Femininity (also called feminity, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women. Femininity is socially constructed, but made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors. This makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, as both men and women can exhibit feminine traits.
Traits traditionally cited as feminine include gentleness, empathy, and sensitivity, though traits associated with femininity vary depending on location and context, and are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors. The counterpart to femininity is masculinity.
|Women in society|
|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
- 1 History
- 2 Behavior and personality
- 3 Clothing and appearance
- 4 Ideal feminine
- 5 Traditional roles
- 6 Religion
- 7 Femininity in men
- 8 Feminist views
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
Tara Williams has suggested that modern notions of femininity began during the English medieval period at the time of the bubonic plague in the 1300s. Women in the Early Middle Ages were referred to simply within their traditional roles of maiden, wife, or widow.:4 After the Black Death in England wiped out approximately half the population, traditional gender roles of wife and mother changed, and opportunities opened up for women in society. Prudence Allen has traced how the concept of "woman" changed during this period. The words femininity and womanhood are first recorded in Chaucer around 1380.
In 1949 French intellectual Simone de Beauvoir wrote that "no biological, psychological or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society" and "one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," an idea that was picked up in 1959 by Canadian-American sociologist Erving Goffman and in 1990 by American philosopher Judith Butler, who theorized that gender is not fixed or inherent but is rather a socially-defined set of practices and traits that have, over time, grown to become labelled as feminine or masculine. Goffman argued that women are socialized to present themselves as "precious, ornamental and fragile, uninstructed in and ill-suited for anything requiring muscular exertion" and to project "shyness, reserve and a display of frailty, fear and incompetence."
Second-wave feminists, influenced by de Beauvoir, believed that although biological differences between females and males were innate, the concepts of femininity and masculinity had been culturally constructed, with traits such as passivity and tenderness assigned to women and aggression and intelligence assigned to men. Girls, second-wave feminists said, were then socialized with toys, games, television and school into conforming to feminine values and behaviours. In her significant 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, American feminist Betty Friedan wrote that "no biological, psychological or economic fate determines the figure that the human female presents in society" and that "one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman," arguing that the key to women's subjugation lay in the social construction of femininity as childlike, passive and dependent, and calling for a "drastic reshaping of the cultural image of femininity."
Behavior and personality
While the defining characteristics of femininity are not universally identical, some patterns exist: gentleness, empathy, sensitivity, caring, sweetness, compassion, tolerance, nurturance, deference, and succorance are traits that have traditionally been cited as feminine.
Femininity is sometimes linked with sexual objectification and sexual appeal. Sexual passiveness, or sexual receptivity, is sometimes considered feminine while sexual assertiveness and sexual desire is sometimes considered masculine.
Ann Oakley's sex/gender dichotomy has had a considerable influence on sociologists defining masculine and feminine behavior as regulated, policed, and reproduced in our society, as well as the power structures relating to the concepts. Some queer theorists and other postmodernists, however, have rejected the sex (biology)/gender (culture) dichotomy as a "dangerous simplification".
An ongoing debate with regards to sex and psychology concerns the extent to which gender identity and gender-specific behavior is due to socialization versus inborn factors. According to Diane F. Halpern, both factors play a role, but the relative importance of each must still be investigated. The nature versus nurture question, for example, is extensively debated and is continually revitalized by new research findings. Some hold that feminine identity is partly a 'given' and partly a goal to be sought.
In 1959, researchers such as John Money and Anke Erhardt proposed the prenatal hormone theory. Their research argues that sexual organs bathe the embryo with hormones in the womb, resulting in the birth of an individual with a distinctively male or female brain; this was suggested by some to "predict future behavioral development in a masculine or feminine direction". This theory, however, has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds and remains controversial. In 2005, scientific research investigating sex and psychology showed that gender expectations and stereotype threat affect behavior, and a person's gender identity can develop as early as three years of age. Money also argued that gender identity is formed during a child's first three years.
Mary Vetterling-Braggin argues that all characteristics associated with femininity arose from early human sexual encounters which were mainly male-forced and female-unwilling, because of male and female anatomical differences. Others, such as Carole Pateman, Ria Kloppenborg, and Wouter J. Hanegraaff, argue that the definition of femininity is the result of how females must behave in order to maintain a patriarchal social system.
In his 1998 book Masculinity and Femininity: the Taboo Dimension of National Cultures, Dutch psychologist and researcher Geert Hofstede wrote that only behaviors directly connected with procreation can, strictly speaking, be described as feminine or masculine, and yet every society worldwide recognizes many additional behaviors as more suitable to females than males, and vice versa. He describes these as relatively arbitrary choices mediated by cultural norms and traditions, identifying "masculinity versus femininity" as one of five basic dimensions in his theory of cultural dimensions. Hofstede describes as feminine behaviors such as "service", "permissiveness," and "benevolence," and describes as feminine those countries stressing equality, solidarity, quality of work-life, and the resolution of conflicts by compromise and negotiation.
In Carl Jung's school of analytical psychology, the anima and animus are the two primary anthropomorphic archetypes of the unconscious mind. The anima and animus are described by Jung as elements of his theory of the collective unconscious, a domain of the unconscious that transcends the personal psyche. In the unconscious of the male it finds expression as a feminine inner personality: anima; equivalently, in the unconscious of the female it is expressed as a masculine inner personality: animus.
Julia Serano's transfeminist critique
In her 2007 book Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity, American transsexual writer and biologist Julia Serano offered a transfeminist critique of femininity, notable especially for its call to empower femininity.
In this book, I break with past attempts in feminism and queer theory to dismiss femininity by characterizing it as “artificial” or “performance.” Instead, I argue that certain aspects of femininity (as well as masculinity) are natural and can both precede socialization and supersede biological sex. For these reasons, I believe that it is negligent for feminists to only focus on those who are female-bodied, or for transgender activists to only talk about binary gender norms, as no form of gender equity can ever truly be achieved until we first work to empower all forms of femininity.
Serano notes that some behaviours, such as frequent smiling or avoiding eye contact with strangers, are considered feminine because they are practiced disproportionately by women, and likely have resulted from women's attempts to negotiate through a world which is sometimes hostile to them. :322
Serano argues that because contemporary culture is sexist, it assigns negative connotations to, or trivializes, behaviours understood to be feminine such as gossiping, behaving emotionally or decorating. It also recasts and reimagines femininity through a male heterosexual lens, for example interpreting women's empathy and altruism as husband-and-child-focused rather than globally-focused, and interpreting women's interest in aesthetics as intended solely to entice or attract men.:327–8 She writes that femininity is frequently understood as perplexing and mysterious, and notes that words like spell-binding and enchanting are often used to describe feminine women, illustrating that men don't need to understand and appreciate women's experiences in the same way in which women must understand and appreciate theirs, and indeed that men are discouraged from doing so.:292–3
Clothing and appearance
In Western cultures, the ideal of feminine appearance has traditionally included long, flowing hair, light skin, a narrow waist, and little or no body hair or facial hair. In other cultures, however, expectations are different. For example, in many parts of the world, underarm hair is not considered unfeminine. In contemporary Western culture thinness and femininity are linked, but in past eras heavy women were considered more feminine than thin ones. :322 Similarly, today the color pink is strongly associated with femininity, whereas in the early 1900s pink was associated with boys and blue with girls.
These feminine ideals of beauty have been criticized by feminists and others as restrictive, unhealthy, and even racist. In particular, the prevalence of anorexia and other eating disorders in Western countries has frequently been blamed on the modern feminine ideal of thinness.
Cultural standards vary a great deal on what is considered feminine. For example, in 16th century France, high heels were considered a distinctly masculine type of shoe, though they are currently considered feminine.
In Ancient Egypt, sheath and beaded net dresses were considered female clothing, while wraparound dresses, perfumes, cosmetics, and elaborate jewelry were worn by both men and women. In Ancient Persia, clothing was generally unisex, though women wore veils and headscarves. Women in Ancient Greece wore himations; and in Ancient Rome women wore the Palla, a rectangular mantle, and the maphorion.
Body alteration is the deliberate altering of the human body for aesthetic or non-medical purpose. One such purpose has been to induce perceived feminine characteristics in women.
For centuries in Imperial China, smaller feet were considered to be a more aristocratic characteristic in women. The practice of foot binding was intended to enhance this characteristic, though it often made walking difficult and painful.
In a few parts of Africa and Asia, neck rings are worn in order to elongate the neck. In these cultures, a long neck characterizes feminine beauty. The Padaung of Burma and Tutsi women of Burundi, for instance, practice this form of body modification.
In China until the twentieth century, tiny, bound feet for women were considered aristocratic and feminine
What is considered as the ideal feminine is defined by each individual culture based on what that culture considers valuable, and is often the subject of heated debate.
In men's view
Men's perceptions of feminine beauty range widely among different cultures. In 1883, Francis Galton first noticed that averageness or koinophilia is a strong indicator of physical beauty. Today, a multi-billion-dollar industry exists around what men find feminine.
Studies show that men in Indo-European cultures find ideal feminine proportions that fit a 0.7 waist–hip ratio as most attractive. Physiologists have shown that women with hourglass figures are more fertile than other women due to higher levels of certain female hormones, a fact that may subconsciously condition males choosing mates.
In Japan, the term "yamato nadeshiko", meaning the "personification of an idealized Japanese woman", or "the epitome of pure, feminine beauty"., is often used referring to a girl or shy young woman  and, in a contemporary context, nostalgically of women with "good" traits which are perceived as being increasingly rare.
In popular culture
In 1959, the Barbie fashion doll was introduced as a feminine ideal of modern aesthetic beauty by Mattel, in the United States. While there are those who hold Barbie to be the feminine ideal, Barbie's anatomical proportions are exaggerated and do not, for example, meet the aesthetic proportions that men in Indo-European cultures find most attractive. This icon of femininity, in the views of some, attracts a wide international audience of women and men. She has been used as a teaching tool for femininity. One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic and unattainable idea of feminine beauty and fits the weight criteria for anorexia.
In China, female consumers rejected Barbie's ideal of feminine beauty and its image for women as extraneously sexy. In Iran, the feminine ideals and independent lifestyle represented by Barbie are considered a threat to Iranian values, "more harmful than an American missile." In Saudi Arabia Barbie was banned for the same reason, by the religious police as a moral threat to Islam.
In 1975 American film critic, academic and screenwriter Marjorie Rosen wrote in her book Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, & the American Dream that the film industry presents a distorted image of femininity that reflects prevailing societal values. In 1987 American film critic Molly Haskell wrote that film not only reflects but reinforces society's accepted gender role definitions, saying "film is a rich field for the mining of female stereotypes... If we we see stereotypes in film, it's because stereotypes existed in society."
Communist revolutionaries initially depicted idealized womanhood as muscular, plainly-dressed and strong, with good female communists shown as undertaking hard manual labour, using guns, and eschewing self-adornment. Contemporary Western journalists portrayed communist states as the enemy of traditional femininity, describing women in communist countries as "mannish" perversions. In revolutionary China in the 1950s, Western journalists described Chinese women as "drably dressed, usually in sloppy slacks and without makeup, hair waves or nail polish" and wrote that "Glamour was communism's earliest victim in China. You can stroll the cheerless streets of Peking all day, without seeing a skirt or a sign of lipstick; without thrilling to the faintest breath of perfume; without hearing the click of high heels, or catching the glint of legs sheathed in nylon." In communist Poland, changing from high heels to worker's boots symbolized women's shift from the bourgeois to socialism."
Later the initial state portrayals of idealized femininity as strong and hard-working began to also include more traditional notions such as gentleness, caring and nurturing behaviour, softness, modesty and moral virtue, :53 requiring good Communist women to become "superheroes who excelled in all spheres," including working at jobs not traditionally regarded as feminine in nature. :55–60
Communist ideology explicitly rejected some aspects of traditional femininity that it viewed as bourgeois and consumerist, such as helplessness, idleness and self-adornment. In Communist countries, some women resented not having access to cosmetics and fashionable clothes. In her 1993 book of essays How We Survived Communism & Even Laughed, Croatian journalist and novelist Slavenka Drakulic wrote about "a complaint I heard repeatedly from women in Warsaw, Budapest, Prague, Sofia, East Berlin: 'Look at us - we don't even look like women. There are no deodorants, perfumes, sometimes even no soap or toothpaste. There is no fine underwear, no pantyhose, no nice lingerie"  :31 and "Sometimes I think the real Iron Curtain is made of silky, shiny images of pretty women dressed in wonderful clothes, of pictures from women's magazines ... The images that cross the borders in magazines, movies or videos are therefore more dangerous than any secret weapon, because they make one desire that 'otherness' badly enough to risk one's life trying to escape."  :28–9
As Communist countries such as Romania and the Soviet Union began to liberalize, their official media began representing women in more conventionally-feminine ways compared with the "rotund farm workers and plain-Jane factory hand" depictions they had previously been publishing. As perfumes, cosmetics and fashionable clothing and footwear became available to ordinary women in the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Yugoslavia and Hungary, they began to be presented not as bourgeois frivolities but as signs of socialist modernity. In China, with the economic liberation started by Deng Xiaoping in the 1980s, the state stopped discouraging women from expressing conventional femininity, and gender stereotypes and commercialized sexualization of women which had been suppressed under Communist ideology began to rise.
Gender stereotypes can influence traditional feminine occupations, resulting in microaggression toward women who break traditional gender roles. These stereotypes include that women have a caring nature, have skill at household-related work, have greater manual dexterity than men, are more honest than men, and have a more attractive physical appearance. Occupational roles associated with these stereotypes include: midwife, teacher, accountant, data entry clerk, cashier, salesperson, receptionist, housekeeper, cook, maid, social worker, and nurse. Occupational segregation maintains gender inequality and gender pay gap.
These associations are now considered outdated in much of the world, although certain specializations, such as surgery and emergency medicine, are dominated by a masculine culture and have a higher salary.
Leadership is associated with masculinity in Western cultures, and women are perceived less favorably as potential leaders. However, some people have argued that the "feminine"-style leadership, which is associated with leadership that focuses on help and cooperation, is advantageous over "masculine" leadership, which is associated with focusing on tasks and control. Female leaders are more often described by Western media using characteristics associated with femininity, such as emotion. Role Congruity Theory, which proposes that people tend to view deviations from expected gender roles negatively, is sometimes used to explain why people have a tendency to evaluate behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman.
Explanations for occupational imbalance
It has been argued that primary sex characteristics of men and women, such as the ability to bear children, caused a historical sexual division of labor and gender stereotypes evolved culturally to perpetuate this division.
The practice of bearing children tends to interrupt the continuity of employment. According to human capital theory, this retracts from the female investment in higher education and employment training. Richard Anker of the International Labour Office argues human capital theory does not explain the sexual division of labor because many occupations tied to feminine roles, such as administrative assistance, require more knowledge, experience, and continuity of employment than unskilled masculinized occupations, such as truck driving. Anker argues the feminization of certain occupations limits employment options for women.
Role Congruity Theory, which proposes that people tend to view deviations from expected roles negatively, supports the empirical evidence that gender discrimination exists in areas traditionally associated with one gender or the other.
Shamanism may have originated as early as the paleolithic period, predating all organized religions. Archeological finds have suggested that the earliest known shamans were female, and contemporary shamanic roles such as the Korean mudang continue to be filled primarily by women.
In Hindu traditions, Devi is the female aspect of the divine. Shakti is the divine feminine creative power, the sacred force that moves through the entire universe and the agent of change. She is the female counterpart without whom the male aspect, which represents consciousness or discrimination, remains impotent and void. As the female manifestation of the supreme lord, she is also called Prakriti, the basic nature of intelligence by which the Universe exists and functions. In Hinduism, the universal creative force Yoni is feminine, with inspiration being the life force of creation.
In Taoism, the concept of yin represents the primary force of the female half of yin and yang. The yin is also present, to a smaller proportion, in the male half. The yin can be characterized as slow, soft, yielding, diffuse, cold, wet, and passive.
In Judeo-Christian theology
Although the Judeo-Christian God is typically described in masculine terms—such as father, king, warrior—many theologians argue that this is not meant to indicate the gender of God. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, God "is neither man nor woman: he is God." Several recent writers, such as Sally McFague, have explored the idea of "God as mother", examining the feminine qualities attributed to God. For example, in the Book of Isaiah, God is compared to a mother comforting her child, while in the Book of Deuteronomy, God is said to have given birth to Israel.
The Book of Genesis describes divine creation of the world out of nothing or ex nihilo. In Wisdom literature and in the wisdom tradition, wisdom is described as feminine. In many books of the Old Testament, including Wisdom and Sirach, wisdom is personified and called "she." According to David Winston, because wisdom is God's "creative agent," she must be intimately identified with God.
The Wisdom of God is feminine in Hebrew: Chokhmah, in Arabic: Hikmah, in Greek: Sophia, and in Latin: Sapientia. In Hebrew, both Shekhinah (the Holy Spirit and divine presence of God) and Ruach HaKodesh (divine inspiration) are feminine.
In the Jewish Kabbalah, Chokhmah (wisdom and intuition) is the force in the creative process that God used to create the heavens and the earth. Binah (understanding and perception) is the great mother, the feminine receiver of energy and giver of form. Binah receives the intuitive insight from Chokhmah and dwells on it in the same way that a mother receives the seed from the father, and keeps it within her until it's time to give birth. The intuition, once received and contemplated with perception, leads to the Creation of the Universe.
Femininity in men
In many cultures, men who behave in ways associated with femininity are described as third gender or intersex and accepted in society. In Eastern culture, the ability to cross between the realms of male and female is seen as mediating between the worlds of the spirit and the mundane.
Femininity is not necessarily related to a man's sexuality. Men who wear clothing associated with femininity are often called cross-dressers. A drag queen is a man who wears women's clothing and behaves in an extremely feminine manner for entertainment purposes. In 2014, Conchita Wurst challenged the idea of masculine and feminine beauty as the winner of the Eurovision Song Contest. She appeared as an attractive feminine woman with a full beard.
|Part of a series on|
Feminist philosophers such as Judith Butler and Simone de Beauvoir contend that femininity and masculinity are created through repeated performances of gender; these performances reproduce and define the traditional categories of sex and/or gender.
Many second-wave feminists reject what they regard as constricting standards of female beauty, created for the subordination and objectifying of women and self-perpetuated by reproductive competition and women's own aesthetics.
Others, such as lipstick feminists and some other third-wave feminists, argue that feminism shouldn't devalue feminine culture and identity, and that symbols of feminine identity such as make-up, suggestive clothing and having a sexual allure can be valid and empowering personal choices for both sexes.
Julia Serano notes that masculine girls and women face much less social disapproval than feminine boys and men, which she attributes to sexism. Serano argues that women wanting to be like men is consistent with the idea that maleness is more valued in contemporary culture than femaleness, whereas men being willing to give up masculinity in favour of femininity directly threatens the notion of male superiority as well as the idea that men and women should be opposites. To support her thesis, Serano cites the far greater public scrutiny and disdain experienced by male-to-female cross-dressers compared with that faced by women who dress in masculine clothes, as well as research showing that parents are likelier to respond negatively to sons who like Barbie dolls and ballet or wear nail polish, than they are to daughters exhibiting comparably masculine behaviours.:284–292
- Feminine psychology
- Feminization (sociology)
- Gender studies
- Gender role
- Nature versus nurture
- Sociology of gender
- "Feminity vs. femininity", Grammarist.
- Marianne van den Wijngaard (1997). Reinventing the sexes: the biomedical construction of femininity and masculinity. Race, gender, and science. Indiana University Press. pp. 171 pages. ISBN 0-253-21087-9. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Hale Martin, Stephen Edward Finn (2010). Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. U of Minnesota Press. pp. 310 pages. ISBN 0-8166-2445-3. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Richard Dunphy (2000). Sexual politics: an introduction. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 240 pages. ISBN 0-7486-1247-5. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 269–272. ISBN 0-8400-3204-8.
- Gender, Women and Health: What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?' The World Health Organization
- Vetterling-Braggin, Mary "Femininity," "masculinity," and "androgyny": a modern philosophical discussion
- Worell, Judith, Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender, Volume 1 Elsevier, 2001, ISBN 0-12-227246-3, ISBN 978-0-12-227246-2
- Thomas, R. Murray (2000). Recent Theories of Human Development. Sage Publications. p. 248. ISBN 0761922474. "Gender feminists also consider traditional feminine traits (gentleness, modesty, humility, sacrifice, supportiveness, empathy, compassion, tenderness, nurturance, intuitiveness, sensitivity, unselfishness) morally superior to the traditional masculine traits of courage, strong will, ambition, independence,assertiveness, iniative, rationality and emotional control."
- Witt, edited by Charlotte (2010). Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and Identity. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 77. ISBN 90-481-3782-9.
- Manifestations of Venus: art and sexuality pg 93 By Katie Scott, Caroline Arscott pg 93-"...began its consideration of Venus by describing her as .... who presided over all feminine charms, for..."
- The Pacific muse pg 49 By Patty O'Brien "The young beautiful Venus wringing water from her tresses was a configuration of exotic femininity that was…
- Williams, Tara (2011). Inventing Womanhood: Gender and Language in Later Middle English Writing. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0814211518.
- Allen, Volume 2, The Early Humanist Reformation, Part 1, p. 6.
- "c1386 CHAUCER Man of Law's T. 262 O serpent under femynynytee.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- "c1374 CHAUCER Troylus I. 283 Alle here lymes so wel answerynge Weren to womanhode.". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- de Beauvoir, Simone (2010). The Second Sex. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0307265560.
- Erving Goffman (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Anchor. ISBN 0385094027.
- Butler, Judith (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge. ISBN 0415389550.
- Milestone, Katie (2011). Gender and Popular Culture. Polity. ISBN 0745643949.
- Ziegler, Kathryn A. (2010). "Formidable-Femininity": Performing Gender and Third Wave Feminism in a Women's Self-Defense Class. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 3838307674.
- Millett, Kate (1968). Sexual Politics.
- Hollows, Joanne (2000). Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture. Manchester University Press. pp. 10–12. ISBN 0719043956.
- Friedan, Betty (2013). The Feminine Mystique. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393063798.
- Jaggar, Alison M. (1989). Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing. Rutgers University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0813513790.
- Gamble, Sarah (2002). The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. Routledge. p. 29. ISBN 0415243106.
- Positive Peer Culture pg 22 By Harry H. Vorrath, Larry K. Brendtro "Still, almost all girls have clearly been socialized toward positive caring behavior"
- Introduction to Psychology – Page 184 By James W. Kalat "and so are positive feminine traits (compassion, tolerance, etc.)
-  The Methodologies of Art: An Intrduction (Boulder: Westview Press, 1996), 81. Laurie Schneider Adams"[Young Woman Drawing] 'suddenly acquired feminine attributes: Its poetry, literary … all seem to reveal the feminine spirit."
- Ria Kloppenborg, Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Female stereotypes in religious traditions, BRILL, 1995, ISBN 90-04-10290-6, ISBN 978-90-04-10290-3
- Ussher, Jane M. Fantasies of femininity: reframing the boundaries of sex
- Pamela J. Kalbfleisch, Michael J. Cody (1995). Gender, power, and communication in human relationships. Psychology Press. p. 333. ISBN 0-8058-1404-3. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- Halpern, Diane F, Sex Differences In Cognitive Abilities, 2000
- "C. Burke: ''The Quest for Feminine Identity''". Cormacburke.or.ke. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Ehrhardt, Anke A.; H. F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg (1981). "Effects of Prenatal Sex Hormones on Gender-Related Behavior". Science 211 (4488): 1312–1318. doi:10.1126/science.7209510.
- Bem, Sandra Lipsitz (1993). The Lenses of Gender: Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. New Haven u.a.: Yale University Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 0-300-05676-1.
- Ann M. Gallagher, James C. Kaufman, Gender differences in mathematics: an integrative psychological approach, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-82605-5, ISBN 978-0-521-82605-1
- Pateman, Carole (1988). The Sexual Contract, Stanford: Stanford University Press, p. 207.
- Hofstede, Geert (1998). Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures. SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 0761910298. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- "Nationa Culture: Dimensions". The Hofstede Centre. Retrieved 14 August 2013. "The masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented."
- Jung, Carl. The Psychology of the Unconscious, Dvir Co., Ltd., Tel-Aviv, 1973 (originally 1917)
- Serano, Julia (2007). Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity. Berkeley: Seal Press. ISBN 1580051545. "Until feminists work to empower femininity and pry it away from the insipid, inferior meanings that plague it - weakness, helplessness, fragility, passivity, frivolity, and artificiality - those meanings will continue to haunt every person who is female and/or feminine."
- Rasmussen, Debbie (2007). "Risk: Feminine Protection (interview with Julia Serano)". Bitch. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. "The rising visibility of trans, intersex, and genderqueer movements has led feminists—and, to a lesser extent, the rest of the world—to an increasing awareness that m and f are only the beginning of the story of gender identity. With the release of Whipping Girl: A Transsexual Woman on Sexism and the Scapegoating of Femininity, Julia Serano offers a perspective sorely needed, but up until now rarely heard: a transfeminine critique of both feminist and mainstream understandings of gender."
- Lesnik-Oberstein, Karín (2010). The Last Taboo: Women and Body Hair (Paperback edition ed.). Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-8323-0.
- Davis, Kathy (2003). Dubious Equalities and Embodied Differences: Cultural Studies on Cosmetic Surgery. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 93. ISBN 0-7425-1421-8.
- McLoughlin, Linda (2000). The Language of Magazines. London: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 0-415-21424-6.
- Bolich, G. G. (2007). Conversing on Gender. Gardners Books. p. 315. ISBN 0615156703.
- Taylor, Verta (2008). Feminist Frontiers (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-07-340430-1.
- Mahowald, Mary Briody (1996). Women and Children in Health Care: An Unequal Majority (New ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 210–213. ISBN 978-0-19-510870-5.
- Brown, William, Art of shoe making, Global Media, 2007, 8189940295, 9788189940294
- Kremer, William (24 January 2013). "Why did men stop wearing high heels?". BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
- Condra, Jill, The Greenwood encyclopedia of clothing through world history: Prehistory to 1500 CE, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, ISBN 0-313-33663-6, ISBN 978-0-313-33663-8
- "What is body modification?". Essortment.com. May 16, 1986. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Binding: Bone Breaking Beauty, August, 2009". Cogitz.com. August 29, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "The Art of Social Change: Campaigns against foot-binding and genital mutilation". The New York Times. October 22, 2010.
- Kislenko, Arne. Culture and customs of Thailand. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-313-32128-3.
- Thesander, Marianne. The feminine ideal. London: Reaktion Books, 1997, ISBN 978-1-86189-004-7.
- Walker, Andrew. Bound by tradition. Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
- Singh, Devendra; Young, Robert K. (2001-06-27). "Body Weight, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Breasts, and Hips: Role in Judgments of Female Attractiveness and Desirability for Relationships" (PDF). Ethology and Sociobiology 16 (6): 483–507. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(95)00074-7.Measure of attractiveness
- Utton, Tim. "Born mothers have curvy hips | Mail Online". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 2010-05-31.
- Kenkyūsha's New Japanese-English Dictionary (5th edition, 2003
- Yang Ch’ien-ho and the Work of Writing Modern Selfhood. Satoko Kakihara1 University of California, San Diego
- Blackberries in the Dream House by Diane Frank. 1st World Publishing, 2003
- Yomouri Web: (Japanese)
- "1876: Cape women proclaimed feminine ideal". Capecodtoday.com. January 13, 2002. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- The feminine ideal. Google Books. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Why Barbie is perceived as beautiful. by AM Magro ] Abstract Percept Mot Skills. 1997 Aug;85(1):363-74. "anatomical proportions of the Barbie doll are exaggerated"
- Barbie#Controversies 18 inches/33 inches= 0.545
- "Barbie Nation: An Unauthorized Tour.(Review)". Highbeam.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Barbie Nation: An Unauthorized Tour (Collectors' Edition).(Video recording review)". Accessmylibrary.com. January 1, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Barbie: The Early History". Universityhonors.umd.edu. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- What would a real Barbie look like? BBC News, March 6, 2009
- Pierson, David (March 8, 2011). "Barbie closes shop in China". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- HULIQ (March 7, 2011). "Shanghai's female shoppers reject Barbie doll image and fashion". Huliq.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Muslim dolls tackle 'wanton' Barbie". BBC News. March 5, 2002. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- "Saudi Religious Police Say Barbie Is a Moral Threat". Fox News. September 10, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Hollows, Joanne (2000). Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture. University of Manchester Press. pp. 2–140. ISBN 0719043956.
- Brown, Archie (2009). The Rise and Fall of Communism (1st U.S. ed. ed.). New York: Ecco. p. 70. ISBN 0061138797.
- al.], ed. by Christina K. Gilmartin, Gail Hershatter, Lisa Rofel...[et (1994). Engendering China: Women, Culture, and the State. Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press. p. 304. ISBN 0674253329.
- Lanzona, Vina A. (2009). Amazons of the Huk Rebellion: Gender, Sex, and Revolution in the Philippines (New Perspectives in Southeast Asian Studies). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0299230944.
- Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0521484979.
- Strahan, Lachlan (1996). Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 234–240. ISBN 0521484979.
- S.Turner, edited by Bryan; Yangwen, Zheng (2009). The Body in Asia. New York: Berghahn Books. p. 183. ISBN 1845455509.
- Fidelis, Malgorzata (2010). Women, Communism, and Industrialization in Postwar Poland (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 113. ISBN 0521196876.
- Fawn, ed. by Rick; White, Stephen (2002). Russia after Communism (1. publ. ed.). London [u.a.]: Cass. ISBN 0714652938.
- Drakulić, Slavenka (2003). How we Survived Communism and even Laughed (1. HarperPerennial ed., repr. ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 0060975407.
- Bren, edited by Paulina; Neuburger, Mary. Communism Unwrapped: Consumption in Cold War Eastern Europe. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 230. ISBN 0199827672.
- Halpern, Diane F. and Fanny M. Cheung (2010). Women at the Top: Powerful Leaders Tell Us How to Combine Work and Family. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405171052.
- Derald, Sue (2010). Microaggressions in everyday life: race, gender, and sexual orientation. US, Canada: John Wiley and Sons. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-470-49140-9.
- Anker, Richard (2001). Gender and Jobs: Sex Segregation of Occupations in the World (2. impr. with modifications. ed.). Geneva: International Labour Office. pp. 23–30. ISBN 978-92-2-109524-8.
- "Women's Rights Law Reporter". Litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (August 11, 2009). "More British women in 'high status' professions than men, finds study". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Boulis, Ann K.; Jacobs, Jerry A. (2010). The Changing Face of Medicine: Women Doctors and the Evolution of Health Care in America. Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR. pp. 94–98. ISBN 978-0-8014-7662-4.
- "Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, 2012 Provisional Results". UK: Office for National Statistics.
- Rogers, Simon (22 November 2012). "What each job gets paid: find yours and see how it compares". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Chin, Jean Lau, Women and leadership: transforming visions and diverse voices Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-5582-5, ISBN 978-1-4051-5582-3
- Klenke, Karin, Women and Leadership: A Contextual Perspective , Springer Publishing Company, 2004 ISBN 0-8261-9221-1, ISBN 978-0-8261-9221-9
- Eagly, Alice H. & Steven J. Karau (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.Psychological Review, Vol 109, No. 3, pp. 573–598, doi:10.1037/0033-295X.109.3.573.
- Heilman, Madeline E., Aaron S. Wallen, Daniella Fuchs, and Melinda M. Tamkins (2004). Penalties for Success: Reactions to Women Who Succeed at Male Gender-Typed Tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 416–427.
- Rudman, Laurie A. & Peter Glick (2001). Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes and Backlash Towards Agentic Women. Journal of Social Issues, Vol, 57, No. 4, pp. 743–762.
- Heilman, Madeline E. (2001.) Description and Prescription: How Gender Stereotypes Prevent Women's Ascent Up the Organizational Ladder. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 657–674.
- Schein, Virginia E. (2001). A Global Look at Psychological Barriers to Women's Progress in Management. Journal of Social Issues, Vol, 57, No. 4, pp. 675–688.
- Barbara Tedlock The woman in the shaman's body: reclaiming the feminine in religion and medicine,Random House Digital, Inc., 2005
- Jean Clottes. "Shamanism in Prehistory". Bradshaw foundation. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- Karl J. Narr. "Prehistoric religion". Britannica online encyclopedia 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-28.
- Tedlock, Barbara. 2005. The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York: Bantam.
- Lee, Jung Yong (August 1973). "Concerning the Origin and Formation of Korean Shamanism". Numen 20 (2): 135–159. doi:10.1163/156852773x00321.
- Oak, Sung-Deuk (2010). "Healing and Exorcism: Christian Encounters with Shamanism in Early Modern Korea". Asian Ethnology 69 (1): 95–128.
- Sacred Sanskrit words, p.111
- Osgood, Charles E. "From Yang and Yin to and or but." Language 49.2 (1973): 380–412 . JSTOR. Nov. 16, 2008 <http://www.jstor.org/search>.
- McGrath, Alister E. (2010). Christian Theology: An Introduction (5th ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 197–199. ISBN 1-4443-3514-6.
- David Winston, The Wisdom of Solomon: a new translation with introduction and commentary, (New York, Doubleday, 1979), p. 194 ISBN 0-385-01644-1
- "The Kabbalah Of Isaac Luria Glossary". Christ-centeredkabbalah.org. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Sell, Ingrid M. “Third gender: A qualitative study of the experience of individuals who identify as being neither man nor woman.” The Psychotherapy Patient. 13.1/2 (2004): p.132
- Why do gays fall for straights? The Advocate, Feb 17, 1998, 72 pages, No. 753, ISSN 0001-8996, Published by Here Publishing
- Pezzote, Angelo Straight Acting: Gay Men, Masculinity and Finding True Love, Kensington Publishing Corp., 2008, ISBN 0-7582-1943-1, ISBN 978-0-7582-1943-5
- Bailey, J. Michael (2003). The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press, ISBN 978-0-309-08418-5
- Fellows, Will, A Passion to Preserve: Gay Men as Keepers of Culture, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2005, ISBN 0-299-19684-4, ISBN 978-0-299-19684-4
- cross-dress." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
- Singer Conchita Wurst representing Austria
- Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York; Routledge.
- "Sally Feldman – Heights of madness". New Humanist. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Scanlon, Jennifer, Bad girls go everywhere: the life of Helen Gurley Brown, Oxford University Press US, 2009, ISBN 0-19-534205-4, ISBN 978-0-19-534205-5
- Joanne Hollows; Rachel Moseley (February 17, 2006). Feminism in popular culture. Berg Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-84520-223-1. http://books.google.com/books?