Fell's Point, Baltimore
Fell's Point Historic District
Storefronts along the cobblestoned Thames Street
|Location||Bounded on the NORTH by Eastern Avenue, on the EAST by Chester Street, on the SOUTH by the Patapsco River and Harbor, and on the WEST by Central Avenue, southeastern Baltimore, Maryland|
|Area||75 acres (30 ha)|
|Architectural style||Italianate, Greek Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||69000319|
|Added to NRHP||March 28, 1969|
Fell's Point is a historic waterfront neighborhood in the southeastern area of the City of Baltimore, in Maryland, along the north shore of the Baltimore Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River. There are many shops, including antique stores, restaurants, coffee bars, music stores, a municipal markethouse with individual stalls, and over 120 pubs. Located just east of the famous "Inner Harbor" (formerly "The Basin") adjacent to Baltimore's downtown central business district and the Jones Falls stream (which splits the city), Fell's Point has a maritime past and has the air of a seafaring town, it has the greatest concentration of drinking establishments in the city. This waterfront community is a tourist destination. It can be reached by "water taxi" barges, expressway/interstate highways, local streets and boulevards and several municipal/state transit bus lines. The neighborhood has also been historically the home of large immigrant populations of German, Polish, and other East European nationalities such as Ukrainians, Russians, Czech/Bohemians, and Slovaks, along with Irish, throughout its 250 year-old history. Since the 1970s a steadily increasing number of middle to upper middle income residents has moved into the area, restoring and preserving historic homes and businesses. This has resulted in higher property prices, a safer neighborhood, and improved educational levels. Upper Fell's Point to the north along Broadway has gained a sizable Hispanic population, made up primarily of recent waves since the 1980s of Mexican and Central American immigrants and is sometimes now called "Spanish Town". Fell's Point is one of several areas in and around Baltimore that are listed on the National Register of Historic Districts, the first from Maryland, and is one of the first registered historic districts in the United States to combine two separate waterfront communities (along with Federal Hill to the southwest across the Patapsco River and the Harbor on the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula of "Whetstone Point" at Fort McHenry).
First described by a European seafarer as "Long Island Point" in 1670, the area later to be known as Fell's Point was a thin little peninsula jutting out southwestward between the streams of Jones Falls and Harford Run (later covered over by Central Avenue) to the west and Harris Creek to the east (now under the community of Canton) and further east to Colgate Creek (now surrounded by the Dundalk and Sea Girt Marine Terminals). Later land was patented with the title of "Copus Harbor". Nearby Baltimore Town to the west at the headwater of the Patapsco River's Northwest Branch was land patented under the name of "Cole's Harbor" and "Todd's Range" to William Cole and later sold to Charles and Daniel Carroll. This area was later established as a "port of entry" by the General Assembly of the Province of Maryland in 1706. After several local farmers and plantation owners originally planning to establish a town on the northeastern shores of the Middle Branch of the Patapsco (also known as "Ridgeley's Cove") were stymied by the objections of local owner William Moale, who thought the land was too valuable as a site of iron ore deposits. So the new town site was moved further to the northeast to the head of the Northwest Branch. Established as a town by the authority of the Colonial Assembly in 1729, several streets were laid out in the "Original Survey" with the main one being east-to-west called "Long Street" and several others intersecting north-to-south such as Forrest (later Charles), Calvert, north of "The Basin" (today's Inner Harbor) in 1730.
Joined in 1732, to the northeast along the banks of the stream "Jones Falls" (which originates in northern Baltimore County near the Pennsylvania border) by the laying out of several streets on a northwest to southeast angle by David Jones and named "Jones's Town" with streets such as Front, High, and Low. Founded by William Fell, who was attracted by its beautiful, deep water and proximity to agriculture and thick forests, Fell's Point became a shipbuilding and commercial center. About 1763, William's son Edward Fell laid out streets and began selling plots for homes. The town grew quickly, and eventually incorporated with Baltimore Town and Jones Town in 1773 to form a new Town of Baltimore and later in 1797 becoming the City of Baltimore. The area grew wealthy on the tobacco, flour, and coffee trades through the 18th and 19th centuries.
Some of the first vessels commissioned for the US Navy were built in Fell's Point shipyards, including the USS Constellation in 1797. However, the area became best known for producing topsail schooners, sometimes erroneously called Baltimore clippers, renowned for their great speed and handling. They were excellent blockade runners, and were frequently used as armed privateers. The Pride of Baltimore II is based on the Chasseur, built by Thomas Kemp, which was one of the most successful privateers built in Fell's Point.
During the War of 1812, Fell's Point built and supported dozens of privateers which preyed on British shipping vessels. Consequently Baltimore became a principal target of the British during the war, which eventually led to the bombardment of Fort McHenry.
Another growth industry in Fell's Point was immigration, and it became a major point of entry into the United States. Since jobs were plentiful in shipbuilding and in the warehouses and factories, many of the immigrants stayed in Fell's Point. This added to the multicultural fabric of the area, but also caused the more affluent to move into other parts of the city.
Fell's Point remained a shipbuilding center until the Civil War, when it could no longer handle the larger ships coming into use. Likewise, the shipping industry slowly moved away to larger facilities, and the area became a manufacturing center, with innovations in canning and packing. The neighborhood escaped serious damage during the Baltimore Fire of 1904, which destroyed the financial area downtown. Eventually, much of the manufacturing left the city, resulting in urban decay until preservationists organized to save the area's historic buildings.
In 1965 transit planners proposed to link I-83 and I-95 by building an elevated highway along the north shore of the Baltimore harbor. This project would have entailed extensive demolition within Fell's Point, and the highway would have cut off the remainder of the neighborhood from the waterfront. A freeway revolt against the proposals was raised by local residents and derailed the project. Fell's Point's addition to the National Register of Historic Places prevented the use of federal funds for the road project, and contributed to the project's cancellation. One of the leaders of the revolt was Barbara Mikulski, who was later elected a U.S. Senator from Maryland.
In 2012 a seven-year-old tavern, Ale Mary's was displaying relics (which may be made suitable for secular display by a certain process) when a Facebook page demanded that they be returned to the Catholic Church. The tavern's owner received threats about this.
Fell's Point includes a diversity of historic architecture. Flemish bond brick is used in some of the earliest homes, while row housing is prominent in eighteenth and early twentieth century construction. Gabled roof buildings and Victorian homes are also interspersed with other housing and use types.
Historic buildings include:
- The Robert Long House, built in 1765, is the oldest surviving home in Baltimore.
- The Saint Patrick Catholic Church (founded in 1792, current building completed in 1898) was damaged in the 5.3 magnitude earthquake on August 23, 2011. While the building was condemned and the steeple sustained significant damage, the building reopened for Mass on Ash Wednesday in 2012.
In 2012 Fell's Point was selected by the American Planning Association (APA) as one of the Great Places in America (neighborhood category), which "celebrates places of exemplary character, quality, and planning".
Fell's Point Fun Festival started in 1966 in response to the proposed I-95 freeway that was to run through the neighborhood. The original purpose of the festival was to raise money to help save Fell's Point and to raise awareness of the historical significance of the neighborhood and its plight. The weekend-long Fun Festival, celebrated in October, has an estimated attendance of over 700,000. The event includes entertainment, arts and crafts vendors, and cultural and culinary offerings.
Fell's Point Privateer Festival is an annual weekend-long festival in April celebrating the privateer and maritime history of Fell's Point. Activities include educational demonstrations, a pub crawl, pet costume contest, and pyrate's ball.
Fell's Point Olde Tyme Christmas Festival is held during the first weekend in December and includes a traditional Christmas market, pet costume contest, and a Reindeer Run pub crawl.
At the census of 2010, 3,168 people resided in the neighborhood, 61% white, 24.9% Hispanic, 7.4% African American, and 6.7% other. 37.0% of occupied housing units were owner-occupied, and 17.4% vacant.
68.8% of the population were employed, 3.0% were unemployed, and 27.1% were not in the labor force. The median household income was US$46,167. 7.5% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- Greff, page 52
- Andrew Scherr. "Spanish Town". Urbanite Baltimore. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Christopher T. George. "Fells Point: The Port of Early Baltimore". Baltimore A Link To The City. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- "The War of 1812". Pride of Baltimore II. Pride of Baltimore, Inc. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- Greff, pages 32-33.
- Greff, page 34.
- Rukert, page 72.
- Greff, pages 51-55
- Baltimore Sun article 9/19/2003 Retrieved 2007-01-15.
- Greff, Jacqueline, page 70
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baltimore/Fells Point.|
- Fell's Point Main Streets Web Site
- Fell's Point Web Site
- Fell's Point Baltimore
- Fell's Point Guide
- Fells Point Food and History Tours
- Fell's Point Ghost Tours
- Fell's Point Preservation Society Web Site
- Fell's Point Residents' Association Web Site
- Demographics from Neighborhood Indicators Alliance
- Baltimore, Maryland, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary