Fes el Bali
|Medina of Fez|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|UNESCO region||Arab States|
|Inscription||1981 (5th Session)|
Fes el Bali (Arabic: فاس البالي) (English: Old fes ) is the oldest walled part of Fes, Morocco. Fes el Bali was originally founded as the capital of the Idrisid dynasty in between 789 and 808 AD. Besides being famous for having the oldest university in the world  Fes el Bali, with a total population of 156 000, is also believed to be the biggest car-free urban area in the world.
Fes el Bali was listed by the UNESCO as a world heritage site in 1981 under the name Medina of Fes. The world heritage site includes Fes el Bali's urban fabric and walls and a buffer zone around Fes el Bali.
As the capital for his newly acquired empire, Idris ibn Abdallah chose to build a new town on the right bank of the Fes river in 789 a.d. Initially a big proportion of the population were refugees who were fleeing from an uprising in Cordoba (modern-day Spain)  However in 809 a.d. his son, Idris II, decided to found a capital of his own on the opposite bank of the Fes River. There were many refugees who decided to settle in the new city this time too, however this time they fled from an uprising in Kairouan (located in modern Tunisia)
Even though they were only separated by a relatively small river the cities developed separately and became two individual cities until they were unified in the 11th century by the Almoravids.
One good example of how the refugees contributed to making Fes flourish during the early years is the University of Al-Karaouine that was built by a Tunisian refugee in 859 AD and it is considered the oldest university in the world.
The Almoravids destroyed large parts of Fes el Bali but managed to create modern-day Fes el Bali when they united the twin cities by tearing down that separated them and by building bridges across the Fes river.
After defeating the Almoravids in Morocco, the Marinids moved the capital from Marrakech to Fes. This marked the beginning of the greatest period of the history for Fes el Bali. When the Marinids moved the capital to Fes in 1276 they started building a new town outside the old city walls. At first it was called the white city  but after a while it got a new name; Fes Jdid, or new Fes. This is when Fes el Bali, or the old Fes, got its name too. Before Fes Jdid was founded it was simply called Fes.
Most of the principal monuments in Fes el Bali was built during the Marinids. In the 14th century a mellah was added to the urban fabric.
- A ever-increasing population in an already dangerously overpopulated area and the uncontrolled urban development which is a result of that.
- The deterioration of the buildings 
Because of the vulnerability of the site the State has adopted a special plan to care for this world heritage site and every building and monument it contain. The aim is to prevent houses from collapsing, increase sustainable tourism and to safeguard everything.