Fermont

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For the coaster, see MV Fermont.
Fermont
City
Fermont.JPG
Coat of arms of Fermont
Coat of arms
Motto: Faire front, faire face
Fermont is located in Côte-Nord Region Quebec
Fermont
Fermont
Location in Côte-Nord Region of Quebec.
Coordinates: 52°47′N 67°05′W / 52.783°N 67.083°W / 52.783; -67.083Coordinates: 52°47′N 67°05′W / 52.783°N 67.083°W / 52.783; -67.083[1]
Country  Canada
Province  Quebec
Region Côte-Nord
RCM Caniapiscau
Settled 1971
Constituted October 15, 1974
Government[2]
 • Mayor Martin St-Laurent
 • Federal riding Manicouagan
 • Prov. riding Duplessis
Area[2][3]
 • Total 495.50 km2 (191.31 sq mi)
 • Land 470.67 km2 (181.73 sq mi)
Elevation 610 m (2,000 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 2,874
 • Density 6.1/km2 (16/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Increase 9.2%
 • Dwellings 1,389
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s) G0G 1J0
Area code(s) 418 and 581
Highways Route 389
Website www.caniapiscau.net

Fermont is a town in northeastern Quebec, Canada, near the Quebec-Labrador border about 23 kilometres (14 mi) from Labrador City on Route 389, which connects to the Trans-Labrador Highway (Newfoundland and Labrador Route 500). It is the seat of the Regional County Municipality of Caniapiscau.

Fermont (French contraction of "Fer Mont", meaning "Iron Mountain") was founded as a company town in the early 1970s to exploit rich iron ore deposits from Mont Wright, that is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the west from the town site.

The town is notable for the huge self-contained structure containing apartments, stores, schools, bars, a hotel, restaurants, a supermarket and swimming pool which shelters a community of smaller apartment buildings and homes on its leeward side. The structure was designed to be a windscreen to the rest of the town. It permits residents (other than mine workers) to never leave the building during the long winter, which usually lasts about seven months. The town, designed by Maurice Desnoyers and Norbert Schoenauer, was inspired by similar projects in Sweden designed by Ralph Erskine, notably that of Svappavaara, a copper mining town in Sweden. The building measures 1.3 kilometres (4,300 ft) long and stands 50 metres (160 ft) high.[4]

History[edit]

Following the depletion of the Jeannine Lake Mine at Gagnon in the late 1960s, the Québec Cartier Mining Company began to develop the Mont Wright Mine. This was a large-scale project that involved mining, processing, and transporting iron ore. Some 1600 employees would be needed, and the town of Fermont was constructed to house them and their families. By the end of 1972, the first people settled there. That same year, the Fermont post office opened, and in 1974, the place was incorporated as Ville de Fermont.[1][5]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Historical Census Data - Fermont, Quebec[8]
Year Pop. ±%
1991 3,735 —    
1996 3,234 −13.4%
Year Pop. ±%
2001 2,918 −9.8%
2006 2,633 −9.8%
Year Pop. ±%
2011 2,874 +9.2%

Language[edit]

With French being the near-universal first language within the community, the city is arguably the world's northermost Francophone settlement of any considerable size, beating Dunkirk by about 1 degree of latitude. Although fluency in French is common in Nunavik and other points north, most in the North have adopted English as their primary language for communication outside their communities. Through its status as the northernmost Francophone settlement, it is also the northermost Romance-speaking town as well. A small Francophone (Franco-Yukonnais) community can be found in Dawson City, where they constitute a small but noticeable minority.

Canada Census Mother Tongue - Fermont, Quebec[8]
Census Total
French
English
French & English
Other
Year Responses Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop % Count Trend Pop %
2011
2,870
2,800 Increase 9.8% 97.56% 40 Decrease 33.3% 1.39% 10 Steady 0.0% 0.35% 20 Steady 0.0% 0.70%
2006
2,640
2,550 Decrease 10.1% 96.59% 60 Increase 20.0% 2.27% 10 Steady 0.0% 0.38% 20 Steady 0.0% 0.76%
2001
2,915
2,835 Decrease 7.8% 97.26% 50 Decrease 28.6% 1.72% 10 Decrease 33.3% 0.34% 20 Decrease 50.0% 0.69%
1996
3,200
3,075 n/a 98.75% 70 n/a 0.69% 15 n/a 0.33% 40 n/a 0.23%

City Council[edit]

The city council is composed of a mayor and six city councilors. The current mayor is Lise Pelletier, and the councilors are Dave Bouchard, Janelle Gauthier, Claude Meilleur, Brigitte Poitras, Martin St-Laurent and Yan St-Pierre.

Economy[edit]

Truck 172 from the Mont-Wright Mine, on display in Fermont

The local economy is entirely dependent on the Mont Wright and Fire Lake Mines owned by Québec Cartier Mining Company.,[9] now ArcelorMittal. Over 80% of municipal revenues come from mining operations.[1]

Average earnings for full-time workers was $63,982 in 2001, compared to $39,217 in Quebec as a whole.[10] This went up to $70,102 in 2006, whereas the provincial average dropped to $37,722.[11]

The mine product is shipped to Port-Cartier on the Cartier Railway where it is converted to pellets. In 2006 the mine was affected by a labour dispute which lasted from early April to early June. It was amicably resolved with a six-year contract renewal.[12]

Climate[edit]

Fermont has a harsh subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with long, severe winters and short, mild summers. Although overall not as heavy as in most other parts of the Labrador Peninsula, snowfall is still heavy at around 2.9 metres (114.2 in) and average maximum depth of 0.85 metres (33.46 in) which is actually deeper than some other North Shore locations with heavier snowfall like Sept-Îles.

Climate data for Fermont
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.5
(43.7)
12.5
(54.5)
17.5
(63.5)
26
(79)
36.5
(97.7)
31
(88)
34
(93)
26
(79)
16
(61)
12
(54)
3
(37)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) −17
(1)
−13.8
(7.2)
−7.3
(18.9)
2
(36)
8.7
(47.7)
15.6
(60.1)
19
(66)
17.8
(64)
10.8
(51.4)
3.5
(38.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
−13.1
(8.4)
1.8
(35.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −23.2
(−9.8)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−14
(7)
−3.9
(25)
3.1
(37.6)
9.6
(49.3)
13.2
(55.8)
12.2
(54)
6.2
(43.2)
−0.5
(31.1)
−8.7
(16.3)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
Average low °C (°F) −29.4
(−20.9)
−27.4
(−17.3)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−9.8
(14.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.5
(38.3)
7.5
(45.5)
6.7
(44.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−13
(9)
−24.4
(−11.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
Record low °C (°F) −49
(−56)
−49.5
(−57.1)
−46
(−51)
−31
(−24)
−17.5
(0.5)
−8
(18)
−5
(23)
−5
(23)
−15
(5)
−18
(0)
−35
(−31)
−45
(−49)
−49.5
(−57.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 51.2
(2.016)
31.4
(1.236)
42.8
(1.685)
40.5
(1.594)
46.6
(1.835)
87.7
(3.453)
118.7
(4.673)
103.7
(4.083)
106.0
(4.173)
67.2
(2.646)
58.6
(2.307)
52.2
(2.055)
806.5
(31.752)
Rainfall mm (inches) 1.1
(0.043)
0.5
(0.02)
0.9
(0.035)
13.8
(0.543)
35.3
(1.39)
86.6
(3.409)
118.7
(4.673)
103.7
(4.083)
102.9
(4.051)
43.3
(1.705)
6.8
(0.268)
1.5
(0.059)
515.1
(20.279)
Snowfall cm (inches) 50.1
(19.72)
30.9
(12.17)
42.0
(16.54)
26.7
(10.51)
11.3
(4.45)
1.2
(0.47)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
3.0
(1.18)
23.9
(9.41)
51.8
(20.39)
50.7
(19.96)
291.6
(114.8)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.0 9.9 10.5 9.8 11.7 16.4 18.2 17.0 20.0 15.5 14.1 12.8 167.9
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.11 0.06 0.35 2.7 8.7 15.9 18.2 17.0 19.0 8.8 1.5 0.12 92.44
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 11.9 9.9 10.3 7.5 4.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.6 8.0 13.3 12.8 80.4
Source: Environment Canada[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Fermont (Ville)" (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  2. ^ a b Ministère des Affaires municipales, des Régions et de l'Occupation du territoire - Répertoire des municipalités: Fermont
  3. ^ a b c Statistics Canada 2011 Census - Fermont census profile
  4. ^ "The Windscreen (from Caniapiscau)". Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  5. ^ "Portrait de Fermont - Histoire" (in French). CLD de la MRC de Caniapiscau. Retrieved 2010-10-07. 
  6. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  7. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". Canada 2001 Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  8. ^ a b Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 census
  9. ^ "Socio-economic profile CÔTE-NORD". Archived from the original on 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  10. ^ "Statistics Canada Community Profile". Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  11. ^ Statistics Canada 2006 Census - Fermont community profile
  12. ^ "Cartier Mining press release". Archived from the original on 2006-03-12. Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  13. ^ Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000, accessed 27 July 2009

External links[edit]