Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 400 and 412

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Ferrari 400 redirects here. For the 1959 Ferrari 400 Superamerica see Ferrari America
Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2/400/412
Ferrari 400.jpg
Ferrari 400
Overview
Manufacturer Ferrari
Production 1972–1989
2907 produced in total
Designer Leonardo Fioravanti at Pininfarina
Body and chassis
Class Grand tourer
Layout Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Chronology
Predecessor Ferrari 365 GTC/4
Successor Ferrari 456

The Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, Ferrari 400 and Ferrari 412 (Tipo F101) are front-engined V12 2+2 grand tourers made by Italian manufacturer Ferrari between 1972 and 1989. The three cars are closely related, using the same body, chassis and engine evolved over time. After Ferrari's custom their numeric names refer to the engines' single cylinder displacement expressed in cubic centimetres, and therefore changed with each update to reflect the increasing displacement. The 365 GT4 2+2 was introduced in 1972 to replace the 365 GTC/4. It then evolved into the 400, that in Automatic guise was the first Ferrari equipped with an automatic transmission. In 1979 the 400 was replaced by the fuel injected 400 i. Finally, the improved 412 was introduced in 1985 and phased out in 1989, bringing to an end Ferrari's longest ever production series.

Although the incorporation of an automatic transmission and U.S. emissions compliance, indicate it may have been designed for the American market, no version of these grand tourers was ever officially imported to the USA. Despite this, many have been brought to America as grey imports.

Design[edit]

The profile of a 365 GT4 2+2

In true Ferrari tradition the car was styled by Pininfarina. Its three-box design was a clear departure from its fastback predecessor, the 365 GTC/4. Following the Daytona, the GT4 2+2 was the second Ferrari to feature the characteristic design feature of a swage line dividing the body into an upper and a lower half.

Various coachbuilders, such as Carrozzeria Pavesi or Straman, offered convertible conversions of the 400 series. Switzerland's Felber also showed a shooting brake version on 400 GT basis called the Felber Croisette at the 1981 Geneva Salon de l'Auto.[1]

Specifications[edit]

The tubular steel chassis was based on that of the GTC/4, but the wheelbase was lengthened 200 mm (7.9 in) to 2,700 mm (106.3 in). The steel bodies were manufactured by Pininfarina at its Turin plant, then shipped fully finished to Modena where Ferrari assembled the cars. Suspension consisted of double wishbones, coil springs coaxial with the shock absorbers, and anti-roll bars all around; the rear axle featured an hydraulic self-levelling system. Under the bonnet there was a Tipo F 101 Colombo V12 that underwent many changes through the years. It was an alloy head and block, four overhead cams, 24-valve unit using wet sump lubrication. The transmission was conventionally coupled directly to the engine, as on the GTC/4, with a driveshaft connecting it to the rear limited slip differential. The steering was servo-assisted. Brakes were discs on all four wheels.

Model Engine type Displacement Bore x stroke Fuel system Power at rpm
365 GT4 2+2 F 101 AC 000 4.4 L (4,390 cc) 81 x 71 mm Carburetor 320 PS (240 kW; 320 bhp) @ 6200
400 Automatic F 101 C 080 4.8 L (4,823 cc) 81 x 78 mm Carburetor 340 PS (250 kW; 340 bhp)
400 GT F 101 C 000
400 Automatic i F 101 D 070 4.8 L (4,823 cc) 81 x 78 mm Fuel injection 310–315 PS (228–232 kW; 306–311 bhp) @ 6500
400 GT i F 101 D 010
412 (automatic) F 101 EL 170 4.9 L (4,943 cc) 82 x 78 mm Fuel injection 340 PS (250 kW; 340 bhp) @ 6000
412 (manual) F 101 EL 110

365 GT4 2+2[edit]

Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2
Ferrari 365-GT4-2p2.JPG
Overview
Production 1972–1976
524 produced
Powertrain
Engine 4.4 L F 101 AC V12
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,810 mm (189.4 in)
Width 1,796 mm (70.7 in)
Height 1,310 mm (51.6 in)
Curb weight 1,500 kg (3,307 lb) (empty)

In 1972, just a year after the launch of the GTC/4, a new 2+2 debuted at the Paris Motor Show: the 365 GT4 2+2. The name refers to the single cylinder displacement (365 cc), four overhead camshafts (GT4) and seat configuration (2+2). Most of the mechanicals, including the 4,390 cc (4.39 L; 268 cu in) engine, were carried over from its predecessor. The V12 used six side-draft Weber 38 DCOE 59/60 carburetors and produced 320 PS (240 kW; 320 bhp) at 6200 rpm.[2] The gearbox was a five-speed, all-synchromesh manual with a single-plate clutch. Five-spoke alloy wheels were mounted on Rudge knock-off hubs; Borrani wire wheels were still offered at extra cost. Fittingly for a large grand tourer, standard equipment included leather upholstery, electric windows and air conditioning. The GT4 was replaced in 1976 by the nearly identical looking Ferrari 400.

Rear view, showing the six round tail lights characteristic of this model.

400[edit]

Ferrari 400 Automatic
Ferrari 400 GT
Overview
Production 1976–1979
355 (A), 147 (GT) produced
Powertrain
Engine 4.8 L F 101 C V12[3]
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,810 mm (189 in)
Width 1,796 mm (70.7 in)
Height 1,310 mm (51.6 in)
Curb weight 1,700 kg (3,748 lb) (empty)

At the 1976 Paris Motor Show Ferrari unveiled the replacement for the 365 GT4 2+2. The new 400 was offered in two models: 400 Automatic, using a Borg Warner 3-speed automatic transmission,[4] and 400 GT, using a five-speed transmission. The 400 Automatic was the first Ferrari to have an automatic transmission.[3] The 365's V12 engine had been stroked to a displacement of 4.8 L (290 cu in) and given six 38 DCOE 110-111 Webers, and now produced 340 PS (250 kW).[5] 0-60 mph took 7.1 seconds.[3] Other changes compared to the 365 GT4 included five-stud wheels to replace the knock-off hubs (Borrani wheels weren't offered anymore), a revised interior, the addition of a lip to the front spoiler, and double circular tail light assemblies instead of triple. A total of 502 examples were produced, 355 of which were Automatics and 147 GTs.[4][5]

400 i[edit]

Ferrari 400 GT i
Ferrari 400 Automatic i
1983 Ferrari 400i 5-spd.jpg
"Series II" 400 GT i
Overview
Production 1979–1985
422 (GT) & 883 (A) produced
Powertrain
Engine 4.8 L F 101 D V12
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,810 mm (189 in)
Width 1,798 mm (70.8 in)
Height 1,314 mm (51.7 in)
Curb weight 1,830 kg (4,034 lb) (empty)

The carburetors on the 400 were replaced with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection in 1979.[6][7] As in the smaller 308i, power was down to 310 PS (228 kW), but emissions were much improved, complying with U.S. standards.[8] Top speed was 240 km/h (149 mph).[6] Initially differences between the 400 and 400 i were limited to the fuel injected engine and "i" badge on the tail.

Towards the end of 1982 the 400i was updated. New camshaft profiles and exhaust headers raised engine power to 315 PS (232 kW). The interior was significantly revised, gaining differently upholstery, door panels, centre console and new electronic switchgear. On the exterior a narrower grille left the rectangular foglights exposed; the venting on the engine bonnet was changed from silver to body-colour. New, more elegant wing mirrors were fitted, bearing a small Ferrari shield. Around the back the tail panel was body-coloured instead of matte black, and foglamps were fitted in the bumper. Lower profile Michelin TRX tyres were adopted, on metric sized wheels. A total of 1305 examples were produced, 883 Automatics and 422 GTs.[7][8]

412[edit]

Ferrari 412
1988 Ferrari 412 front.jpg
Overview
Production 1985–1989
270 (GT) and 306 (A) produced
Powertrain
Engine 4.9 L F 101 EL V12
Transmission 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,810 mm (189 in)
Width 1,798 mm (70.8 in)
Height 1,314 mm (51.7 in)
Curb weight 1,805–1,810 kg (3,979–3,990 lb)

In 1985 further improvements were made to the series, with the launch of the Ferrari 412 (chassis Tipo F 101 EL). The engine was bored 1 mm, for an increase in displacement to 5 L (305.1 cu in) - hence the name change to 412, or the single cylinder displacement in cubic centimetres. Both the manual and automatic transmissions were retained, but exterior badging didn't denote anymore the transmission type fitted. Bosch ABS was offered, a first for Ferrari.[9] The body was altered, with a raised rear deck granting more luggage space. Pininfarina made many subtle tweaks to modernize the exterior. The bumpers were body-coloured; at the front there was a deeper spoiler, at the rear a black valence incorporated the foglamps and exhaust pipes. Side window trim was changed from chrome to black. The flat-faced wheels were new and fitted with TRX tires.

A total of 576 examples were made. Production ended in 1989 without a direct successor being immediately launched; the mid-engined Mondial remained the only Ferrari offering 2+2 seating. In 1992, after a three year hiatus, the classic front-engine V12 2+2 grand tourer returned with the 456.

1988 Ferrari 412 rear.jpg
Rear view
Cockpit of an automatic 412

A black 1987 model of the 412 was used in the 2006 independent film Daft Punk's Electroma. It appears from after the opening credits to where the robots have their human masks developed and fitted.

It's rumoured the car used in filming was auctioned for charity, with the 'HUMAN' license plates signed by Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (the duo of Daft Punk who directed Electroma.)

Legacy[edit]

Today, its sleek, Pininfarina-designed lines and relatively limited production numbers have made many enthusiasts consider it a classic. It has not been universally admired however, and is listed at #18 in the BBC's book of "Crap Cars" and Jeremy Clarkson on Top Gear described it as "awful in every way".[10] However, there have been many other favorable articles about the 400 series in the motoring press, including one by the highly respected UK motoring journalist L.J.K. Setright in CAR magazine in August 1984, in which the author described it as "one of the few most beautiful, and one of the two most elegant, bodies ever to leave the lead of Pininfarina's pencilling vision".

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Auto Katalog 1982, p. 138
  2. ^ "365 GT4 2+2". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  3. ^ a b c Willson, Quentin (1995). The Ultimate Classic Car Book. DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-0159-2. 
  4. ^ a b "400 Automatic". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  5. ^ a b "400 GT". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  6. ^ a b Auto Katlog 1982, p. 101
  7. ^ a b "400 Automatic i". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  8. ^ a b "400 GT i". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  9. ^ "412". Ferrari official site - Past models. Ferrari S.p.A. Retrieved 2014-09-20. 
  10. ^ BBC Top Gear. Season 15 Episode 6

Bibliography[edit]