne con Fejzi bey Alizoti, notoriamente filo-italiano,..." 
  6. ^ Gazmend Shpuza (1999), Në prag të pavarësisë [At the eve of Independence], Eagle Press, pp. 146–147, ISBN 9781891654046 
  7. ^ Sejfi Vllamasi (1995), "VI", Ballafaqime politike në Shqipëri (1897-1942): kujtime dhe vlerësime historike [Political confrontations in Albania (1897-1942): memories and political evaluations], Shtëpia Botuese "Marin Barleti", OCLC 37228559, "Fejzi Alizoti, në telegramin që i bëri Rexhep Shalës, prefekt i Shkodrës në Lezhë, i shkruante që të merrte masat e nevojëshme për moskalimin e delegatëve të Veriut për Lushnjë, dhe shtonte duke thënë se edhe Abdyl Ypi u vra…
    Mustafa Kruja në Durrës e bindi Hysni Currin, i cili ka patur një karakter të lëkundshëm, që të shkojë në Krujë në vend që të shkonte në Lushnjë, ku ish deleguar...
    Mustafa Kruja shkon në Krujë dhe urdhëron H. Berberin të mos shkojë ne Lushnjë mbasi Italia, simbas mendimit të tij, qenka e vetmja fuqi që e ndihmon Shqipërinë. Hysni Berberi e kundërshton dhe niset për Lushnjë, por Mustafa Kruja ia pret rrugën dhe me forcën e armëve e ndalon të shkojë...
    Myfit Libohova shkoi në Vlorë dhe, në bazë të marrëveshjes së fshehtë të Qeverisë së Durrësit me Komandën e Përgjithëshme Italiane në Shqipëri, mundohet ta bindë gjeneral Piaçentinin të merrte masa ushtarake kundër Kongresit të Lushnjës..."
     
  8. ^ Muin Çami (1976), Lufta e popullit shqiptar per çlirimin kombetar, 1918-1920: përmbledhje dokumentesh II, Akademia e Shkencave e RPSH, Instituti i Historisë, p. 58, LCCN 85161305, OCLC 16130971 
  9. ^ Giovanni Zamboni (1970), Mussolinis Expansionspolitik auf dem Balkan Italiens Albanienpolitik vom 1. bis z. 2. Tiranapakt im Rahmen d. italien.-jugoslaw. Interessenkonflikts u.d. italien. imperialen Bestrebungen in Südosteuropa., Hamburger historische Studien 2, p. 111, OCLC 560782883 
  10. ^ Aurela Anastasi (Jan 1, 1998), Institucionet politike dhe e drejta kushtetuese në Shqipëri (1912-1939), Luarasi, p. 128, ISBN 9789992760628 
  11. ^ Bernd Jürgen Fischer (July 1, 1999), Albania at war, 1939-1945, Central European Studies, Purdue University Press, p. 37, ISBN 978-1557531414 
  12. ^ Owen Pearson(Centre for Albanian Studies) (2006), Albania in the Twentieth Century, A Historyy, III: Albania as Dictatorship and Democracy, 1945-99, London: I. B. Tauris, pp. 221, 228, ISBN 978-1845111052 
  13. ^ Aliko, Tomor (2007), Genocide on the intellectual elite of the Albanian nation under the communist terror, Tirana: Shtypshkronja "MALUKA", p. 97, retrieved 2013-12-27 
  14. ^ Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPSH); Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë (1987). Studime filologjike 41 (1-4). Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH; Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë. p. 9. ISSN 0563-5780. OCLC 2268583. 
  15. ^ Enver Hoxha (1979), Për arsimin dhe edukatën: përmbledhje veprash, Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nëntori", p. 181, OCLC 12776728 
  16. ^ Pjetër Pepa (2003). The criminal file of Albania's communist dictator. Uegen. p. 18. ISBN 9789992754276. 
  17. ^ a b Robert Elsie (December 24, 2012). A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History. I. B. Tauris. p. 10. ISBN 978-1780764313. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Ismail Qemali
Interim Prime Minister of Albania
January 22, 1914–March 7, 1914
Succeeded by
Turhan Pashë Përmeti