Felipillo of Panama
Felipillo was the leader of a sixteenth-century maroon band in Panama. Felipillo was a Spanish speaking (Ladino) slave who managed a boat for the pearl fisheries on the Pearl Islands on Panama's Pacific side. In 1549, he led a revolt in which slaves fled the islands as well as cattle ranches on the mainland, and then fled into the mountains. From their base Felipillo and his followers raided Spanish ranches and travelers until 1551 when he and 30 of his followers were surprised and captured by Captain Francisco Carreño. Felipillo was subsequently executed and the remainder of his followers sold as slaves.
- Ruth Pike, "Black Rebels: The Cimarrons of Sixteenth Century Panama," The Americas 64/2 (2007): 245-46, citing the original source, Pedro de Aguado, Historia de Venezuela, Book 9, chapter 13.