The fermentation theory was studied in depth and brought to light mainly by Louis Pasteur. This theory states that it is the idea or concept of how fermentation is brought on by bacteria and puts to shame the concept of spontaneous generation. Even though this theory is now outdated and has been replaced by the germ theory of disease, for a long time it held true and Louis was on the forefront of explaining why it seemed organisms appeared out of nothing instead of stating it was just a spontaneous act of God. From his discovery of why and how fermentation occurs, the process has been studied intensely and is used in everyday life all the time with processes of making things such as alcoholic beverages or some foods like yogurt.
Simply put, fermentation is the metabolic process that converts sugar into acids, gases, or alcohols. This metabolic process is used in oxygen starved environments. Yeast and bacterias commonly use this process in order to carry our their anaerobic respiration.
What the Theory is
Before the 1870s, when Pasteur published his work on this theory, it was believe that micro organisms would just spontaneously appear which was coined as spontaneous generation. This idea was accepted and believe to be true before Louis Pasteur shook the Earth with his new ideas that organisms actually came from somewhere.
The fermentation theory of disease is the (now obsolete) concept that many diseases, including the diseases which were "epidemic, endemic and contagious", owe their origin to the presence of a "morbific principle" in the system, acting in a manner analogous to, although not identical with, the process of fermentation. It was rendered obsolete by the germ theory of disease, which led to the new science of bacteriology.
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