Fenghuang County (simplified Chinese: 凤凰县; traditional Chinese: 鳳凰縣; pinyin: Fènghuáng Xiàn; literally: "phoenix") is under the administration of Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hunan province, China, bordering the prefecture-level cities of Huaihua to the southeast and Tongren (Guizhou) to the west. It has an exceptionally well-preserved ancient town that harbors unique ethnic languages, customs, arts as well as many distinctive architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles. The town is placed in a mountain setting, incorporating the natural flow of water into city layout. Over half of the city's population belong to the Miao or Tujia minorities. It was the center of the unsuccessful Miao Rebellion (1854–73), which created a Miao diaspora in Southeast Asia during the last two centuries. The city is revered in Miao traditions and funeral rites and is the location of the Southern China Great Wall (中国南方长城; 中國南方長城; Zhōngguó Nánfāng Chángchéng; Miao: "Suav Tuam Choj"), a fortification built by the Ming dynasty to protect the local Han Chinese from Miao attacks.
The door to the government office built in the 1920s. The writing on top of the door reads "Fenghuang County"
The ancient town of Fenghuang was added to the UNESCOWorld Heritage Tentative List on March 28, 2008 in the Cultural category. This ancient town was regarded as the most beautiful town in China by New Zealand writer Rewi Alley. It was built in the 43rd year of the Kangxi era (1704), and has 300 years of history. The ancient city is a gathering place for Miao and Tujia ethnic minority.