Ferrari F40

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Ferrari F40
F40ferarri20090509.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Ferrari
Production 1987–1992 (1,315 produced)
Assembly Maranello, Italy
Designer Pininfarina (Leonardo Fioravanti)
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style Berlinetta (2-door coupé)
Layout Mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine 2,936 cc (2.9 L) twin-turbocharged Tipo F120A V8 478 PS (352 kW; 471 hp), rear, longitudinal, 90°[1]
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,450 mm (96 in)
Length 4,358 mm (171.6 in)
Width 1,970 mm (78 in)
Height 1,124 mm (44.3 in)
Curb weight 1,100 kg (2,400 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Ferrari 288 GTO
Successor Ferrari F50

The Ferrari F40 is a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-door coupé sports car built from 1987 to 1992. The successor to the Ferrari 288 GTO, it was designed to celebrate Ferrari's 40th anniversary and was the last Ferrari automobile personally approved by Enzo Ferrari. At the time it was the fastest, most powerful, and most expensive car that Ferrari sold to the public.[2]

The car debuted with a factory suggested retail price of approximately US$400,000 in 1987 ($830,000 today), although some buyers were reported to have paid as much as US$1.6 million. 1,315 F40s were manufactured in total.[3]

Development[edit]

Ferrari F40 - Flickr - exfordy.jpg

Origin[edit]

As early as 1984, the Maranello factory had begun development of an evolution model of the 288 GTO intended to compete against the Porsche 959 in FIA Group B. However, when the FIA brought an end to the Group B category for the 1986 season, Enzo Ferrari was left with five 288 GTO Evoluzione development cars, and no series in which to campaign them. Enzo's desire to leave a legacy in his final supercar allowed the Evoluzione program to be further developed to produce a car exclusively for road use.[4]

Drivetrain and suspension[edit]

Power came from an enlarged, 2.9 L (2936 cc) version of the GTO's twin IHI turbocharged V8 developing 478 PS (352 kW; 471 hp) under 110 kPa (16 psi) of boost. The F40 did without a catalytic converter until 1990 when US regulations made them a requirement for emissions control reasons. The flanking exhaust pipes guide exhaust gases from each bank of cylinders while the central pipe guides gases released from the wastegate of the turbochargers. Engines with catalytic converters bear F120D code.

The suspension setup was similar to the GTO's double wishbone setup, though many parts were upgraded and settings were changed; the unusually low ground clearance prompted Ferrari to include the ability to raise the vehicle's ground clearance when necessary.[5]

Body and interior[edit]

The body was an entirely new design by Pininfarina featuring panels made of kevlar, carbon fiber, and aluminum for strength and low weight, and intense aerodynamic testing was employed (see below). Weight was further minimized through the use of a plastic windshield and windows. The cars were not for the faint of heart; although the cars did have air conditioning, they had no sound system, door handles, glove box, leather trim, carpets, or door panels. The first 50 cars produced had sliding Lexan windows, while later cars were fitted with normal windows that could be rolled down.[6]

Aerodynamics[edit]

The F40 was designed with aerodynamics in mind. For speed the car relied more on its shape than its power. Frontal area was reduced, and airflow greatly smoothed, but stability rather than terminal velocity was a primary concern. So too was cooling as the forced induction engine generated a great deal of heat. In consequence, the car was somewhat like an open-wheel racing car with a body. It had a partial undertray to smooth airflow beneath the radiator, front section, and the cabin, and a second one with diffusers behind the motor, but the engine bay was not sealed. Nonetheless, the F40 had an impressively low Cd of 0.34 with lift controlled by its spoilers and wing.[7]

Racing[edit]

An F40 LM on display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed

The factory never intended to race the F40, but the car saw competition as early as 1989 when it debuted in the Laguna Seca Raceway round of the IMSA, appearing in the GTO category, with a LM evolution model driven by Jean Alesi, finishing third to the two faster spaceframed four wheel drive Audi 90 and beating a host of other factory backed spaceframe specials that dominated the races. Despite lack of factory backing, the car would soon have another successful season there under a host of guest drivers such as Jean-Pierre Jabouille, Jacques Laffite and Hurley Haywood taking a total of three second places and one third.

Although the F40 would not return to IMSA for the following season, it would later be a popular choice by privateers to compete in numerous domestic GT series including JGTC. In 1994, the car made its debut in international competitions, with one car campaigned in the BPR Global GT Series by Strandell, winning at the 4 Hours of Vallelunga.[8]

In 1995, the number of F40s climbed to four, developed independently by Pilot-Aldix Racing (F40 LM) and Strandell (F40 GTE, racing under the Ferrari Club Italia banner), winning the 4 Hours of Anderstorp. No longer competitive against the McLaren F1 GTR, the Ferrari F40 returned for another year in 1996, managing to repeat the previous year's Anderstorp win, and from then on it was no longer seen in GT racing.[9]

Competizione[edit]

The F40 Competizione is a non-sponsored, more powerful version of the F40 LM cars that were being raced, which was the result of consumer requests following the order of a French importer who wanted to enter one in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. 10 examples were built, the first two being called F40 LM's, and the remaining 8 being F40 Competizione, as Ferrari felt that the LM tag was too restrictive.[10]

A F40 Competizione can be found today in the Automobile Museum of Turin.[11]

Succession[edit]

The F40 was discontinued in 1992, and in 1995 the F50 was intended to be its successor in GT1 racing; but only three racing F50s were produced and none ever actually competed in a race.[12]

Performance[edit]

Rear view of a Ferrari F40 in Melbourne, Australia

The F40's light weight of 1,100 kg (2,425 lb) and high power output of 478 PS (352 kW; 471 hp) at 7000 rpm gave the vehicle tremendous performance potential. Road tests have produced 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph) times as low as 3.8 seconds (while the track only version came in at 2.99 seconds), with 0–160 km/h (0–99 mph) in 7.5  seconds and 0–200 km/h (0–124 mph) in 10 seconds matching the Porsche 959, its primary competitor at the time.

The F40 was the first road legal production car to break the 200 mph (320 km/h) barrier. From its introduction in 1987 until 1989, with its only competitors being the Porsche 959 and the 1988 Lamborghini Countach,[13] it held the record as the world's fastest production car, with a top speed of 201.4 mph (324 km/h). During the 2006 Bonneville Speed Week, Amir Rosenbaum of Spectre Performance managed to take his F40 with small boost and air intake modifications to 226 miles per hour (364 km/h).[14]

Reception[edit]

On Top Gear, Richard Hammond and Jeremy Clarkson both refer to the F40 as the "greatest supercar the world had ever seen". James May however, found the F40 to be "ugly and basic". Clarkson also said the F40 is one of the most beautiful cars ever made. In series 16, episode 6, Hammond compared the F40 against its main rival, the Porsche 959. However, they never completed a lap on the Test Track, as the F40 failed to start and the 959 had problems with the turbos.[15]

Full official first specs[edit]

Those published by Ferrari details referring to the model presentation.[16]

Performance[edit]

  • Top speed: 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph)
  • Acceleration:
    • 0–100 km/h (62 mph): 3.9 sec.
    • 0–200 km/h (125 mph): 9 sec.
    • 0–400 m: 11.9 sec.
    • 0–1000 m: 20.9 sec.

Engine[edit]

V8 engine
  • Type: rear, longitudinal, 90° V8
  • Bore/stroke: 82 x 69.5 mm
  • Unitary displacement: 367.03 cc
  • Total displacement: 2936.25 cc
  • Compression ratio: 7.7 : 1
  • Maximum power: 351.5 kW (478 hp) at 7000 rpm
  • Power per litre: 163 horsepower/l
  • Maximum torque: 577 Nm (58.8 kgm) (425 lb-ft) at 4000 rpm
  • Valve actuation: twin overhead camshafts per bank, four valves per cylinder
  • Fuel feed: Weber-Marelli electronic injection, twin turbos
  • Ignition: Weber-Marelli electronic, single spark plug per cylinder
  • Lubrication: dry sump
  • Clutch: twin-plate

Bodywork[edit]

  • Type: two-seater berlinetta
  • Length: 4358 mm (171.57 inches)
  • Width: 1970 mm (77.56 inches)
  • Height: 1123 mm (44.21 inches)
  • Wheelbase: 2450 mm (96.46 inches)
  • Front track: 1594 mm (62.76 inches)
  • Rear track: 1606 mm (63.23 inches)
  • Weight: 1100 kg (dry) (2425 pounds)

Chassis[edit]

  • Frame: tubular steel and composites
  • Front suspension: independent, unequal-length wishbones, coil springs over telescopic shock absorbers, anti-roll bar
  • Rear suspension: independent, unequal-length wishbones, coil springs over telescopic shock absorbers, anti-roll bar
  • Brakes: discs
  • Transmission: 5-speed + reverse
  • Steering: rack-and-pinion
  • Fuel tank: capacity 120 litres (31.7006 US gallons)
  • Front tyres: 235/45 ZR 17 or 245/40 ZR 17
  • Rear tyres: 335/35 ZR 17

Fuel consumption[edit]

  • EPA premium gasoline, 2.9 L, 8 cyl, Manual 5-spd 1990-1992[17]
    • Combined 13 miles per U.S. gallon (18 L/100 km; 16 mpg-imp)
    • City 11 miles per U.S. gallon (21 L/100 km; 13 mpg-imp)
    • Highway 16 miles per U.S. gallon (15 L/100 km; 19 mpg-imp)
  • Carfolio.com official specifications[18]
    • 8.6 l/100 km 90 km/h
    • 9.7 l/100 km 120 km/h
    • 19.2 l/100 km urban
  • Automobilio.info with average range specs[19]
    • Town - fuel consumption 18.4 l/100 km
    • Highway - fuel consumption 8.6 l/100 km
    • Average fuel consumption 10.3 l/100 km
    • Average trip with full tank 1200 km (750 miles)

F40 US Patent For Ornamental Design[edit]

  • Number: D306,274
  • Date of Patent: February 27, 1990
  • Terms: 14 Years; IAW Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP) Chapter 1500, Section 1505 Allowance and Term of Design Patent [R-08.2012] & 35 U.S.C. 173 Term of design patent. Patents for designs shall be granted for the term of fourteen years from the date of grant.
  • Expired: Yes
  • Renewable: No
  • Amendments: None however if there is, it will not renew or extend the terms of patent; IAW MPEP Ch. 1500 Sec. 1509 Reissue of a Design Patent [R-11.2013]

The term of a design patent may not be extended by reissue. Ex parte Lawrence, 70 USPQ 326 (Comm’r Pat. 1946).

  • Copyright/Trademark: None at the time of patent. Since inventor of the ornamental design (Leonardo Fioravanti) is not from Ferrari S.p.A. but rather from Pininfarina S.p.A..

F40 Registry[edit]

  • ZFFGJ34B000080752
  • ZFFGJ34B000082727
  • ZFFGX34X0K0079891
  • ZFFGX34X0L0088513
  • ZFFMN34A0L0085788
  • ZFFMN34A2M0087589
  • ZFFMN34A2N0092017
  • ZFFMN34A3L0085963
  • ZFFMN34A3L0086420
  • ZFFMN34A3N0091135
  • ZFFMN34A5M0089580
  • ZFFMN34A6L0084838
  • ZFFMN34A7L0085416
  • ZFFMN34A7L0086954
  • ZFFMN34A7M0087345
  • ZFFMN34A9L0085210
  • ZFFMN34A9L0086602
  • ZFFMN34A9L0087085
  • ZFFMN34A9M0087895
  • ZFFMN34AXL0087144
  • ZFFMN34AXM0090000

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "F40". Ferrari.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  2. ^ "BBC Radio 2 - Chris Evans Breakfast Show - Photos". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  3. ^ "1987 Ferrari F40". conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  4. ^ "Ferrari F40". classicdriver.com. 
  5. ^ "Dream Road Ferrari F40 | Dream Road". Dreamroad.us. 2012-12-26. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  6. ^ "Ferrari F40". Exoticcars.about.com. 2012-04-10. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  7. ^ "1987-1992 Ferrari F40". Top Speed. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  8. ^ "Strandell placing 1st in the 4 Hours of Vallelunga". racingsportscars.com. Retrieved 3 October 2012. 
  9. ^ "1990 Ferrari F40 Images, Information and History". Conceptcarz.com. 2013-02-21. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  10. ^ "F40 Competizione on the Ferrari site". ferrari.com. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Ferrari F40 Competizione". museoauto.it. Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  12. ^ "F50 wiki page". 
  13. ^ Car Valeting Wiltshire and Bath (2011-08-03). "Ferrari F40 detailed to perfection - Car Valeting Wiltshire and Bath". Gleamingkleen.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  14. ^ "→ '92 Ferrari F40". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "Preview of Jeremy’s interview with John Prescott (series 16, episode 6) - BBC Top Gear". Topgear.com. Retrieved 2013-05-07. 
  16. ^ http://www.ferrari.com/english/gt_sport cars/classiche/all_models/Pages/F40.aspx
  17. ^ "Compare Side-by-Side". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  18. ^ "1987 Ferrari F40". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "FERRARI F40 2.9 i V8 32V 478 HP car technical data. Power. Torque. Fuel tank capacity. Fuel consumption.". Retrieved 4 October 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Buckley, Martin & Rees, Chris (1998). World Encyclopedia of Cars. London: Anness Publishing. ISBN 1-84038-083-7. 
  • "Ferrari F40". Ferrari Forum. Retrieved 2007-01-17. 

External links[edit]