Ferguson, Missouri

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Ferguson, Missouri
City
City of Ferguson
Motto: Proud Past. Promising Future.
Location within St. Louis County (left) and Missouri (right)
Location within St. Louis County (left) and Missouri (right)
Coordinates: 38°44′39″N 90°18′19″W / 38.74417°N 90.30528°W / 38.74417; -90.30528Coordinates: 38°44′39″N 90°18′19″W / 38.74417°N 90.30528°W / 38.74417; -90.30528[1]
Country United States
State Missouri
County St. Louis
Municipal incorporation 1894
Government
 • Mayor James Knowles III
 • City Manager John Shaw
Area[2]
 • Total 6.20 sq mi (16.06 km2)
 • Land 6.19 sq mi (16.03 km2)
 • Water 0.01 sq mi (0.03 km2)
Elevation[1] 502 ft (153 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 21,203
 • Estimate (2013)[4] 21,111
 • Density 3,400/sq mi (1,300/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 63135
Area code 314
FIPS code 29-23986[1]
GNIS feature ID 0756046[1]
Website fergusoncity.com

Ferguson is a city in St. Louis County, Missouri, United States.[1] It is part of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area. The population was 21,203 at the 2010 census.[5]

Incorporated as a city in 1894, it gained international attention on August 9, 2014, when a young man, Michael Brown, was fatally shot by Darren Wilson, a Ferguson police officer, sparking over two weeks of protest and civil unrest.

History[edit]

Ferguson had its start in 1855 when William B. Ferguson deeded 10 acres (4.0 ha) of land to the Wabash Railroad in exchange for a new depot and naming rights.[6][7] The settlement that sprang up around the depot was called Ferguson Station.[8] Ferguson was the first outside station connected to St. Louis.[9]

Ferguson was incorporated as a city in 1894.[10]

2014 shooting[edit]

On Saturday, August 9, 2014, an unarmed 18-year-old male, Michael Brown, was fatally shot by Darren Wilson, a Ferguson police officer.[11][12] The incident sparked protests and acts of vandalism in Ferguson as well as worldwide calls for an investigation into the incident.[13] On August 11, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) opened a parallel civil rights investigation into the incident,[14] and Attorney General Eric Holder instructed the Justice Department staff to monitor the developments.[15]

On August 10, after a day of vigils, some of the crowd began looting businesses, vandalizing vehicles and confronting police who sought to block off access to several areas of the city.[16] Local police stations assembled approximately 150 officers in riot gear.[17] The following day, police fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a crowd at a QuikTrip[18] convenience store that had been burnt out the night before. According to reports, gunshots were fired in Ferguson and five were arrested.[19][20] On August 14, Missouri Governor Jay Nixon stated that the Ferguson riots were "deeply challenging" and promised "operational shifts" to ease the situation,[21] using the Missouri State Highway Patrol to direct security.[22]

On Monday, August 18, National Guard troops arrived in Ferguson at the request of Governor Nixon, who also ended midnight to 5:00 a.m. curfews that had been imposed.[23] Although some street violence continued to occur, most protesters were peaceful and at one point organized a human chain to block agitators who had thrown bottles at police.[23] In another area, objects were thrown at police who responded with tear gas.[23] Also on Monday, Brown's family and Dr. Michael Baden, a former New York City medical examiner who examined Brown's body on Sunday, released findings which showed Brown had been shot at least six times to the front of his body, that the fatal shot was fired into the top of his head and exited from the front, and that he did not appear to have been shot from very close range because no powder burns were found on his body.[23]

Geography[edit]

Ferguson is located at 38°44′39″N 90°18′19″W / 38.74417°N 90.30528°W / 38.74417; -90.30528 (38.744217, -90.305391).[1] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.20 square miles (16.06 km2), of which 6.19 square miles (16.03 km2) is land and 0.01 square miles (0.03 km2) is water.[2]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,015
1910 1,658 63.3%
1920 1,874 13.0%
1930 3,798 102.7%
1940 5,724 50.7%
1950 11,573 102.2%
1960 22,149 91.4%
1970 28,759 29.8%
1980 24,740 −14.0%
1990 22,286 −9.9%
2000 22,406 0.5%
2010 21,203 −5.4%
Est. 2013 21,111 [4] −0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census

The population of Ferguson grew rapidly during the first six decades of the twentieth century, from 1,015 people in 1900 to 22,149 people in 1960, an average growth rate of 5% per year. Since 1960 the population has remained nearly constant. The racial composition of Ferguson has shifted since 1990, however. In 1990, residents of Ferguson who were identified in the U.S. Census as White comprised 73.8% of the total, while those identified as Black made up 25.1%.[24] (The remainder, 1.1%, identified with other racial categories.) In the 2000 census, 44.7% were White and 52.4% were African American. In the 2010 census, 29.3% were White and 67.4% were African American.

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 21,203 people, 8,192 households, and 5,500 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,425.4 inhabitants per square mile (1,322.6 /km2). There were 9,105 housing units at an average density of 1,470.9 per square mile (567.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 29.3% White, 67.4% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population.

There were 8,192 households of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.6% were married couples living together, 31.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 32.9% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.12.

The median age in the city was 33.1 years. 28.7% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.2% were from 25 to 44; 25.3% were from 45 to 64; and 10.3% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 44.8% male and 55.2% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[25] of 2000, there were 22,406 people, 8,612 households, and 5,838 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,620.6 people per square mile (1,397.6/km²). There were 9,191 housing units at an average density of 1,485.2 per square mile (573.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 44.8% White, 52.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, < 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population.

There were 8,612 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 25.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.2% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the city the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,134 and the median income for a family was $43,303. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $32,649 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,524. About 10.2% of families and 17.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.2% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.[26]

Economy[edit]

The city is home to the headquarters of Emerson Electric.

Government[edit]

The Mayor of Ferguson is directly elected for a three-year term.[27] Voter turnout in the most recent mayoral election was approximately 12%.[28] The Ferguson city council is composed of six members.[28]

The Ferguson Police Department is involved with the following public programs: Business Watch, Community Emergency Response Team (CERT), D.A.R.E. Program, Neighborhood Watch, School Resource Officers, Riot Patrol. The Ferguson Fire Department has two fire stations that are staffed 24 hours a day. House #1 has a pumper truck and a rescue truck, while House #2 has a pump and ladder vehicle and a reserve pumper truck.

Education[edit]

St. Louis Community College-Florissant Valley, which has about 8,000 students, is located in Ferguson.

The following public schools, all part of the Ferguson-Florissant School District, are located within the city of Ferguson:

  • McCluer South-Berkeley High School, enrollment 2,882
  • Ferguson Middle School, enrollment 700
  • Central Elementary School
  • Griffith Elementary School
  • Johnson-Wabash Elementary School
  • Lee-Hamilton Elementary School
  • Vogt Elementary School

The following private schools are located within the city of Ferguson:

Ferguson is also home to the Challenger Learning Center – St. Louis, which provides a space education program.

The Ferguson Municipal Public Library is one of several independent community libraries in St. Louis County and is a member of the Municipal Library Consortium of St. Louis County.

Notable people[edit]

This list may include persons born in the community, past residents, and current residents.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) details for Ferguson, Missouri; United States Geological Survey (USGS); October 24, 1980.
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  3. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-08. 
  4. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  5. ^ "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Ferguson city, Missouri". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  6. ^ Fox, Tim (1995). Where We Live: A Guide to St. Louis Communities. Missouri History Museum. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-883982-12-6. 
  7. ^ Bryan, William Smith; Rose, Robert; Elwang, William Wilson (1876). A History of the Pioneer Families of Missouri: With Numerous Sketches, Anecdotes, Adventures, Etc., Relating to Early Days in Missouri. Also the Lives of Daniel Boone and the Celebrated Indian Chief Black Hawk, with Numerous Biographies and Histories of Primitive Institutions. Lucas brothers. p. 167. 
  8. ^ "City History". City of Ferguson, MO. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  9. ^ Montesi, Al; Deposki, Richard (2002). St. Louis Union Station. Arcadia Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7385-1983-8. 
  10. ^ "Ferguson Missouri". Aboutstlouis.com. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  11. ^ "Ferguson Chief Names Darren Wilson as Cop Who Shot Michael Brown". NBCNews.com. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  12. ^ Berman, Mark; Lowery, Wesley (15 August 2014). "Ferguson police call Michael Brown a robbery suspect, identify Darren Wilson as officer who shot him". Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  13. ^ Lind, Dara (12 August 2014). "Outrage in Ferguson after police shooting of unarmed teenager Michael Brown". Vox Media. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Berman, Mark (August 11, 2014). "FBI opens investigation into shooting of Michael Brown". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Killing of black Missouri man, Michael Brown, draws criticism". Newsday. Associated Press. August 10, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  16. ^ Yang, John (August 10, 2014). "Looting Erupts After Vigil for Slain Missouri Teen Michael Brown". NBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Protests near St. Louis continue for slain teen after riot, arrests". Chicago Tribune (Chicago, IL). August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  18. ^ Monday, August 11, 2014 8:13 am. "West Florissant explodes in protest of police shooting, more than 30 arrests – St. Louis American: Local News". Stlamerican.com. Retrieved 2014-08-12. 
  19. ^ Fantz, Ashley; Howell, George (August 11, 2014). "Protesters fill streets after Michael Brown shooting". CNN. Retrieved August 11, 2014. 
  20. ^ Scher Zagier, Alan. "Police, protesters again clash outside St. Louis". Star-telegram.com (Ft. Worth). Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-08-12. 
  21. ^ "Michael Brown killing: Jay Nixon promises 'operational shifts'", BBC, August 14, 2014.
  22. ^ Pearson, Michael, and Ana Cabrera, "Missouri governor: Highway patrol will direct security in Ferguson", CNN, August 14, 2014
  23. ^ a b c d Davey, Monica; Eligon, John; Blinder, Alan (August 19, 2014). "National Guard Troops Fail to Quell Unrest in Ferguson". New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2014. "In a news conference on Monday, family members and Dr. Baden said that the autopsy he had performed confirmed witness accounts that Mr. Brown was trying to surrender when he was killed." 
  24. ^ Bureau of Census, 1990 Census of Population: General Population Characteristics, Missouri. Online: https://www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/cp1/cp-1-27.pdf, p. 56.
  25. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  26. ^ "American FactFinder (Ferguson, Missouri)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-07-24. 
  27. ^ Howard, Shannon (2014-04-06). "Election Day brings new leadership to NoCo". NOCO. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  28. ^ a b Vega, Tanzina (2014-08-14). "Deep Tensions Rise to Surface After Ferguson Shooting". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  29. ^ Levins, Harry (2001-04-03). "Air Force General, a Missourian, may be in line to become next Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff". St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Lee Enterprises). p. A3 – via HighBeam Research. "He is Gen. Ralph E. 'Ed' Eberhart, a native of Nevada, Mo., who grew up in Ferguson and graduated from McCluer in 1964." 

External links[edit]