Fernando Botero

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Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero.jpg
Fernando Botero
Born Fernando Botero Angulo
(1932-04-19) April 19, 1932 (age 82)
Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia
Nationality Colombian
Known for Painter, sculptor
Spouse(s) Gloria Zea (divorced)
Sophia Vari (current)

Fernando Botero Angulo (born 19 April 1932) is a figurative artist and sculptor from Medellín, Colombia. His signature style, also known as "Boterismo", depicts people and figures in large, exaggerated volume, which can represent political criticism or humor, depending on the piece. He is considered the most recognized and quoted living artist from Latin America,[1][2][3] and his art can be found in highly visible places around the world, such as Park Avenue in New York City and the Champs Elysées in Paris.[4]

Self-titled "the most Colombian of Colombian artists" early on, he came to national prominence when he won the first prize at the Salón de Artistas Colombianos in 1958. Working most of the year in Paris, in the last three decades he has achieved international recognition for his paintings, drawings and sculpture, with exhibitions across the world.[5] His art is collected by many major international museums, corporations, and private collectors. In 2012, he received the International Sculpture Center's Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award.

Biography[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Fernando Botero was born the second of three sons to David Botero (1895-1936) and Flora Angulo (1898-1972). David Botero, a salesman who traveled by horseback, died of a heart attack when Fernando was four. His mother worked as a seamstress. An uncle took a major role in his life. Although isolated from art as presented in museums and other cultural institutes, Botero was influenced by the Baroque style of the colonial churches and the city life of Medellín while growing up.[6]

He received his primary education in Antioquia Ateneo and, thanks to a scholarship, he continued his secondary education at the Jesuit School of Bolívar.[7] In 1944, Botero's uncle sent him to a school for matadors for two years.[8] In 1948, Botero at age 16 had his first illustrations published in the Sunday supplement of the El Colombiano, one of the most important newspapers in Medellín. He used the money he was paid to attend high school at the Liceo de Marinilla de Antioquia.

Career[edit]

Botero's work was first exhibited in 1948, in a group show along with other artists from the region.[9]

Fernando Botero, Abu Ghraib, 2005, oil on canvas. Botero painted the abuses of Abu Ghraib between 2004 and 2005 as a permanent accusation
Woman with fruit by Fernando Botero in Hay Market - Bamberg

From 1949 to 1950, Botero worked as a set designer, before moving to Bogotá in 1951. His first one-man show was held at the Galería Leo Matiz in Bogotá, a few months after his arrival. In 1952, Botero travelled with a group of artists to Barcelona, where he stayed briefly before moving on to Madrid.

In Madrid, Botero studied at the Academia de San Fernando.[citation needed] In 1952, he traveled to Bogotá, where he had a solo exhibit at the Leo Matiz gallery.

In 1953, Botero moved to Paris, where he spent most of his time in the Louvre, studying the works there. He lived in Florence, Italy from 1953 to 1954, studying the works of Renaissance masters.[9] In recent decades, he has lived most of the time in Paris, but spends one month a year in his native city of Medellín. He has had more than 50 exhibits in major cities worldwide, and his work commands selling prices in the millions of dollars.[10] In 1958, he won the ninth edition of the Salón de Artistas Colombianos.[11]

Style[edit]

While his work includes still-lifes and landscapes, Botero has concentrated on situational portraiture. His paintings and sculptures are united by their proportionally exaggerated, or "fat" figures, as he once referred to them.[10]

Botero explains his use of these "large people", as they are often called by critics, in the following way:

"An artist is attracted to certain kinds of form without knowing why. You adopt a position intuitively; only later do you attempt to rationalize or even justify it."[citation needed]

Botero is an abstract artist in the most fundamental sense, choosing colors, shapes, and proportions based on intuitive aesthetic thinking. Though he spends only one month a year in Colombia, he considers himself the "most Colombian artist living" due to his insulation from the international trends of the art world.[10]

In 2004 Botero exhibited a series of 27 drawings and 23 paintings dealing with the violence in Colombia from the drug cartels. He donated the works to the National Museum of Colombia, where they were first exhibited.[12]

In 2005 Botero gained considerable attention for his Abu Ghraib series, which was exhibited first in Europe. He based the works on reports of United States forces' abuses of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison during the Iraq War. Beginning with an idea he had on a plane journey, Botero produced more than 85 paintings and 100 drawings in exploring this concept[13] and "painting out the poison".[10] The series was exhibited at two United States locations in 2007, including Washington, DC. Botero said he would not sell any of the works, but would donate them to museums.[14]

In 2006, after having focused exclusively on the Abu Ghraib series for over 14 months, Botero returned to the themes of his early life such as the family and maternity. In his Une Famille[15] Botero represented the Colombian family, a subject often painted in the seventies and eighties. In his Maternity,[16] Botero repeated a composition he already painted in 2003,[17] being able to evoke a sensuous velvety texture that lends it a special appeal and testifies for a personal involvement of the artist. The child in the 2006 drawing has a wound in his right chest as if the Author wanted to identify him with Jesus Christ, thus giving it a religious meaning that was absent in the 2003 artwork.

In 2008 he exhibited the works of his The Circus collection, featuring 20 works in oil and watercolor. In a 2010 interview, Botero said that he was ready for other subjects: "After all this, I always return to the simplest things: still lifes."[10]

Sculpture[edit]

Between 1963 and 1964, Fernando Botero attempted to create sculptures. Due to financial constraints preventing him from working with bronze, he made his sculptures with acrylic resin and sawdust. A notable example during this time was "Small Head (Bishop)" in 1964, a sculpture painted with great realism. However, the material was too porous and Botero decided to abandon this method.

Donations[edit]

Botero Plaza in his hometown of Medellín is a popular tourist site for taking pictures.

Botero has donated several artworks to museums in Bogotá and his hometown, Medellín. In 2000, Botero donated to a museum in Bogotá 123 pieces of his work and 85 pieces from his personal collection, including works by Chagall, Picasso, Robert Rauschenberg, and the French impressionists.[18] He donated 119 pieces to the Museum of Antioquia.[19] His donation of 23 bronze sculptures for the front of the museum became known as the Botero Plaza. Four more sculptures can be found in Medellín's Berrio Park and San Antonio Plaza nearby.

Personal life[edit]

Botero married Gloria Zea (who became the Colombian Minister of Culture). Together they had three children: Fernando, Lina, and Juan Carlos.[7] The senior Boteros divorced in 1960 and each remarried.[11] Starting in 1960, Botero lived for 14 years in New York, but more recently has settled in Paris. Lina also lives outside of Colombia, and in 2000 Juan Carlos moved to southern Florida.

Fernando Botero Zea became a politician and served as Defense Minister. He was convicted in 1996 of a financial offense and served 30 months in prison. Rather than facing a second charge and sentence in 2002, he relocated to Mexico, where he is a citizen by birth.[20] Lina Botero became an actress and TV presenter.[12]

In 1964 Botero began living with Cecilia Zambrano. They had a son, Pedro, born in 1974, who was killed in 1979 in a car accident in which Botero was also injured. Botero and Zambrano separated in 1975.[11][20]

Last Botero married the Greek artist Sophia Vari. They reside in Paris and have a house in Pietrasanta, Italy.[20] Botero's 80th birthday was commemorated with an exhibition of his works at Pietrasanta.

Recent exhibitions[edit]

Examples of his work[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/08/international/americas/08botero.html?_r=0
  2. ^ http://www.revistaenie.clarin.com/arte/pintura/Fernando-Botero-MNBA_0_934106624.html
  3. ^ http://www.elsiglodetorreon.com.mx/noticia/725150.fernando-botero-el-gran-artista-de-latinoamerica.html
  4. ^ Kristin G. Congdon; Kara Kelley Hallmark (2002). Artists from Latin American Cultures: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-313-31544-2. 
  5. ^ http://www.sna40.com/general/datoshistoricos.htm
  6. ^ "Botero's Early Life", BoteroSA
  7. ^ a b John Sillevis (2006). The Baroque World of Fernando Botero. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12359-3. 
  8. ^ "Fernando Botero", AskArt
  9. ^ a b "Fernando Botero", ArtFact
  10. ^ a b c d e "Fernando Botero: at Thomas Gibson Fine Art", LondonNet, 20 Sep 2010
  11. ^ a b c "El poder en Colombia: Los cien personajes mas influyentes de Colombia", InfoArt, Dinero, 1 May 1995
  12. ^ a b "Fernando Botero: Donation and Controversy", Great Masters of Art, accessed 20 Sep 2010
  13. ^ "Abu Ghraib", ZonaEuropa, 13 Apr 2005
  14. ^ Erica Jong, Review: "Botero Sees the World's True Heavies at Abu Ghraib", Washington Post, 4 Nov 2007, accessed 20 Sep 2010
  15. ^ "Family", oil on canvas 2006
  16. ^ "Maternity", drawing 2006
  17. ^ "Maternity", oil on canvas, 2003
  18. ^ Michael J. LaRosa; Germán R. Mejía (5 April 2012). Colombia: A Concise Contemporary History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0937-4. 
  19. ^ Lorrain Caputo. VIVA Colombia Adventure Guide. Viva Publishing Network. pp. 624–. ISBN 978-1-937157-05-0. 
  20. ^ a b c Godfrey Barker, "Pure Colombian; Fernando Botero is the scourge of critics and the collectors' darling", The Evening Standard (London, England), 3 Apr 2009, accessed 20 Sep 2010
  21. ^ "The Baroque World of Fernando Botero", Bowers Museum, Santa Ana, California

External links[edit]

Abu Ghraib series[edit]

Video[edit]