Ferris wheel

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This article is about a type of amusement ride. For the original example, first erected in Chicago in 1893, see Ferris Wheel. For other uses, see Ferris wheel (disambiguation).
London Eye, world's tallest Ferris wheel from 1999 to 2006

A Ferris wheel (also known as an observation wheel or big wheel), named after George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., is a nonbuilding structure consisting of a rotating upright wheel with multiple passenger-carrying components (commonly referred to as passenger cars, cabins, capsules, gondolas, or pods) attached to the rim in such a way that as the wheel turns, they are kept upright, usually by gravity.

Some of the largest modern Ferris wheels have cars mounted on the outside of the rim, with electric motors to independently rotate each car to keep it upright. These wheels are sometimes referred to as observation wheels, and their cars referred to as capsules, however these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.

The original Ferris Wheel was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. as a landmark for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The term Ferris wheel is used generically for all such structures, which are now the most common type of carnival ride at state fairs in the US.[1]

Since the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, there have been nine world's tallest-ever Ferris wheels. The current record holder is the 167.6-metre (550 ft) High Roller in the United States, which opened to the public in March 2014.

Early history[edit]

Olearius uvesel.jpg
Ferris ups.jpg
Early pleasure wheels depicted in 17th-century engravings, to the left by Adam Olearius, to the right a Turkish design, apparently for adults
Dancing the hora on Dealul Spirii (Spirii Hill), Bucharest, Romania (1857 lithograph)
Magic-City, Paris, France, 1913

"Pleasure wheels", whose passengers rode in chairs suspended from large wooden rings turned by strong men, may have originated in 17th-century Bulgaria.[1][2]

The travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608–1667[3] describes and illustrates "severall Sorts of Swinginge used in their Publique rejoyceings att their Feast of Biram" on 17 May 1620 at Philippopolis in the Ottoman Balkans.[2] Among means "lesse dangerous and troublesome" was one:

...like a Craine wheele att Customhowse Key and turned in that Manner, whereon Children sitt on little seats hunge round about in severall parts thereof, And though it turne right upp and downe, and that the Children are sometymes on the upper part of the wheele, and sometymes on the lower, yett they alwaies sitt upright.

Five years earlier, in 1615, Pietro Della Valle, a Roman traveller who sent letters from Constantinople, Persia, and India, attended a Ramadan festival in Constantinople. He describes the fireworks, floats, and great swings, then comments on riding the Great Wheel:[4]

I was delighted to find myself swept upwards and downwards at such speed. But the wheel turned round so rapidly that a Greek who was sitting near me couldn't bear it any longer, and shouted out "soni! soni!" (enough! enough!)

Similar wheels also appeared in England in the 17th century, and subsequently elsewhere around the world, including India, Romania, and Siberia.[2]

A Frenchman, Antonio Manguino, introduced the idea to America in 1848, when he constructed a wooden pleasure wheel to attract visitors to his start-up fair in Walton Spring, Georgia.

Somers' Wheel[edit]

In 1892, William Somers installed three fifty-foot wooden wheels at Asbury Park, New Jersey; Atlantic City, New Jersey; and Coney Island, New York. The following year he was granted the first U.S. patent for a "Roundabout".[5][6] George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. rode on Somers' wheel in Atlantic City prior to designing his wheel for the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1893 Somers filed a lawsuit against Ferris for patent infringement, however Ferris and his lawyers successfully argued that the Ferris Wheel and its technology differed greatly from Somers' wheel, and the case was dismissed.[7]

The original Ferris Wheel[edit]

Main article: Ferris Wheel
The original Chicago Ferris Wheel, built for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition

The original Ferris Wheel, sometimes also referred to as the Chicago Wheel,[8][9][10] was designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr..[11]

With a height of 80.4 metres (264 ft) it was the largest attraction at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, where it opened to the public on June 21, 1893.[11] It was intended to rival the 324-metre (1,063 ft) Eiffel Tower, the centerpiece of the 1889 Paris Exposition.

Ferris was a graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, bridge-builder. He began his career in the railroad industry and then pursued an interest in bridge building. Ferris understood the growing need for structural steel and founded G.W.G. Ferris & Co. in Pittsburgh, a firm that tested and inspected metals for railroads and bridge builders.

The wheel rotated on a 71-ton, 45.5-foot axle comprising what was at that time the world's largest hollow forging, manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company and weighing 89,320 pounds, together with two 16-foot-diameter (4.9 m) cast-iron spiders weighing 53,031 pounds.[9]

There were 36 cars, each fitted with 40 revolving chairs and able to accommodate up to 60 people, giving a total capacity of 2,160.[8] The wheel carried some 38,000 passengers daily[1] and took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, the first involving six stops to allow passengers to exit and enter and the second a nine-minute non-stop rotation, for which the ticket holder paid 50 cents.

The Exposition ended in October 1893, and the wheel closed in April 1894 and was dismantled and stored until the following year. It was then rebuilt on Chicago's North Side, near Lincoln Park, next to an exclusive neighborhood. This prompted William D. Boyce, then a local resident, to file a Circuit Court action against the owners of the wheel to have it removed, but without success. It operated there from October 1895 until 1903, when it was again dismantled, then transported by rail to St. Louis for the 1904 World's Fair and finally destroyed by controlled demolition using dynamite on May 11, 1906.[12]

Antique Ferris wheels[edit]

Wiener Prater Vienna Austria 20476.JPG
Wiener Riesenrad DSC02378.JPG
Wiener Riesenrad, Vienna, built in 1897, originally had 30 passenger cabins but was rebuilt with 15 cabins following a fire in 1944

The Wiener Riesenrad (German for "Viennese Giant Wheel") is a surviving example of nineteenth-century Ferris wheels. Erected in 1897 in the Wurstelprater section of Prater public park in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, Austria, to celebrate Emperor Franz Josef I's Golden Jubilee, it has a height of 64.75 metres (212 ft)[13] and originally had 30 passenger cars. A demolition permit for the Riesenrad was issued in 1916, but due to a lack to funds with which to carry out the destruction, it survived.[14]

Following the demolition of the 100-metre (328 ft) Grande Roue de Paris in 1920,[8] the Riesenrad became the world's tallest extant Ferris wheel. In 1944 it burnt down, but was rebuilt the following year[14] with 15 passenger cars, and remained the world's tallest extant wheel until its 97th year, when the 85-metre (279 ft) Technocosmos was constructed for Expo '85, at Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Still in operation today, it is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions, and over the years has featured in numerous films (including Madame Solange d`Atalide (1914),[14] Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948), The Third Man (1949), The Living Daylights (1987), Before Sunrise (1995)) and novels.

World's tallest Ferris wheels[edit]

The 94 m Great Wheel at Earls Court, London, world's tallest Ferris wheel 1895–1900
The 100 m Grande Roue de Paris, world's tallest Ferris wheel 1900–1920

Chronology of world's tallest-ever wheels

Timeline

Name Height
m (ft)
Completed Country Location Coordinates Remarks
High Roller[24]
167.6 (550)
2014
 US Las Vegas, Nevada 36°07′03″N 115°10′05″W / 36.117402°N 115.168127°W / 36.117402; -115.168127 (High Roller) World's tallest since 2014
Singapore Flyer[25]
165 (541)
2008
 Singapore Marina Centre, Downtown Core 1°17′22″N 103°51′48″E / 1.289397°N 103.863231°E / 1.289397; 103.863231 (Singapore Flyer) World's tallest 2008-2014
Star of Nanchang[25]
160 (525)
2006
 China Nanchang, Jiangxi 28°39′34″N 115°50′44″E / 28.659332°N 115.845568°E / 28.659332; 115.845568 (Star of Nanchang) World's tallest 2006–2008
London Eye[25]
135 (443)
2000
 UK South Bank, Lambeth, London 51°30′12″N 0°07′11″W / 51.50334°N 0.1197821°W / 51.50334; -0.1197821 (London Eye) World's tallest 2000–2006
Suzhou Ferris Wheel[25][26]
120 (394)
2009
 China Suzhou, Jiangsu 31°18′59″N 120°42′30″E / 31.3162939°N 120.7084501°E / 31.3162939; 120.7084501 (Suzhou Ferris Wheel)
Melbourne Star[25]
120 (394)
2008
 Australia Docklands, Melbourne 37°48′40″S 144°56′13″E / 37.8110723°S 144.9368763°E / -37.8110723; 144.9368763 (Melbourne Star)
Tianjin Eye[25]
120 (394)
2008
 China Yongle Bridge, Tianjin 39°09′12″N 117°10′49″E / 39.1533636°N 117.1802616°E / 39.1533636; 117.1802616 (Tianjin Eye)
Changsha Ferris Wheel[25]
120 (394)
2004
 China Changsha, Hunan 28°10′56″N 112°58′48″E / 28.1821772°N 112.9800886°E / 28.1821772; 112.9800886 (Changsha Ferris Wheel)
Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel[25][27]
120 (394)
2003
 China Century Amusement Park, Henan 34°43′58″N 113°43′07″E / 34.732871°N 113.718739°E / 34.732871; 113.718739 (Zhengzhou Ferris Wheel)
Sky Dream Fukuoka[25][28]
120 (394)
2002
 Japan Evergreen Marinoa, Fukuoka, Kyūshū 33°35′44″N 130°19′21″E / 33.5956845°N 130.3225279°E / 33.5956845; 130.3225279 (Sky Dream Fukuoka) Closed September 2009
Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel
117 (384)
2001
 Japan Kasai Rinkai Park, Tokyo, Honshū 35°38′38″N 139°51′26″E / 35.6439052°N 139.8572257°E / 35.6439052; 139.8572257 (Diamond and Flower Ferris Wheel)
Sun Wheel[29]
115 (377)
2014
 Vietnam Da Nang Unknown
Star of Lake Tai [citation needed]
115 (377)
2008
 China Lake Tai, Wuxi, Jiangsu 31°31′15″N 120°15′39″E / 31.5208296°N 120.260945°E / 31.5208296; 120.260945 (Star of Lake Tai) Picture
Daikanransha[22]
115 (377)
1999
 Japan Palette Town, Odaiba, Honshū 35°37′35″N 139°46′56″E / 35.6263915°N 139.7822902°E / 35.6263915; 139.7822902 (Daikanransha) World's tallest 1999–2000
Cosmo Clock 21 (2nd installation)
112.5 (369)
1999
 Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū 35°27′19″N 139°38′12″E / 35.4553872°N 139.6367347°E / 35.4553872; 139.6367347 (Cosmo Clock 21 (2nd installation))
Tempozan Ferris Wheel[19]
112.5 (369)
1997
 Japan Osaka, Honshū 34°39′22″N 135°25′52″E / 34.6561657°N 135.431031°E / 34.6561657; 135.431031 (Tempozan Ferris Wheel) World's tallest 1997–1999
Harbin Ferris Wheel[30]
110 (361)
2003
 China Harbin, Heilongjiang 45°46′40″N 126°39′48″E / 45.7776481°N 126.6634637°E / 45.7776481; 126.6634637 (Harbin Ferris Wheel)
Shanghai Ferris Wheel[31][32]
108 (354)
2002
 China Jinjiang Action Park, Shanghai 31°08′24″N 121°24′11″E / 31.1401286°N 121.4030752°E / 31.1401286; 121.4030752 (Shanghai Ferris Wheel)
Cosmo Clock 21 (1st installation)
107.5 (353)
1989
 Japan Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, Honshū Unknown World's tallest 1989–1997
Space Eye[33]
100 (328)
Unknown  Japan Space World, Kitakyūshū, Kyūshū 33°52′18″N 130°48′36″E / 33.8716939°N 130.8099014°E / 33.8716939; 130.8099014 (Space Eye) Picture
Grande Roue de Paris[8]
100 (328)
1900
 France Champ de Mars, Paris 48°51′08″N 2°17′57″E / 48.852222°N 2.299167°E / 48.852222; 2.299167 (Grande Roue de Paris (demolished 1920)) World's tallest 1900–1920
Great Wheel[15] 094
94 (308)
1895
 UK Earls Court, London 51°29′18″N 0°11′56″W / 51.48835°N 0.19889°W / 51.48835; -0.19889 (Great Wheel (demolished 1907)) World's tallest 1895–1900
Aurora Wheel[34] 090
90 (295)
Unknown  Japan Nagashima Spa Land, Mie, Honshū 35°01′47″N 136°44′01″E / 35.0298207°N 136.7336351°E / 35.0298207; 136.7336351 (Aurora Wheel) Picture
Eurowheel[35] 090
90 (295)
1999
 Italy Mirabilandia, Ravenna 44°20′21″N 12°15′44″E / 44.3392161°N 12.2622228°E / 44.3392161; 12.2622228 (Eurowheel)
Sky Wheel[36] 088
88 (289)
Unknown  Taiwan Janfusun Fancyworld, Gukeng 23°37′13″N 120°34′35″E / 23.6202611°N 120.5763352°E / 23.6202611; 120.5763352 (Sky Wheel)
Technostar
Technocosmos
[8]
085
85 (279)
1985
?
1985
 Japan Expoland, Osaka, Honshū (?-2009)
Expo '85, Tsukuba, Honshū (1985-?)
34°48′14″N 135°32′09″E / 34.803772°N 135.535916°E / 34.803772; 135.535916 (Technostar)
36°03′40″N 140°04′23″E / 36.061203°N 140.073055°E / 36.061203; 140.073055 (Technocosmos)
World's tallest extant 1985–1989Technocosmos renamed/relocated
World's tallest extant 1985–1989
The original Ferris Wheel 080.40
80.4 (264)
1893
 US Chicago (1893–1903); St. Louis (1904–06) Erioll world.svg Ferris Wheel coordinates World's tallest 1893–1894

Future wheels[edit]

Following the huge success of the 135-metre (443 ft) London Eye since it opened in 2000, giant Ferris wheels have been proposed for many other world-class cities, however a large number of these projects have stalled or failed.[37]

Current proposals[edit]

Erection currently in progress[edit]
  • The Orlando Eye was first reported to be both 129.6 m (425 ft)[38] and 137.1 m (450 ft)[39] tall, however this was subsequently revised to approximately 122 m (400 ft).[40] Jointly developed by Merlin Entertainments, Unicorp National Developments, and Circle Entertainment,[41] the wheel was reported to be in the early stages of planning in March 2011,[38] with completion due in the summer of 2014,[42] and was approved by county commissioners in September 2012.[39] In January 2013 it was reported that the expected opening date had been pushed back to "by Thanksgiving [November] 2014".[43] Erection of the main support structure began in December 2013.[44] In April 2014 it was reported that completion had been further delayed until Spring 2015.[40]
Erection yet to begin[edit]

Incomplete, delayed, or cancelled proposals[edit]

Wheels for which no completion date has been announced, or whose original completion date has already passed:

Erection begun but delayed, stalled, or abandoned[edit]
  • The Skyvue Las Vegas Super Wheel[57] (or SkyVue—the official website uses both[58]), was originally announced as being 145 m (476 ft) tall,[59][60] but has since been reported to be 150 m (492 ft)[58] and 152.4 m (500 ft).[61][62][63][64] Approved by Clark County Commission in March 2011,[65] it is now under construction on the Las Vegas Strip. Announced at a media event and groundbreaking ceremony in May 2011 by Howard Bulloch of Compass Investments, who stated "We expect it to be up and running in time for New Year's 2012",[59][66] the completion date has since been put back several times. In July 2012 it was reported that the opening was scheduled for New Year's Eve, 2013.[67] As of September 2013, the projected opening has been delayed until mid-2015.[68]
  • The 89-metre (292 ft) Turn of Fortune has been under construction in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China, since 2009. The 84-metre (276 ft) diameter structure[69] could supersede the 60-metre (197 ft) Big O, in Tokyo, Japan, as the world's tallest centreless Ferris wheel, but completion has been repeatedly delayed.
Erection not begun[edit]
  • The 220 m (722 ft) Moscow View, proposed in 2011, would feature 48 monorail-mounted passenger capsules, each able to carry 48 passengers, travelling round a centreless non-rotating rim. At that time, the timeframe for its construction was unknown and its site within Moscow had yet to be selected,[70][71][72] though candidates were said to include the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, Gorky Park, Prospekt Vernadskogo, and Sparrow Hills.[73] In December 2011 the project was reported to be stalled due to lack of City Hall approval.[74]
  • The 208 m (682 ft) Beijing Great Wheel was originally due to begin construction in 2007 and to open in 2008,[75] but went into receivership in 2010.[76] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010.
  • The 198 m (650 ft) Baghdad Eye was proposed for Baghdad, Iraq, in August 2008. At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given.[77][78][79][80] In October 2008, it was reported that Al-Zawraa Park was expected to be the site,[81] and a 55 m (180 ft) wheel was installed there in March 2011.[82]
  • The 185 m (607 ft) Great Dubai Wheel proposed for Dubailand, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, was granted planning permission in 2006 and expected to open in 2009,[83] but it has since been announced that the Great Dubai Wheel will not be built.[84] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010.
  • The 183 m (600 ft) Voyager[85] has been proposed several times for Las Vegas, Nevada.[86]
  • The 176 m (577 ft) Bangkok Eye, to be located near the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok, Thailand, was announced by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration on 13 October 2010, at which time the actual site and means of funding the 30-billion baht project had yet to be determined.[87]
Artist's impression of the 175 m Great Berlin Wheel, a project originally due for completion in 2008, but which stalled after encountering financial obstacles
  • The 175 m (574 ft) Great Berlin Wheel was originally planned to open in 2008 but the project encountered financial obstacles.[88] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010.
  • The 150 m (492 ft) Jeddah Eye was proposed in 2008, as part of a development scheduled to open in 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Construction was to have begun in 2009,[89] but there were no subsequent announcements. It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010.
  • A 137.2 m (450 ft) Ferris wheel project involving Tussauds was considered for New York City's South Street Seaport in 2004, but was never built.[90]
  • The 122 m (400 ft) Great Orlando Wheel was announced in June 2008[91] but then suspended in early 2009 after losing its funding.[88] It was one of at least five Great Wheel Corporation giant Ferris wheel projects which failed between 2007 and 2010.
  • The 120 m (394 ft) Kolkata Eye[92] was first proposed in 2011 for construction on the banks of Hooghly River in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Favoured by Mamata Banerjee, Chief Minister of West Bengal, the project was originally valued at 100 crore rupees.[93] This had risen to 300 crore rupees by May 2014 when Banerjee tweeted "[it] is expected to be ready in a year's time."[92]
  • A 120 m (394 ft) wheel for Manchester, England, was proposed by Manchester City Council in 2010 as a replacement for the transportable 60 m (197 ft) Wheel of Manchester installation, with Piccadilly Gardens the possible site and completion expected by Christmas 2011.[94]
  • The 101-metre (331 ft) Eye on Malaysia, a Chinese-manufactured wheel with 54 passenger gondolas, was scheduled to begin operating in April 2013 at Malacca Island, Malaysia. In November 2012, Chief Minister of the state of Malacca Datuk Seri Mohd Ali Rustam stated that the installation of piles had brought the RM40 million wheel to 15 per cent of completion, and that "the installation of the wheel structure will begin in February [2013]."[95] Mohd Ali Rustam had previously announced the Malaysia Eye, which conflicting reports stated would be 85 metres (279 ft)[96] or 88 metres (289 ft)[97] tall, also to be sourced from China and located at Malacca Island, and to have 54 air-conditioned gondolas, each able to carry six people. It was scheduled to open on December 1, 2011,[97] but was never built.
  • A 91.4 m (300 ft) wheel planned for Manchester, England, for 2008,[98] was never constructed.
  • The 87 m (285 ft) Pepsi Globe was proposed for the planned Meadowlands complex in New Jersey in February 2008 and originally due to open in 2009, then put on hold until 2010.[99] It has since been further delayed, and construction of the host complex, originally due to be completed in 2007, has been stalled since 2009 due to financing problems.[100]

Nippon Moon, described as a "giant observation wheel" by its designers,[101] was reported in September 2013 to be "currently in development". At that time, its height was "currently undisclosed", but "almost twice the scale of the wheel in London." Its location, an unspecified Japanese city, was "currently under wraps", and its funding had "yet to be entirely secured." Commissioned by Ferris Wheel Investment Co., Ltd., and designed by UNStudio in collaboration with Arup, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Experientia, it was expected to have 32 individually themed capsules and take 40 minutes to rotate once.[102]

The Shanghai Star, initially planned as a 200-metre (656 ft) tall wheel to be built by 2005, was revised to 170 metres (558 ft), with a completion date set in 2007, but then cancelled in 2006 due to "political incorrectness".[103] An earlier proposal for a 250-metre (820 ft) structure, the Shanghai Kiss, with capsules ascending and descending a pair of towers which met at their peaks instead of a wheel, was deemed too expensive at £100m.[104]

Rus-3000, a 170-metre (558 ft) wheel planned to open in 2004[105] in Moscow,[106] has since been reported cancelled.[107] Subsequently, an approximately 180-metre (591 ft)[108] wheel was considered for Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure,[109][110] and a 150-metre (492 ft) wheel proposed for location near Sparrow Hills.[111] Another giant wheel planned for Prospekt Vernadskogo for 2002 was also never built.[73]

Observation wheels[edit]

Singapore Flyer.JPG
Singapore flyer capsule inside.JPG
The Singapore Flyer has 28 cylindrical air-conditioned passenger capsules, each able to carry 28 people[112]
InsidetheLondonEye.JPG
An Eye Pod.jpg
The London Eye's 32 ovoidal air-conditioned passenger capsules each weigh 10 tonnes (11 short tons) and can carry 25 people[113]

Observation wheel is an alternative name for Ferris wheel.[114][115] In 1892, when the incorporation papers for the Ferris Wheel Company (constructors of the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel) were filed, the purpose of the company was stated as: [construction and operation of] "...wheels of the Ferris or other types for the purpose of observation or amusement".[8]

Some Ferris wheels are marketed as observation wheels, any distinction between the two names being at the discretion of the operator, however the wheels whose operators reject the term Ferris wheel are often those having most in common with the original 1893 Chicago Ferris Wheel, especially in terms of scale and being an iconic landmark for a city or event.

Wheels with passenger cars mounted external to the rim and independently rotated by electric motors, as opposed to wheels with cars suspended from the rim and kept upright by gravity, are those most commonly referred to as observation wheels, and their cars are often referred to as capsules. However, these alternative names are also sometimes used for wheels with conventional gravity-oriented cars.

Currently, only four Ferris wheels with motorised capsules exist.

The 167.6 m (550 ft) High Roller, world's tallest since March 2014, has externally mounted motorised capsules of a transparent spherical design,[60][116] and is described as both a Ferris wheel and an observation wheel by the media.[59][60][117][118]

The 165 m (541 ft) Singapore Flyer has cylindrical externally mounted motorised capsules and is described as an observation wheel by its operators,[119] but was also credited as "world's largest Ferris wheel" by the media when it opened in 2008.[120][121]

The 135 m (443 ft) London Eye, typically described as a "giant Ferris wheel" by the media,[122][123] has ovoidal externally mounted motorised capsules and is the "world's tallest cantilevered observation wheel"[124] according to its operators, who claim "The London Eye is often mistakenly called a Ferris wheel. This is not the case: first, the passenger capsules are completely enclosed and are climate controlled; secondly, the capsules are positioned on the outside of the wheel structure and are fully motorised; and third, the entire structure is supported by an A-frame on one side only."[124] However the Singapore Flyer subsequently billed itself as the "world's largest observation wheel", despite being supported on both sides.[125]

Southern Star (now Melbourne Star), tallest in the Southern Hemisphere, in 2008

The 120 m (394 ft) Melbourne Star (previously the Southern Star) in Australia, has ovoidal externally mounted motorised capsules and is described by its operators as "the only observation wheel in the southern hemisphere",[126] but also as a Ferris wheel by the media.[127][128][129]

Official conceptual renderings of the proposed 190.5 m (625 ft) New York Wheel, due to begin construction in 2014,[130] also show a wheel equipped with externally mounted motorised capsules.[50]

Transportable wheels[edit]

Transportable Ferris wheels are designed to be operated at multiple locations, as opposed to fixed wheels which are usually intended for permanent installation. Small transportable designs may be permanently mounted on trailers, and can be moved intact. Larger transportable wheels are designed to be repeatedly dismantled and rebuilt, some using water ballast instead of the permanent foundations of their fixed counterparts.

Fixed wheels are also sometimes dismantled and relocated. Larger examples include the original Ferris Wheel, which operated at two sites in Chicago, Illinois, and a third in St. Louis, Missouri; Technocosmos/Technostar, which moved to Expoland, Osaka, after Expo '85, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, for which it was built, ended; and Cosmo Clock 21, which added 5 metres (16 ft) onto its original 107.5-metre (353 ft) height when erected for the second time at Minato Mirai 21, Yokohama, in 1999.

The world's tallest transportable wheel today is the 78-metre (256 ft) Bussink Design R80XL.[131][132][133][134]

One of the most famous transportable wheels is the 60-metre (197 ft) Roue de Paris, originally installed on the Place de la Concorde in Paris for the 2000 millennium celebrations. Roue de Paris left France in 2002 and in 2003–04 operated in Birmingham and Manchester, England. In 2005 it visited first Geleen then Amsterdam, Netherlands, before returning to England to operate at Gateshead. In 2006 it was erected at the Suan Lum Night Bazaar in Bangkok, Thailand, and by 2008 had made its way to Antwerp, Belgium.[135]

Roue de Paris is a Ronald Bussink series R60 design using 40,000 litres (8,800 imperial gallons; 11,000 US gallons) of water ballast to provide a stable base. The R60 weighs 365 tonnes (402 short tons), and can be erected in 72 hours and dismantled in 60 hours by a specialist team. Transport requires seven 20-foot container lorries, ten open trailer lorries, and one closed trailer lorry. Its 42 passenger cars can be loaded either 3 or 6 at a time, and each car can carry 8 people.[136] Bussink R60 wheels have operated in Australia (Brisbane), Canada (Niagara Falls), France (Paris), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur & Malacca), UK (Belfast, Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield), US (Myrtle Beach), and elsewhere.

Other notable transportable wheels include the 60-metre (197 ft) Steiger Ferris Wheel, which was the world's tallest transportable wheel when it began operating in 1980.[137] It has 42 passenger cars,[138] and weighs 450 tons.[139] On October 11, 2010, it collapsed at the Kramermarkt in Oldenburg, Germany, during deconstruction.[140]

Roue de Paris, a Ronald Bussink R60 transportable wheel, at Geleen in the Netherlands in 2005
Notable transportable Ferris wheel installations
Name Years Country Location Coordinates
Belfast Wheel 2007–2010  UK Belfast 54°35′48.77″N 5°55′45.06″W / 54.5968806°N 5.9291833°W / 54.5968806; -5.9291833 (Belfast Wheel)
Brighton Wheel 2011-  UK Brighton 50°49′09″N 0°08′04″W / 50.8191°N 0.1344°W / 50.8191; -0.1344 (Brighton Wheel)
Eye on Malaysia 2007–2008
2008–2010
 Malaysia
 Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
Malacca
3°10′39.2″N 101°42′15.68″E / 3.177556°N 101.7043556°E / 3.177556; 101.7043556 (Eye on Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur installation))
2°11′23.4312″N 102°14′29.00″E / 2.189842000°N 102.2413889°E / 2.189842000; 102.2413889 (Eye on Malaysia (Malacca installation))
Royal Windsor Wheel
various 
 UK Windsor, Berkshire 51°29′04″N 0°36′43″W / 51.4845°N 0.6119°W / 51.4845; -0.6119 (Royal Windsor Wheel)
Wheel of Birmingham
various 
 UK Centenary Square, Birmingham 52°28′44.04″N 1°54′32.49″W / 52.4789000°N 1.9090250°W / 52.4789000; -1.9090250 (Wheel of Birmingham)
Wheel of Brisbane 2008-  Australia South Bank Parklands, Brisbane 27°28′31″S 153°01′15″E / 27.4751833°S 153.0209333°E / -27.4751833; 153.0209333 (Wheel of Brisbane)
Wheel of Dublin 2010–2011  Ireland North Wall, Dublin 53°20′50″N 6°13′39″W / 53.3472°N 6.2276°W / 53.3472; -6.2276 (Wheel of Dublin)
Wheel of Manchester
various 
 UK Manchester
multiple locations - see article
Wheel of Sheffield 2009–2010  UK Fargate, Sheffield 53°22′52″N 1°28′12″W / 53.3810°N 1.4699°W / 53.3810; -1.4699 (Wheel of Sheffield)
Yorkshire Wheel
various 
 UK York
multiple locations - see article

Double and triple wheels[edit]

Giant Wheel, a double wheel
Sky Whirl, a triple wheel
Hermann Eccentric Ferris Wheel with sliding cars, from US patent 1354436, 1915; forerunner of the 1920 Wonder Wheel, there is no record of it ever being built[6][141]
Wonder Wheel, a 45.7-metre (150 ft) tall eccentric wheel at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, Coney Island, was built in 1920 by the Eccentric Ferris Wheel Company[142]
Disney California Adventure Park's Mickey's Fun Wheel, an eccentric wheel modelled on Wonder Wheel, was built in 2001 as Sun Wheel and became Mickey's Fun Wheel in 2009[143]
Big O, a 60-metre (197 ft) tall centreless wheel at Tokyo Dome City in Japan
Cosmo Clock 21, world's tallest wheel 1989 to 1997, and world's largest clock[144]
Ruota dei Pionieri, Minitalia Leolandia Park, Italy (manufactured by Zamperla[145])
A ride similar to a Ferris wheel, but which inverts its cars and passengers
Four-car 30 m tall drive-in Ferris wheel at Harbourfront, Toronto, Canada, in 2004[146]
A wheel constructed by the Swedish contingent at the 21st World Scout Jamboree
Passenger-powered 2-seat Cyclecide wheel at the 2007 Bumbershoot festival in Seattle

Swiss manufacturer Intamin produced a series of rides comprising a vertical column supporting multiple horizontal arms, with each arm supporting a Ferris wheel. Custom designed for the Marriott Corporation, each ride had three main components: the wheels with their passenger cars; a set of supporting arms; and a single central supporting column. Each wheel rotated about the end of its own supporting arm. The arms in turn would either pivot or rotate together as a single unit about the top of the supporting column. The axis about which the rotating arms turned was offset from vertical, so that as the arms rotated, each arm and its corresponding wheel was raised and lowered. This allowed one wheel to be horizontal at ground level, and brought to a standstill for simultaneous loading and unloading of all its passenger cars, while the other wheel(s) continued to rotate vertically at considerable height.

The first such ride was Astrowheel, which had two arms and wheels with 8 passenger cars each, and operated at the former Six Flags Astroworld, Houston, Texas, from 1968 until 1980.[147]

Similar wheels included Giant Wheel (Hersheypark, Hershey, Pennsylvania), Zodiac (Kings Island, Mason, Ohio), and Galaxy (Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, California). All were Intamin designs; all are now defunct.

Sky Whirl was the world's first triple Ferris wheel, debuting at both Marriott's Great America parks (now Six Flags Great America, Gurnee, Illinois, and California's Great America, Santa Clara) in 1976. Also known as a triple Ferris wheel,[148] Triple Giant Wheel,[149] or Triple Tree Wheel, it was 33 metres (108 ft) in height.[150] The Santa Clara ride, renamed Triple Wheel in post-Marriott years, closed on 1 September 1997. The Gurnee ride closed in 2000.[151]

Eccentric wheels[edit]

Eccentric wheels (sometimes called sliding wheels[152] or coaster wheels[153]) differ from conventional Ferris wheels in that some or all of the passenger cars are not fixed directly to the rim of the wheel, but instead slide on rails between the hub and the rim as the wheel rotates.

The two most famous eccentric wheels are Mickey's Fun Wheel (previously Sun Wheel), at Disney California Adventure Park, US, and Wonder Wheel, at Deno's Wonder Wheel Amusement Park, Coney Island, US. The former is a replica of the latter. There is a second replica in Yokohama, Japan.[142]

Mickey's Fun Wheel is 48.8 metres (160 ft) tall[152] and has 24 fully enclosed passenger cars, each able to carry 6 passengers. 16 of the cars slide inward and outward as the wheel rotates, the remainder are fixed to the rim. There are separate boarding queues for sliding and fixed cars, so that passengers may choose between the two.[143] Inspired by Coney Island's 1920 Wonder Wheel, it was designed by Walt Disney Imagineering and Waagner Biro, completed in 2001 as the Sun Wheel, and later refurbished and reopened in 2009 as Mickey's Fun Wheel.[152]

Wonder Wheel was built in 1920, is 45.7 metres (150 ft) tall, and can carry 144 people.[154]

Major designers, manufacturers, and operators[edit]

Allan Herschell Company (merged with Chance Rides in 1970)[155]

  • Seattle Wheel (debuted 1962): 16 cars, 2 passengers per car[156]
  • Sky Wheel (debuted 1939; also manufactured by Chance Rides): a double wheel, with the wheels rotating about opposite ends of a pair of parallel beams, and the beams rotating about their centres; 8 cars per wheel, 2 passengers per car[157]

Chance Morgan / Chance Rides / Chance Wheels / Chance American Wheels[158][159]

  • Astro Wheel (debuted 1967): 16 cars (8 facing one way, 8 the other), 2 passengers per car[160]
  • Century Wheel: 20 m (66 ft) tall, 15 cars, 4-6 passengers per car[159]
  • Giant Wheel: 27 m (89 ft) tall, 20 cars, 6-8 passengers per car[159]
  • Niagara SkyWheel (2006): 53.3 m (175 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 8 passengers per car[161]
  • Myrtle Beach SkyWheel (2011): 57 m (187 ft) tall, 42 air-conditioned cars, 6 passengers per car[162]
Eli Bridge Company[163]
Contemporary models include:
  • Signature Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • Eagle Series: 16 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • HY-5 Series: 12 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable
  • Aristocrat Series: 16 cars, fixed site
  • Standard Series: 12 cars, fixed site
  • Lil' Wheel: 6 cars, 3 passengers per car; transportable and fixed site models

Great Wheel Corporation[164] (merged with World Tourist Attractions in 2009 to form Great City Attractions)[165]

Intamin / Waagner-Biro[166] (Rides brokered by Intamin — manufactured by Waagner-Biro)[167]

Mir / Pax[168]

  • Moscow-850, a 73-metre (240 ft) tall wheel in Russia; Europe's tallest extant wheel when completed in 1997, until 1999
  • Eurowheel, a 90-metre (300 ft) tall wheel in Italy; Europe's tallest extant wheel when completed in 1999, until the end of that year

Ronald Bussink[169] (formerly Nauta Bussink; then Ronald Bussink Professional Rides; then Bussink Landmarks since 2008)

Wheels of Excellence range (sold to Vekoma in 2008) has included:
  • R40: 40-metre (131 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 15 or 30 cars, 8 passengers per car
  • R50: 50-metre (164 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 18 or 36 cars, 8 passengers per car
  • R60: 60-metre (197 ft) tall transportable wheel, 21 or 42 cars, 8 passengers per car[136]
  • R80: 80-metre (262 ft) tall fixed wheel, 56 cars, 8 passengers per car
Bussink Design:
  • R80XL: 78-metre (256 ft) tall fixed or transportable wheel, 27 16-person cars, or 54 8-person cars

Sanoyas Rides Corporation (has built more than 80 Ferris wheels[170])

  • Melbourne Star: 120 m (394 ft) tall, completed 2008, rebuilt 2009–2013
Senyo Kogyo Co, Ltd.
World Tourist Attractions / Great City Attractions[172] / Wheels Entertainments[173] / Freij Entertainment International[174]

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