Fenchurch Street railway station
|London Fenchurch Street|
Main entrance on Fenchurch Place
Location of Fenchurch Street in Central London
|Local authority||City of London|
|Number of platforms||4|
|National Rail annual entry and exit|
|Original company||London and Blackwall Railway|
|Pre-grouping||Great Eastern Railway|
|Post-grouping||London and North Eastern Railway|
|Listed feature||Front block|
|Added to list||14 April 1972|
|Lists of stations|
| London Transport portal
UK Railways portalCoordinates:
Fenchurch Street, also known as London Fenchurch Street, is a central London railway terminus located on Fenchurch Place, off Fenchurch Street, in the southeastern corner of the City of London. It is one of the smallest railway termini in London in terms of platforms but one of the most intensively operated.
Uniquely among London termini, Fenchurch Street does not have a direct link to the London Underground, although a secondary entrance on Cooper's Row (also known as the Tower entrance) is close to Tower Hill tube station and Tower Gateway DLR station, while Aldgate tube station is also nearby. It was formerly a station in the United Kingdom managed directly by Network Rail, but this is no longer the case, with the station managed by the sole operator into the station, c2c. 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2012)|
The station facade is of grey stock brick and has a rounded gable roof. In the 1870s a flat awning over the entrance was replaced with the zig-zag canopy seen today. Above, the first floor facade has 11 round-arched windows, and above these is the station clock.
Fenchurch Street has four platforms arranged on two islands elevated on a viaduct. The station operates at capacity, especially during peak hours. To avoid overcrowding of the station, trains arriving during the morning peak period use alternate island platforms whenever possible. Office blocks (including the 15-storey One America Square) have been built above the station platforms in two places with only one short section of canopied platform and another short section of exposed platform.
The station has two exits: a main entrance to Fenchurch Place, just off Fenchurch Street itself, and another on Cooper's Row with access to the nearby Tower Hill tube station. The main station concourse is arranged on two levels connected by stairs, escalators and lifts. There is a ticket office and automatic ticket barriers at each entrance and retail outlets located on both levels of the station.
The station was the first to be constructed inside the City of London; the original was designed by William Tite and opened on 20 July 1841 for the London and Blackwall Railway (L&BR), replacing a nearby terminus named Minories that had opened in July 1840.
The station was rebuilt in 1854, following a design by George Berkley, adding a vaulted roof and the main facade. The station became the London terminus of the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway (LT&SR) in 1858; additionally, from 1850 until the opening of Broad Street station in 1865 it was also the City terminus of the North London Railway (NLR).
The Great Eastern Railway (GER) used the station as an alternative to the increasingly overcrowded Liverpool Street station for the last part of the 19th and first half of the 20th century over the routes of the former Eastern Counties Railway. The L&BR effectively closed in 1926 after the cessation of passenger services east of Stepney (now Limehouse). When the former Eastern Counties lines transferred to the Underground's Central line in 1948 the LT&SR became the sole user of the station.
Fenchurch Street station was the location of the first railway bookstall in the City of London, operated by William Marshall.
Connection to the Underground
In the 1970s Fenchurch Street was considered an integral part of the proposed Fleet line. This would have brought it into the London Underground network. An extension from the end of the existing track terminus at Charing Cross to Fenchurch Street via Aldwych and Ludgate Circus would then have seen the line go on to a destination in east London, most probably via a new station at St Katharine Docks. Political wrangling delayed the extension, despite being considered the highest priority transport project in the city, and when in 1999 the extension was finally completed as part of the Jubilee line the route did not go through Fenchurch Street but instead went south of the River Thames before cutting back northwards at North Greenwich. Fenchurch Street remains isolated from the London Underground network, although within close walking distance of Tower Hill tube station and is shown on the tube map next to Tower Hill's marker.
Accidents and incidents
- On 1 August 1859, two trains were involved in a low-speed head-on collision at Fenchurch Street after an arriving North Woolwich service erroneously passed a red signal and struck a stationary Tilbury service. No-one was injured.
- On 28 November 1860, a track defect caused the first four carriages of a departing train to leave the line at low speed. No-one was injured.
- On 24 June 1872, a service arriving from Bow came into collision with the buffers at the platform end at Fenchurch Street, resulting in injury to three passengers.
- On 17 August 1872, two people were injured when their service collided with an empty train being shunted out of a siding.
- On 2 September 1903, 11 passengers and one crew member were injured when a train hit the buffers as it arrived at Fenchurch Street.
- On 3 February 1912, approximately 86 people were injured when a train hit the buffers as it arrived at Fenchurch Street from Westcliff. It was estimated that 860 passengers were aboard at the time. Driver error and excessive speed were blamed for the incident.
- On 26 January 1927, 10 people were injured in a head-on collision and subsequent derailment caused by defects in the signal detection and signals at Fenchurch Street.
Since 2006 Fenchurch Street is served by the train operating company c2c, with services towards east London and south Essex. The typical off-peak service consists of eight trains per hour (tph) arriving and departing Fenchurch Street:
|2||Shoeburyness||via Basildon||not stopping at Limehouse, West Horndon or Pitsea|
|2||Shoeburyness||via Basildon||all stations|
|2||Southend Central||via Ockendon||all stations|
|2||Grays||via Rainham||all stations|
During peak periods services are increased to 20 tph with additional trains operating between Laindon and London while others run non-stop to and from Benfleet.
|Preceding station||National Rail||Following station|
London, Tilbury & Southend Line
London Buses route 40 serves the station.
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- Fenchurch Street is one of the four railway stations featured on the standard UK Monopoly board. The others are Liverpool Street, Marylebone and King's Cross.
- The character Fenchurch in Douglas Adams' So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish was named after Fenchurch Street station, where she was conceived in the ticket queue.
- The name of the clothing brand Fenchurch is derived from the station.
- In Jerome K. Jerome's novel Three Men on the Bummel, the characters start their journey in Fenchurch Street station.
- In the Book Dracula, by Bram Stoker, Dr. John Seward and Mrs. Mina Harker take the Underground to Fenchurch Street after they have met for the first time.
Cooper's Row entrance for access to Tower Hill tube station
- "Out of Station Interchanges" (Microsoft Excel). Transport for London. May 2010. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12.
- "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
- "The National Heritage List for England". English Heritage. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Station facilities for London Fenchurch Street". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "Commercial information". Our Stations. London: Network Rail. April 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- NetworkRail.co.uk – Fenchurch Street
- "Economic influences on growth: Local transport". A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5. 1966. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
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