Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro

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Avandaro
Genre Rock and folk, including jazz-rock, blues-rock, folk rock, latin rock, experimental rock and psychedelic rock styles.
Dates September 11–12, 1971
Location(s) Tenantongo, Valle de Bravo, State of Mexico, Mexico.
Years active Original festival held in 1971
Founded by Luis de Llano Macedo, Justino Compean, Eduardo and Alfonso Lopez Negrete.

The Festival Rock y Ruedas de Avándaro (also known as the Festival de Avándaro or simply Avándaro) was a historic Mexican rock concert held on September 11–12, 1971, on the shores of Lake Avándaro near the Avándaro Golf Club, in a hamlet called Tenantongo, near the town of Valle de Bravo in the central State of Mexico. The festival, which took place at the height of La Onda (The Wave) and celebrated life, youth, ecology, music, peace and free love,[1][2] has been compared to the American Woodstock festival[3] for its psychedelic music, counterculture imagery and artwork, and open drug use. A milestone in the history of Mexican rock music, the two-day festival was estimated to have drawn from 100,000 to 500,000 concertgoers.[4][5][6][7]

A total of 18 acts performed outdoors during the sometimes rainy weekend[8] and the event was captured in the 1971 Super 8 short film Avandaro.[9] An accompanying soundtrack with a selection of the live recording named Avandaro, por fin... 32 años después (Avandaro, at last...32 years later), was released in 2003.[10]

Before Avandaro: Massive events, student repression and La Onda[edit]

By 1971 Mexico, ruled by the PRI, had organized two of the most important sporting events in the world: the 1970 FIFA World Cup and the 1968 Summer Olympics, gaining a fresh and modern image its government wanted to show to the outside world. At the same time, its government had violently repressed political youth movements known as the Tlatelolco massacre and the Halconazo, which in turn gave way to the so-called Mexican Dirty War of the early 1970s.[11]

The Mexican hippies, called Jipitecas by Catholic priest and scholar Enrique Marroquin,[12] created a multidisciplinary movement called La Onda (The wave). In accordance to their hippie values, La Onda did not advocate a violent overthrow of the PRI, but it did advocate change. By 1969 the government had already banned the musical Hair after a unique performance of it in Acapulco, censuring the rock band Los Shakes (which included stars Pixie Hopkin,[13] Mayita Campos and Nono Zaldivar),[14] investigating impresario Alfredo Elias Calles (grandson of late president Plutarco Elias Calles) and deporting foreign actors and producers like Michael Butler, Gerome Ragni and James Rado. Such actions were heavily covered by local and American media like The New York Times and Time.[15][16][17][18][19] Writer Carlos Monsivais, who witnessed the event, wrote an extensive article about the incident in his book Dias de guardar.[20] Also in 1969, the band Pop Music Team had suffered censure due to their hit "Tlatelolco" (which only had two weeks of radio airplay)[21] and in February 1971 in Monterrey, a collective band called Sierra Madre, led by Teja Cunningham, and a state-of-the-art lights spectacle named "Music and light show" had faced repression after a failed attempt to hold a three-day concert, called Concierto Blanco (white concert) inside the State government palace in Monterrey's main square. The violent incidents after the White concert, which were extensively covered by the media, seriously damaged then Nuevo Leon governor Eduardo Elizondo's political career.[22]

News from Colombia (Festival de Ancon), Argentina (Festival Buenos Aires Rock),[23] Chile (Festival de los Dominicos "Piedra Roja"),[24] England (Isle of Wight) and films from American festivals like "Monterey Pop" and "Woodstock" fueled the desire for the Jipitecas to host their own major counterculture event. The opportunity arrived in the spring of 1971.

History[edit]

Trying to resurrect their popular auto racing spot, Circuito Avándaro, after being cancelled in 1969 as a result of the fatal accident of racing driver Moisés Solana, Promotora Go owners brothers Eduardo and Alfonso López Negrete in partnership with Coca-Cola executive and sports impresario Justino Compeán[25] consulted then Telesistema Mexicano promoter Luis de Llano Macedo to video-record the motoring event and to hire Javier Bátiz and La Revolución de Emiliano Zapata, two of the most popular Mexican rock acts of the time, for a high-class Noche Mexicana party the night before. Luis de Llano was at the time producing a section named La onda de Woodstock in the Jacobo Zabludovsky's program Domingo a Domingo (Sunday to Sunday). De Llano assembled a team to organize the festival, which included reporter Jaime Almeida, screenwriter Armando Molina Solis, cameraman Carlos Alazraki, and MCs Roberto Naranjo and Eduardo Davis.[26] Molina, himself an impresario and musician from La maquina del sonido fame, was appointed as Music Coordinator.[27] The music coordination was in the hands of the company ArTe, owned by Molina and Waldo Tena (of Los rebeldes del Rock fame). As the two desired rock acts declined the invitation Molina booked 12 bands, and the event was renamed by de Llano as Festival de rock y ruedas, for one day to concentrate on music and the next day to focus on the auto race, as stated in the poster. Mexican American designer Joe Vera was hired to design the official poster and tickets were sold at MX$25.[28]

The venue[edit]

Expectations[edit]

As was reported in the Corpus Christi Caller-Times, a maximum of 25,000 attendees, 122 pilots with their staff (with their number expected to reduce after the technical inspections) and 12 Mexican bands with a possible last-minute inclusion of American bands to bolster the event were expected. The bands were going to play from Saturday 7pm to Sunday 7am, making way for the auto race to start in public roads around the lake. 2 weeks before the event, the 5 hotels in town were already booked.[29]

Security[edit]

The security was going to be in charge of the State of Mexico's Judicial Police chief Cuauhtemoc Cardenas, who was going to receive support from 200 state troopers, 120 army troops and 50 Special Agents from the Secretariat of the Interior. Nevertheless, reports of the total amount of security agents were mixed.Variety reported a total of 700 law-enforcement agents.[30][29]

Terms between the organizers and mayor Montes de Oca[edit]

Co-organizer Eduardo Lopez Negrete and Valle de Bravo's then-mayor Juan Montes de Oca agreed that no liquor was going to be sold. Beer would be sold only with a meal.[29] In an in-depth radio/video interview with radio host Rafael Catana, Armando Molina stated that mayor Montes de Oca suggested to Valle de Bravo's inhabitants to be polite with the hippie crowd as they felt being overwhelmed by the excessive numbers of them. In the end not a single Valle de Bravo inhabitant complained about the hippies.

Cancellation of the auto race[edit]

Early Saturday morning it was decided, as stated by Alfonso Lopez Negrete, in an on-site interview made by a Telesistema Mexicano, to cancel the auto race due to the quantity of festival attendees which surpassed all expectations.[31] A segment of this interview can be seen in the independently produced and fair use documentary Las glorias de Avandaro.

The Circuito Avandaro auto-race was going to be suspended for decades to come since authorities tied the sport with massive crowds.[32]

The music[edit]

Pre-festival[edit]

As the number of attendees was already overwhelming organizers since the sound-check by Armando Molina and members of Three souls in my Mind Friday night, it was decided at Saturday 6am to start the festival with a Pre-festival.

  • Carlos Baca (Yoga session and ecology lecture)
  • Eduardo Ruiz Saviñón and UNAM's experimental theater troupe with Carlos Steward. (Performed The Who's "Tommy" rock opera)
  • La Ley de Herodes (band of the famous Arau bros.)
  • Zafiro
  • La Sociedad Anonima
  • Los Soul Masters
  • La Fachada de Piedra with Larry Sanchez (39.4)

Festival[edit]

Right after La Fachada de Piedra concluded their act, at 7pm, the festival started and developed as follows:

At around Sunday 9am, Three Souls finished their act and the massive exodus started.

Festival development[edit]

As stated by Armando Molina in the official soundtrack (narration part)[33] and by his then assistant Jaime Almeida,[34] the whole festival was held in peace with the only problem being that the attendees destroyed the barricade and invaded reserved areas of the light towers and even the stage. In the official soundtrack desperate calls for order from Molina's assistant Roberto Naranjo and band members from Dug Dug's, El Epilogo, and Peace and Love can be heard. At one point, an attendee fainted and Tequila's world-class Mexican-American singer, Maricela Durazo, ordered the crowd to take good care and protect her. As thousands of jipitecas were on-site since Friday 10, co-organizer Luis de Llano stated the famous phrase: "They survived for three days sharing rain and mud; that was in attempt to have an identity."[35]

Francisco Martinez Gallardo, chief of the medical team and voluntaries of the improvised in-site hospital stated: "There was one case of acute appendicitis, 20 intoxicated with pills, 50 with marijuana, 5 with alcoholic congestion, 5 cases of gastroenteritis and some with wounded heads, ankle fractures and burns."[36]

The state-of-the-art Monterrey company Music and Light show (the same that participated at Monterrey's Concierto blanco) was in charge of the lights system and Ingeniero Cota in charge of the audio recording. Both participants stopped their services around the Mayita Campos and Los Yaki act due to problems with electricity, but the festival resumed soon after with Tinta Blanca, El Amor and formally ended with Three souls in my mind Sunday before noon as stated by Armando Molina in the official soundtrack.

Exodus[edit]

President Luis Echeverria agreed to send 300 buses to pick up some of the attendees. The news were cheered with a rarely seen approval for a Mexican president from his country's youth. As one of the organizers yelled, with heavy use of slangs, through the audio system: "lets cheer up Luis Echeverria, who is gonna send 300 buses of 50 seats each so we can go back...is a good guy that fella" (un aplauso para Luis Echeverría que nos va a mandar 300 camiones de 50 pasajeros para el regreso... a todo dar el chavo ese).[36] As can be seen in the Gurrola film, thousands upon thousands of hippies were walking from the site and many of them were overwhelming the buses.

Aftermath, Avandarazo and controversies[edit]

As can be heard in the official soundtrack and further explained in its audio-book section by Armando Molina, the band Peace and Love performed the songs "Marihuana" and "We got the power," that were considered controversial to Mexican society. At the same time, Peace and Love frontman Ricardo Ochoa used some foul language in order to get the crowd to sing echoing what Country Joe McDonald did at Woodstock. Since the festival was being broadcast live through Radio Juventud and relay stations all over the country, some segments of society took this as a direct threat to order ("Marihuana" for advocating open drug-use and "We got the power" for wrongly associating it with a possible popular uprising). The possible association of jipitecas with subversive and radical political movements is what caused the so-called Avandarazo.[37][38]

In the aftermath of the post-festival turmoil, several interviewed Avandaro attendees declared that the whole festival was held in peace and not a single major accident happened[39] but Moya Palencia, then Secretary of the Interior, accused the organizers of acting with intent and Carlos Hank González, then governor of the State of Mexico, condemned the festival's organizers and in his own defense stated that "They were given permission to perform a sporting event, but instead presented a rock festival"[40][41] but, as stated by Armando Fuentes Aguirre Caton, his political opponents took this as an opportunity to destroy his presidential aspirations.[42][43]

Opinions from the world of politics, religion and academia were deeply divided. While influential university professors and La Onda writers such as Parménides García and José Agustín, mostly gave the festival a positive review,[44] and some intellectuals like Paco Ignacio Taibo I, Elena Poniatowska (herself an attendee), Octavio Paz and José Emilio Pacheco gave a positive one also, others criticized it negatively like Roberto Blanco Moheno and Eduardo "Rius" del Rio. Writer and political activist Carlos Monsiváis initially gave the festival a negative review but changed his mind soon afterwards.[45] As Guadalajara Cardinal José Garibi y Rivera condemned it, popular liberal priest and festival attendee Enrique Marroquin praised it, writing a controversial article in its defense called "God wants the rain so we can unite."[46]

Union leader Fidel Velazquez simply called the festival "a Bacchanalia" and then President of the Senate, Enrique Olivares Santana, yelled in a press conference: "Let there be no more Avandaros in the republic!".

Finally and under pressure, then-Mexican president Luis Echeverría made a strong statement against the festival, saying: "While we regret and condemn the phenomenon of Avándaro, it also encourages us in our belief that only a small part of our youth are in favor of such acts and entertainment."

President Echeverria then proceeded to crack down the jipiteca movement. Some early 1970s hit-songs like "Avandaro" from Rosario, "Seguir al sol" by Pajaro Alberto and others which commemorated the event, were banned from radio playing,[47][48][49][50] Radio Juventud presenters Félix Ruano Mendez and Agustín Meza de la Peña were temporarily suspended and festival co-organizer Justino Compean left the country for a while.[51]

The band Tinta Blanca and other rock musicians tried unsuccesfully to hold a meeting with president Echeverria with a famous protest outside Los Pinos. After a short time the protest was peacefully disolved. [52]

Films and TV[edit]

Theatrical film[edit]

  • Avandaro. A 1971 Super 8 shortfilm of aprox. 20 minutes of footage with live soundtrack, produced by Luis Gutierrez y Prieto[53] and directed/edited by Alfredo Gurrola.[54] Photographers were awarded-filmmakers Héctor Abadie, David Celestinos and Sergio Garcia Michel. Facing government pressure in the aftermath of the festival, the film was briefly screened in selected theatres, cultural centers and international Super 8 film festivals only. By the end of the 1970s, the film was acquired by Cablevision thanks to the efforts of Gutiérrez y Prieto. As stated in Garcia Michel essay Toward a fourth cinema: "Apart from the technical achievements, Luis always sympathized with this Movement, sponsoring films such as Avándaro, Pasiones [Passions] and La lucha [The Struggle]; the first two were transferred from super-8 to videotape and belong to Cablevisión."[55] In 2006, the company Video Grupo Empresarial included it as a DVD-extra in the release of the 1983 Sergio Garcia film Three Souls in my mind: Una larga experiencia.

Documentaries[edit]

  • Tinta Blanca en Avandaro. Documentary by Humberto Rubalcaba about the band Tinta Blanca with footage of their participation in the festival. Mexico, 1972.
  • Avandaro 20 años después. Documentary produced by Enrique Quintero Marmol, Mexico 1991.
  • Avandaro. Documentary produced by Tres Tristes Tigres/Enrique Quintero Marmol. A longer version of the 1991 documentary. Mexico 1996.
  • In Memoriam: Avandaro. Documentary produced by Canal Once/Enrique Quintero Marmol, Mexico 2003.
  • Las glorias de Avandaro. An independently produced documentary by Arturo Lara Lozano, Carlos Cruz, Manuel Martinez, Angel Velazquez and Arnulfo Martinez y Torres, Mexico 2005.
  • Avandaro: Imagenes Inéditas. Documentary produced by Sergio Garcia with rarely seen footage. Mexico, 2008.

TV Specials[edit]

The festival in documentaries about Mexican rock[edit]

  • Nunca digas que no: Tres decadas de rock mexicano. Documentary produced by MTV, USA 1996.
  • Yo no era rebelde, Rock mexicano 1957-1971. Documentary from ClioTV, produced by Enrique Krauze. Mexico 1999.[56]
  • Rock n Roll made in Mexico: From evolution to revolution. Documentary directed by Lance Miccio[57] and produced by Canned Heat drummer Fito de la Parra.[58]

Documentaries in production[edit]

  • Bajo el sol y frente a Dios. Documentary by Arturo Lara Lozano/Enciclopedia del rock mexicano. In post-production.
  • Avandaro. In 2012, Mexican filmmaker Javier "Panda" Padilla[59] of the movie Suave patria stated that he was making a documentary about Avandaro but with no due date on sight.[60]

The festival in movies and TV shows[edit]

  • La verdadera vocacion de Magdalena.[61] Contains a segment with a fictional appearance of La Revolucion de Emiliano Zapata and Angelica Maria at the festival. It uses some Telesistema Mexicano footage from the festival. Directed by Jaime Humberto Hermosillo. Mexico, 1971.
  • Los Polivoces. A comedy TV show of the early 1970s. The frequently seen fictional character Armandaro Valle de Bravo, was supposed to be a jipiteca and was named after the event and Armando Molina.[62] In his debut episode, he is supposed to be interviewed as he and his parents were returning from the festival.

The Telenovela (soap opera)[edit]

  • In May 2014, Luis de Llano formally announced that he was preparing a soap opera with the Avandaro festival as its background.[63]

Literature exclusively about Avandaro[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Avandaro: Aliviane o movida? Book written by Vicente Anaya, Eligio Calderon and José Luis Fernandez. Published by Editorial Extemporaneos, Mexico 1971.
  • Avandaro. Book written by Luis Carrion with pictures by Graciela Iturbide, published by Editorial Diogenes. Mexico, 1971.
  • Nosotros. Comprehensive book about Avandaro, published by Tinta Blanca manager Humberto Rubalcaba's own company Editorial Nosotros with collaborations from Karen Lee de Rubalcaba, Alfredo Gonzalez and Mario Ongay. Prologue by Jacobo Zabludovsky. Mexico, 1972.
  • Avandaro: Una leyenda. Own-published book written by Avandaro attendee Juan Jiménez Izquierdo. México, 2011.
  • Avandaro: Lo que se dijo y lo que no se habia dicho. A yet-to-be-published book by Armando Molina Solis.[64]

Comics[edit]

  • Aliviane a la Madre Tierra. A series of comics produced by Carlos Baca about the adventures of "Avandarito" (Little Avandaro) and his friends. Published by Revista Pop, Mexico 1971-1973.[65]

Magazines[edit]

  • Casos de Alarma: Avandaro, el infierno. Exploitation magazine. Fictional story, purported to be real, about a troubled couple; a hippie woman (La encuerada de Avandaro) and a man with an opposing point of view of the Festival and the counterculture. Published by Alarma, Mexico 1971.[66]
  • Piedra Rodante: "La verdad sobre Avándaro". La Onda magazine. In-depth reportages about the festival including the renown "Dios quiere que llueva para unirnos" by liberal priest Enrique Marroquin. Published by Editoriales Tribales S.A., México, 1971.
  • Por Que?: "Avándaro: Miseria del régimen". Left-leaning magazine. In-depth reportage criticizing La Onda hippies and the festival, according to the magazine's political point of view. Published by Mario Menéndez. México 1971.
  • Cancionero internacional de oro En Onda: "Festival 11 de septiembre de 1971". Music magazine. In-depth reportage about the festival and the band Peace & Love. México, 1971.
  • Alerta: "Musica, droga y sexo: El frenesi de Avándaro". Exploitation magazine.. México, 1971.
  • Figuras de la cancion: "La noche de Avándaro". Music magazine. In-depth reportage about the festival and the band Three Souls in my Mind. México, 1971.
  • POP: "Avándaro". Music magazine, which included the famous comic "Aliviane a la Madre Tierra" by Carlos Baca. México, 1971.

Soundtracks[edit]

Official live soundtrack[edit]

  • Avandaro: Por fin...32 años despues. Released by Luis de Llano's own company Bakita-Ludell Records and produced by Javier Tena. Initially to include only 12 live tracks, the final product includes 17 live tracks as recorded in the festival. Comprehensive description by Armando Molina. Mexico, 2003.

Other soundtracks[edit]

  • La Fachada de Piedra en Avandaro Valle de Bravo. An EP with four studio tracks produced by Discos Orfeon, Mexico 1971.
  • Love Army en Avandaro. An EP with four studio tracks produced by Discos Orfeon, Mexico 1971.
  • Los Free Minds en Avandaro Valle de Bravo. An EP of four studio tracks produced by Discos Orfeon, Mexico 1971.
  • Los Soul Masters en Avandaro Valle de Bravo. An EP of four studio tracks produced by Discos Orfeon, Mexico 1971.[67]
  • Vibraciones del 11 de Septiembre de 1971. A compilation produced by Fontana Records, Mexico 1971.
  • Rock en Avandaro. A compilation of twelve studio tracks produced by Discos Orfeon, Mexico 1972.[68]
  • Peace & Love: Avandaro/1971. Studio album of the band Peace & Love, produced by Discos Cisne/Raff, Mexico 1973. Re-issued by Discos y Cintas Denver, Mexico 1992.[69]
  • Vibraciones de Avandaro. A compilation of studio tracks produced by PolyGram Records, Mexico 1994.
  • Historia del Rock Mexicano. Volumen 1. A compilation of studio tracks focusing on Avandaro, produced by Sol & Deneb Records/Armando Molina, Mexico 2000.[70]
  • Festival de Rock y Ruedas en Avandaro Valle de Bravo. A compilation of studio tracks of different bands produced by Universal Music, Mexico 2002.
  • Ecos de Avandaro. A double CD compilation with studio works of different bands. Produced by Sony BMG Music Entertainment, Mexico 2007.[71]

Curiosities[edit]

La encuerada de Avandaro[edit]

In spite the spirit of the age and that many people were completely naked swimming in the lake, walking in the middle of the crowd or even on stage without a problem as can be seen in the film, one woman, as the band La Division del Norte was playing, performed a striptease and caught the attention of the cameras. Her strip-tease was captured in the Gurrola film and shots of her appeared in many other media. When the footage and pictures were shown, the public baptized the woman as La encuerada(the naked woman).[72] A fictional interview, thought to have been real for decades, was published in the rock magazine Piedra Rodante in late 1971.[73] In 2001, a bitter dispute between the owner of Piedra Rodante Manuel Aceves and then collaborator and music critic Oscar Sarquiz about the veracity of the interview took place in La Jornada newspaper.[74] Finally, it was confirmed by Federico Rubli and further explained in the TV Azteca documentary that the interview was completely bogus.[75] A few years after the festival the band Three Souls in my Mind composed a song called La encuerada de Avandaro which would become a hit in the underground movement.[72]

The lost videotapes[edit]

Shot by Carlos Alazraki and his Telesistema Mexicano team, those tapes were destined to become part of the planned TV special but were confiscated by their own company as soon as Luis de Llano showed up for work. Some footage of these tapes has been released since 1971 in movies and documentaries. In a 2001 interview, Luis de Llano recalled this situation and stated that may he find the tapes he will produce a movie with them though it is widely believed that they were sent to a storage in Tijuana, and that years later the whole place burnt out. He also made clear that, contrary to popular belief, the Secretariat of the Interior did not confiscate the tapes.[76] An independent investigation, as shown in the Las glorias de Avandaro documentary, made as a request through the Federal Institute of access to information (IFAI) produced the official document proving that, indeed, the government did not confiscate the tapes.

Booked acts who failed to show up[edit]

  • Love Army - As stated by the former band singer Pajaro Alberto in the Glorias de Avandaro documentary, the band suffered a minor car accident while on the road from Mexico City to Avandaro.
  • La Tribu - As stated by Armando Molina in the live soundtrack, La Tribu cancelled at the very last minute but their record company, Polydor, sent La Division del Norte in their place.

Acts who declined to participate[edit]

  • La Revolucion de Emiliano Zapata: As stated by member Javier Martin del Campo in the fair use trailer for Bajo el sol y frente a Dios documentary, the band was already booked for September 11 to appear in Monterrey. As the band was heading north, they saw thousands of fans going south for the festival.[77]
  • Javier Batiz: As stated on the fair use TV Azteca documentary La historia detras del mito: Avandaro, he considered Molina's payment offer too low. Later, he regretted his decision and tried, together with his sister singer Baby Batiz some members of Los Locos and his girlfriend, to get to the festival but were stranded in the traffic jam and his girlfriend at the time got ill while on the road.

Legacy[edit]

As of 2014 Avandaro remains a controversial issue in Mexican society. Right after the festival and thanks to the Avandarazo rock music was almost banned and was segregated to the so-called Hoyos Funkies, illegal recitals played in abandoned warehouses and supported mostly by the working class only. The hippie movement around the world collapsed and Mexico was no exception.[78]

The world-class quality of the bands that participated is generally praised and while it is still not formally accepted as part of the official Mexican history class, the festival is often regarded as a milestone in the history of rock music and Mexican society in general.[79][80]

Picture gallery[edit]

Photographer Pedro Meyer, himself an Avandaro attendee, produced a collection called Avandaro 1971.[81]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Jimenez Izquierdo, Juan (12 December 2011). "Avandaro, mas que drogas y desnudos". El Universal. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Monsivais, Carlos (2004). "Would So Many Millions of People Not End Up Speaking English?: The North American Culture and Mexico". In Sarto, Ana del; Ríos, Alicia; Trigo, Abril. The Latin American Cultural Studies Reader. Duke UP. pp. 203–32. ISBN 9780822333401. 
  3. ^ Kramer, Michael J. (2013). The Republic of Rock: Music and Citizenship in the Sixties Counterculture. Oxford UP. pp. 220–. ISBN 9780195384864. 
  4. ^ Azul del Olmo, Luis Castaneda (2 January 2012). "De Avandaro al Vive Latino". Excelsior. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  5. ^ Zolov, Eric. "La Onda Chicana: Mexico's Forgotten Rock Counterculture". In Hernandez, Deborah Pancini; l'Hoeste, Héctor D. Fernández; Zolov, Eric. Rockin' Las Américas: The Global Politics of Rock in Latin/o America. U of Pittsburgh P. pp. 22––42. ISBN 9780822972556. 
  6. ^ ,, Colin M. MacLachlan, William H. Beezley. El Gran Pueblo: a history of greater Mexico. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Rubli Kaiser, Federico (16 September 2011). "Avándaro 1971: A 40 Años de Woodstock en Valle de Bravo". Nexos. 
  8. ^ Nava Durand, Pepe Nayeli (10 September 2011). "Lo que siempre quiso saber de Avandaro". El Universal. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  9. ^ IMDB. "Avandaro". Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  10. ^ Cruz Barcenas, Arturo (7 August 2003). "Presentarán disco con 12 temas que se tocaron en Avándaro en 1971". La Jornada. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  11. ^ Forero, Juan (22 November 2006). "Details of Mexico's Dirty Wars From 1960s to 1980s Released". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  12. ^ Marroquin, Enrique (1975). La contracultura como protesta (First ed.). Mexico: Ed. Joaquín Mortiz. 
  13. ^ "Pixie Hopkin". IMDB. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  14. ^ Goff, Charlie (5 November 2013). "Pixie: A versatile star.". The News. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Gerome Ragni; Co-Wrote Broadway Musical "Hair"". L.A. Times. 15 July 1991. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  16. ^ Dowling, Colette (May 1971). "Hair - Trusting the Kids and the Stars". Playbill. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Rebolledo, Anituy (30 August 2012). "Acapulco y Elvis.". El Sur. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  18. ^ Butler, Michael (12 December 1969). "Hairzapoppin'". TIME. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  19. ^ "Mexico shuts hair and expels its cast after one showing". The New York Times 88. January 6, 1969. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  20. ^ Monsivais, Carlos (1970). Dias de Guardar (First ed.). Mexico: Era. ISBN 9684111886. 
  21. ^ Krauze, Enrique (1999). Yo no era rebelde, Rock mexicano 1957-1971. Mexico: ClioTV. 
  22. ^ Teja Cunningham, Alfonso (February 2011). "40 años del Concierto Blanco". La Quincena 88. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Garcia Villegas, Juan José (2005). "Ancón 71, el festival hippie del amor y la paz". El colombiano. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  24. ^ Munoz, Arturo Alejandro (18 March 2014). "Piedra Roja, el ‘Woodstock’ chileno que los abuelos de hoy tratan de ocultar y que el viejo milicaje fascista tiembla al recordarlo". Kaos en la red. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  25. ^ Ochoa, Raúl (September 3, 2006). "Las andanzas de Compeán". Proceso. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  26. ^ Almeida, Jaime (11 September 2011). "Avándaro: 40 años de mito y leyenda‏". Las Tres y un cuarto. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  27. ^ Hernandez, Ricardo (10 September 2011). "Avándaro, a 40 años de distancia". El sol de Mexico. Organizacion Editorial Mexicana. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Roma, Tiziana. "Joe Vera: El logo de una ciudad naciente". Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c "Mexican village set for youths". Corpus Christi Caller-Times. 11 September 1971. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  30. ^ Zolov, Eric (1999). Refried Elvis. USA: University of California Press. ISBN 0520215141. 
  31. ^ Castellanos G., Ernesto (11 September 2011). "Avándaro, a 39 años". Esto. OEM. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  32. ^ Jalife Villalon, Carlos E. (September 2006). "Avándaro: primera pista internacional mexicana y último concierto masivo del siglo XX". Scuderia Hnos. Rodriguez (22). Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  33. ^ Molina, Armando (2003). Por fin...32 años después. Mexico: Bakita-Ludell Records. 
  34. ^ Almeida, Jaime (7 July 2011). "Avándaro: 40 años de mito y leyenda". Milenio. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  35. ^ Pepe Navar, Nayeli Durand (10 September 2011). "Lo que siempre quiso saber de Avandaro". El Universal. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
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References[edit]

  • Agustin, José (2013). Tragicomedia Mexicana Vol. 2. Debolsillo. ASIN B00DUGYL4M. 
  • Cruz, Octavio Hernandez (Oct–Nov 1996). "A 25 Años del Festival de Rock y Ruedas en Avandaro". La Banda Elástica. p. 4. 
  • Rodríguez O., Jaime; Kathryn Vincent (1997). Common Border, Uncommon Paths: Race, Culture, and National Identity in U.S.-Mexican Relations. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8420-2673-8. 
  • Zolov, Eric (1999). Refried Elvis: The Rise of the Mexican Counterculture. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21514-1. 
  • Rubalcaba, Humberto (1972). Nosotros. Editorial Nosotros. 
  • Carrion, Luis (1971). Avandaro. Editoriales Diogenes. 
  • Monsivais, Carlos (1970). Dias de Guardar. Editorial Era. ISBN 9684111886. 
  • Garcia, Parmenides (1972). La ruta de la onda. Editorial Diogenes. 
  • Pacini Hernandez, Deborah (2004). Rockin Las Americas: The Global Politics Of Rock In Latin/o America. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0822958413. 
  • Rubli, Federico (2007). Estremécete y Rueda: Loco por el Rock & Roll. Casa Veerkamp. ISBN 978-9685546027. 
  • Arana, Federico (1985). Guaraches de ante azul. Editorial Posada. ISBN 978-9684331419. 

External links[edit]