Fever (Little Willie John song)
|Single by Little Willie John|
|B-side||"Letter From My Darling"|
|Genre||Rhythm and blues|
|Little Willie John singles chronology|
"Fever" is a song written by Eddie Cooley and Otis Blackwell, who used the pseudonym John Davenport. It was originally recorded by American R&B singer Little Willie John in 1956 and released as a single in April of the same year. The song managed to top the Billboard R&B Best Sellers in the US and peak at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was received positively by music critics and included on several lists of the best songs during the time it was released.
It has been covered by numerous artists from various musical genres, most notably by Peggy Lee whose rendition became the most widely known version of "Fever" and the singer's signature song. Lee's version contained rewritten lyrics different from the original and an altered music arrangement. It became a top-five hit on the music charts in the UK and Australia in addition to entering the top ten in the US and the Netherlands. "Fever" was nominated in three categories at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards in 1959, including Record of the Year and Song of the Year.
Other notable cover versions of "Fever" include those by Elvis Presley, The McCoys, La Lupe and Madonna. The latter released it as a single from her fifth studio album Erotica (1992) in March 1993 through Warner Bros. It topped the charts in Finland and the Hot Dance Club Songs in the US in addition to charting in the top 50 in many other countries. Madonna promoted "Fever" by filming and releasing a music video directed by Stéphane Sednaoui and performing the song on several television shows as well as her 1993 The Girlie Show World Tour. Various versions of "Fever" by different artists were used in many films, theater plays and television shows.
- 1 Background and reception
- 2 Peggy Lee version
- 3 Other versions
- 4 Madonna version
- 5 Beyoncé version
- 6 In other media
- 7 See also
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 Sources
- 10 External links
Background and reception
The idea for "Fever" was presented to Otis Blackwell by an old friend, Eddie Cooley, who in 1956 had a hit song called "Priscilla". Blackwell said: "Eddie Cooley was a friend of mine from New York and he called me up and said 'Man, I got an idea for a song called 'Fever', but I can't finish it.' I had to write it under another name because, at that time, I was still under contract to Joe Davis." Little Willie John reportedly disliked the song, but was persuaded to record it, on March 1, 1956, by King Records owner Syd Nathan and arranger and producer Henry Glover. "Fever" is a soul and rhythm and blues minor key opus with an arrangement consisting of low saxophones played by Ray Felder and Rufus "Nose" Gore and a jazz guitar by Bill Jennings. The vocal style of Willie John is similar to moaning and he is backed by finger snaps. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic noted a contrast between the song's "ominous" arrangement and the vocals along with the finger snapping which "marginally lightened the mood".
"Fever" was released as a single in April 1956 and became a double-sided hit along with the top-ten R&B song "Letter from My Darling". "Fever" reached number one for three weeks on the Billboard R&B Best Sellers chart in the United States, peaking at the top on July 21, 1956. It also made the pop charts, peaking at number 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song has sold one million copies in the US. In a consumer review, Robert Christgau described Willie John's "Fever" as a very "fervid" song. Bill Dahl from the website AllMusic credited "Fever" for winning the "boisterous teen an across-the-board audience" for Willie John. The writer further opined that the singer's "sweaty case of love-rooted 'Fever' was seemingly grave, judging from his riveting intensity, yet he doesn't sound like he minds at all". NME magazine listed "Fever" as the 96th best song of the 1950s. In his The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made list published in 1989, critic Dave Marsh ranked "Fever" at the position of 109. The song was included on the greatest hits albums Fever: The Best of Little Willie John (1993) and The Very Best of Little Willie John (2001).
Peggy Lee version
|Single by Peggy Lee|
|from the album Things Are Swingin'|
|B-side||"You Don't Know"|
|Peggy Lee singles chronology|
Background and composition
In May 1958, Peggy Lee recorded a cover version of the song in Hollywood, which featured significantly rewritten lyrics composed by Lee herself without credit. "Fever" was not included on Lee's album Things Are Swingin' when it was first released in 1959; however it was listed as a bonus track on its 2004 reissue release. The uncopyrighted lyrics by Lee featured historical invokings (including the verses beginning "Romeo loved Juliet," and "Captain Smith and Pocahontas") are now generally thought of as a standard part of the song, and have been included in most subsequent covers of "Fever". Only the first and the fourth verse of the Little Willie John version were used, because Lee thought that the second and the third original verses were too risque for her musical tastes.
Lee's cover was a more slow-tempo version than the original; it was described as being in "torchy lounge" mode complete with bass and bongos while the finger snaps were provided by the singer herself. Lee's rendition was further described as "smooth, sultry". It is written in the key of A Minor in a medium swing tempo with 135 beats per minute; Lee's vocals span from the musical note of G3 to B4.
Reception and accolades
A writer of the website NPR deemed "Fever" as Lee's "most memorable tune" and considered it to be "slinky and inimitable". He went on to note that it displayed characteristics which were most remembered about the singer – "her playful delivery, charisma and sexuality". John Bush from the website AllMusic opined that the singer managed to excel in sounding "sizzling" in the song. John Fordham writing for The Guardian felt that the "heated" atmosphere heard on Lee's version of "Fever", "has an underlying suggestion that the person raising the temperature for her right now doesn't have to be the one doing it next week".
Lee's version peaked at number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US and spent a total of 12 weeks on that chart. It set a peak at number five on the UK Singles Chart where it first appeared on August 15, 1958. A reissue of the single charted again in 1992, appearing at 75 and staying for only one week. Elswhere in Europe, Lee's "Fever" managed to peak at number eight on January 3, 1959 pm the Dutch Singles Chart in Netherlands for five consecutive weeks before falling off the chart. The song also peaked at number two on the Australian Singles Chart complied by Kent Music Report and emerged as the twentieth best-selling single of 1958 in that country.
It was nominated in the categories for Record of the Year, Song of the Year and Best Female Vocal Performance at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards held in 1959. Lee's cover version of "Fever" became her signature song and her best-known work in addition to becoming her most successful hit. It was ranked at number 100 in the book and the accompanying list 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die by Robert Dimery. Joey Cohn ranked it as the tenth best jazz vocal in a list of 50 Great Jazz Vocals on NPR.
Elvis Presley released a near identical version to Lee's two years following her cover, for his 1960 album, Elvis is Back. British singer Helen Shapiro recorded a powerhouse version of "Fever" in 1964; her cover reached number 38 on the UK Singles Chart on January 23 of the same year. The Kingsmen released a version on their 1964 debut album The Kingsmen In Person. In late 1965, the rock group The McCoys released a version of the song "Fever", which had a very similar beat and rhythm to their previous hit "Hang On Sloopy". Only two verses were used of the original. The McCoys ' cover version of "Fever" peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 and 34 on the German Singles Chart. In 1967, James Brown recorded a version of the song for the album Cold Sweat. Music critic Robert Christgau opined that "Fever" placed on the album with several other cover versions "smelled a little fishy at the time". La Lupe covered the song on her 1968 Queen of Latin Soul album. Her version became widely famous worldwide; Elizabeth Bougerol writing for the website NBCNewYork.com described it as one of the "best versions ever" of "Fever" before noting that it was an essential addition to Boogaloo parties. In 1972, Rita Coolidge covered "Fever" for her album The Lady's Not for Sale and it became a minor hit in her early career. Her version charted at the position of 76 on the Billboard Hot 100. Suzi Quatro included her own version of "Fever" on Your Mamma Won't Like Me in 1975. Dave Thompson from AllMusic called her cover "lukewarm". Boney M. 's album Take the Heat Off Me released in 1976 contained their interpretation of the song.
Indian singer Usha Uthup performed the song on various of her concerts (including those in 2010) and included it on the album Usha In Nairobi released in 1978. On their debut studio album Songs the Lord Taught Us in 1980, The Cramps covered "Fever". It received praise from Ned Raggett of AllMusic who felt that the riff used in the end challenged the original. During their 1982 world tour, the British group The Jam covered the song as part of a medley with their own "Pity Poor Alfie" and Ray Charles ' 1961 song "Hit the Road Jack". A studio version of this (minus the latter song) was released in September 1982 on the B-side of their single "The Bitterest Pill (I Ever Had to Swallow)". The track dubbed as "Pity Poor Alfie/Fever" was also included on many of the group's compilation releases. Amanda Lear's version of "Fever" was released as a single-only track in 1982 with "Red Tape" from the previous year's Incognito album becoming its B-side. The cover photo of most single releases was taken by Alain-Philippe Malagnac d'Argens de Villèle, Lear's then-husband. The singer performed "Fever" in a number of television shows, such as German Ein Kessel Buntes and Italian Premiatissima. However, the single was not a commercial success and did not chart. "Fever" appeared in the tracklist of Lear's Super 20 compilation album in 1989 and two of her other compilation albums released later. The music video which features an appearance by her husband, was shot in Paris and sees Lear performing the song on a boat on Seine. In 1989, Joe Cocker recorded a version of the song for the album One Night of Sin. Jim Farber writing in the Rolling Stone deemed his version as having "greater distinction" with being "out-and-out awful".
In 1993, Tom Verlaine released a version of "Fever" on the Otis Blackwell tribute album Brace Yourself: A Tribute To Otis Blackwell by various artists. In 1995, Argentine musician Charly García released an album Estaba en llamas Cuando me Acosté which included a cover version "Fever". In 2003, Michael Bublé released his cover of this song on his self named debut album. Aaron Latham from AllMusic considered it to be among the highlights on the album, stating that Bublé "gives it a satiny sheen that the song hasn't seen in years". In 2004, a live rendition of the song was included on his live album Come Fly with Me. In 2004, Kate Ceberano covered the song for her album 19 Days in New York.
In 2005, Bette Midler recorded a cover of the Peggy Lee version of the song for her album Bette Midler Sings the Peggy Lee Songbook. It was released as a single from the album on March 21, 2006 as a three-song extended play (EP) on the iTunes Store. Midler further performed the song live on the Late Show with David Letterman. The group Fishtank Ensemble covered it for their Woman In Sin album released in May 2010. In 2012, Barry Gibb performed "Fever" live at the Hard Rock Cafe in Miami with his own "Stayin' Alive" in the tempo faithful to Peggy Lee's version. Lulu Roman recorded a cover for her 2013 album At Last which contained her renditions of musical standards. Other cover versions include those by Ella Fitzgerald, Ray Charles, Nancy Sinatra, The Blues Band, Wanda Jackson, Alvin Robinson, and Shirley Manson.
|Single by Madonna|
|from the album Erotica|
|Released||March 6, 1993|
|Madonna singles chronology|
Background and composition
In 1992, Madonna recorded a cover version of "Fever" for her fifth studio album Erotica. She served as a producer for the song along with Shep Pettibone. Madonna was in the studio putting down tracks for the album and had just recorded a song called "Goodbye to Innocence". She was going through the final stages of production on the song and suddenly started singing the lyrics to "Fever" over "Goodbye to Innocence". Madonna liked the way it sounded so much that she recorded it. "Goodbye to Innocence" was never released on a Madonna album, although it did appear on Just Say Roe, a charity record, and a dub mix of it titled "Up Down Suite" was a bonus track to the "Rain" maxi-single. In September 2008, Madonna's version of "Fever" was used in television promos for the fifth season of Desperate Housewives.
According to author Rikky Rooksby, Madonna changed the composition of the original version by adding drum rhythms, accompanied by a beatbox sound like snare drums. Removing the chord progression of the original, Madonna even introduces original lyrics into the song, including one about Captain Smith and Pocahontas. Instrumentation of the track includes strings, marimba and finger-pops at various intervals throughout. Rooksby noticed that Madonna sang with a distant and disembodied voice, and relegated it to the dance music accompanying the lyrics. Describing it as Madonna's "unsexy music", Rooksby called it a "sterile track" and "certainly misplaced as the second track of her [Erotica] album".
Critical and commercial reception
The New York Times editor Stephen Holden wrote that "The album's softer moments include a silky hip-hop arrangement of 'Fever'". The Baltimore Sun 's J. D. Considine praised the song as a "sassy, house-style remake" of the original version. He noted that when Madonna and the team of producers that worked on the album "push beyond the expected... [it] really heats up, providing a sound that is body-conscious in the best sense of the term", exemplifying his statements with "Fever". Alfred Soto of Stylus Magazine wrote that this song has its unique, idiosyncratic energy which he compared with material by Joni Mitchell from his album Blue (1971). A writer from Billboard called the song a "house-inflected rendition" and noted it was single-worthy. David Browne of Entertainment Weekly criticized Madonna's voice as "souless": "You and Shep sure do a bang-up job — pun intended — transforming 'Fever,' that old Peggy Lee hit, into a techno drone, but listen to the parched sound emitted from your throat on such tracks. It's cold, deadened, remote."
Although "Fever" was never officially released as a single in the United States, it managed to become a dance hit, becoming Madonna's 15th song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play. It topped the chart for the issue dated May 15, 1993 in its eleventh week of ascending. In the United Kingdom, the song debuted at its peak position of number six on the UK Singles Chart on the issue dated April 3, 1993. It peaked at number one on the Finnish Singles Chart on April 15, 1993. In Ireland it managed to enter the top ten of the Irish Singles Chart, peaking at the position of six and charting for four weeks. Elswhere, it peaked at numbers 12 in Italy, 17 in New Zealand, 22 on the Ultratop chart of the Flanders region in Belgium, 31 in France and 51 in Australia.
Music video and promotion
The music video for "Fever", directed by Stéphane Sednaoui, was shot on April 10–11, 1993 at Greenwich Studios in Miami, Florida, and received its world premiere on May 11, 1993, on MTV. It has since been made commercially available on the DVD collection, The Video Collection 93:99. The music video alternately features Madonna with a red wig and silver bodypaint in a variety of costumes dancing in front of funky, kaleidoscopic backgrounds. It showcases her posing like ancient goddesses. She is enveloped in a flame-like atmosphere and eventually burns up. In a review of the video, Jeremy Kinser of The Advocate criticized Madonna's look saying that the outfit by Jean Paul Gaultier she wears was "bizarre" and made her look "like she's pregnant with a duck-billed platypus". Charles Aaron writing for Spin magazine classified the clip as "dub".
To start the promotion for Erotica, Madonna performed "Fever" and "Bad Girl" on Saturday Night Live in January 1993. During the 1000th The Arsenio Hall Show, Madonna performed the original version of "Fever" accompanied by a band, wearing a black classic dress and smoking a cigarette. Madonna also performed "Fever" on the 1993 Girlie Show World Tour as the second song from the setlist. After "Erotica", the singer partially strips and proceeds to straddle and dances suggestively with two half-naked male dancers. At the end of the song, Madonna and the two backup dancers descend into a literal ring of fire.
Track listing and formats
|Promotional single by Beyoncé from the album Heat|
|Released||February 8, 2010|
|Heat track listing|
Background and release
American singer Beyoncé included her version of "Fever" on multiple releases. Her original recording of the song was included on the soundtrack album for the 2003 American musical dramedy film, The Fighting Temptations, in which she also had a leading role. The song was also featured in the film itself, during a scene in which the character Beyoncé portrayed, named Lilly, sang the song in a nightclub while Darrin (played by Cuba Gooding, Jr.) watches her. Beyoncé's version was produced by Damon Elliott and was recorded by her while she was still working on the 2002 film Austin Powers in Goldmember. Elliott suggested to the singer to record "Fever" as it was one of his favorite songs. When she got a role in The Fighting Temptations, the song seemed "perfect" for it as stated by Elliot. Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine provided a positive review for the cover, saying: "The seductive iciness of Peggy Lee's 'Fever' is successfully transplanted with a gumbo sound and sexy Southern comfort."
Beyoncé appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno on September 17, 2003 to promote The Fighting Temptations with a live performance of "Fever". In November 2003, the song was included in the set list of the singer's first headlining solo Dangerously in Love Tour. Beyoncé was backed by four male dancers dressed in white, performing a choreography with her. In a review of the show, Dave Simpson from The Guardian felt that the performance of "Fever" was "a note perfect if pointless version" of the original. In 2004, the song was included on the live album Live at Wembley which was filmed during a London concert as part of the tour. Beyoncé's original recording was additionally included on the track-listing of her first mixtape Speak My Mind released in 2005.
After releasing her first fragrance Heat, Beyoncé re-recorded her version of "Fever" as promotion for the fragrance, using the song in its advertisements. The re-recorded 2010 version of the song was produced by Chink Santana and Beyoncé herself. It was released for digital download on the iTunes Store in the US on February 8, 2010. The next day, it was released in the United Kingdom. In February the following year, "Fever" was included on the track-listing of the extended play (EP) Heat, a limited CD released with the perfume.
Usage in media
As promotion for the fragrance, a TV commercial for Heat was directed by Jake Nava, who had previously worked with Beyoncé on various of her music videos. The commercial features Beyoncé in a red satin dress sweating in a steamy room while the 2010 cover version of "Fever" plays in the background. Throughout the clip, she is seen lying naked in the middle of a room, touching her body, dancing and leaving a trail of fire as she touches a wall. The commercial concludes with Beyoncé walking away from the camera and melting the floor with her footprints. During the end, she turns and says "Catch the fever", the tagline of the fragrance.
In an interview with Women's Wear Daily, the singer described the sexual tone of the video stating: "My sexiest moments are when I'm just getting out of the tub or the shower and I'm clean, so I wanted to incorporate that in the ads. The dress was this liquid-y satin. The song Fever I did years ago and always loved it. [For the commercial] I got to sing it a bit more whispery, more natural." The silky red dress she wears in the video has been noted for exposing partial cleavage. The commercial for the fragrance found controversy in the United Kingdom with the Advertising Standards Authority where it was banned from daytime TV rotation due to its "sexy imagery".
In other media
On June 3, 1976, Rita Moreno sang "Fever" on episode 105 of The Muppet Show, accompanied by Animal on the drums who repeatedly and comically distracted her with a more aggressive drumming style than the song required, which caused Moreno to use two cymbals to crush Animal's head in order to stop his wild playing. This resulted in his saying: "That my kind of woman" to the audience, thus ending the musical skit. In a review for The A.V. Club, Erik Adams considered it to be one of the best segments of the series, further hailing it as a "classic of the genre" and suitable for various generations. In the seventh season episode "The Fabulous Robinson Sisters" of Who's the Boss? which aired on October 2, 1990, the character Angela Bower (Judith Light) sings "Fever" in a night club where her mother Mona takes her. In the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine April 22, 1998 episode "His Way", the holographic singer modeled on Major Kira (portrayed by Nana Visitor) sings "Fever" for an audience including Constable Odo. During the episode "Marge Simpson in: 'Screaming Yellow Honkers'" of the The Simpsons ' tenth season which aired on February 21, 1999, the character Edna Krabappel is seen performing a dance while singing "Fever". La Lupe's version of "Fever" was featured on the episode "Angels Of Death" of the second season of the TV series Magic City which aired on June 21, 2013.
"Fever" was included in the Broadway musical Million Dollar Quartet which opened in New York in April 2010; it was sung in the Broadway production by Elizabeth Stanley as "Dyanne". Christina DeRosa sings "Fever" in Jim Wynorski's 2012 film Gila! The documentary film Red Obsession released in 2013 featured Lee's version of "Fever". In 2013, Ukrainian rhythmic gymnast Alina Maksymenko used Lee's version for her clubs routine and went to win the bronze medal at the 2013 World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships.
- List of Billboard number-one rhythm and blues hits
- List of Billboard Hot 100 top 10 singles in 1958
- List of Top 25 singles for 1958 in Australia
- List of number-one dance singles of 1993 (U.S.)
- List of number-one singles of 1993 (Finland)
- Dahl, Bill. "Fever - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Eddie Cooley at Black Cat Rockabilly
- Peggy Lee Discography
- "100 Best Songs of the 1950s - #96 Little Willie John, 'Fever'". NME (Time Inc. UK). Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Little Willie John - Awards". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942-2004. Record Research. p. 301.
- "Consumer Guide Reviews: Little Willie John". Robert Christgau. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Marsh, Dave. "The 1001 Greatest Singles, by Number". Control.lth.se. Archived from the original on February 4, 2002. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Wynn, Ron. "Fever: The Best of Little Willie John - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Phares, Heather. "The Very Best of Little Willie John - Little Willie John". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Bush, John. "Things Are Swingin' - Peggy Lee". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Richmond, Peter (2007). Fever: The Life and Music of Miss Peggy Lee. Macmillan. p. 318. ISBN 978-1-466-81880-4. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- ""Fever" Singer Peggy Lee Is Hot Again". CBS News. May 17, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee "Fever" Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. BMG Rights Management. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Delving into Peggy Lee's Steamy Mystique". NPR. May 6, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Bush, John. "The Best of Miss Peggy Lee - Peggy Lee". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Fordham, John (January 22, 2002). "Peggy Lee". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee - Chart history". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media Inc.). Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee: Artist Chart History" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Peggy Lee – Fever" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Kent, David (2005). Australian Chart Book 1940 - 1969. Australian Chart Book Pty Ltd, Turramurra, N.S.W. ISBN 0-646-44439-5.
- "GRAMMY Rewind: 1st Annual GRAMMY Awards". Grammy.com. January 4, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "The Grammys - Peggy Lee". Peggylee.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (January 22, 2002). "Singer Peggy Lee, Who Gave The World 'Fever,' Dies At 81". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Dimery, Robert; Visconti, Tony (2010). 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die. United Kingdom: Quintessence Editions. ISBN 0789320894.
- "The Mix: 50 Great Jazz Vocals". NPR. February 7, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Peggy Lee > Awards". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "1958 Billboard Top 100 Songs". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Sendra, Tim. "At Abbey Road 1961-1967". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Helen Shapiro". UK Singles Chart. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Rabid, Jack. "The Kingsmen in Person - The Kingsmen". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "The McCoys - Chart History". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media Inc.). Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "Ultratop.be - The McCoys - Fever". Ultratop.be. Hung Medien. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "James Brown". Robert Christgau. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "La Lupe - Queen of Latin Soul". Discogs. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Independent Lens. La Lupe Queen of Latin Soul". PBS. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Bougerol, Elizabeth (September 9, 2011). "My Playlist: DJ Turmix Schools Us in Boogaloo". NBCNewYork.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- S. Ginell, Richard (July 15, 2004). "Review: 'A Tribute to Miss Peggy Lee'". Variety. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Pruett, Jon. "Rita Coolidge - The Lady's Not for Sale". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Rita Coolidge - Awards". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Thompson, Dave. "Your Mamma Won't Like Me - Suzi Quatro". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- "Take the Heat Off Me by Boney M.". United Kingdom: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Sen, Radhika (October 12, 2010). "Yesterday once more". The Telegraph (ABP Group). Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Raggett, Ned. "Songs the Lord Taught Us - The Cramps". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Pity Poor Alfie/Fever - The Jam". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Amanda Lear – Fever (Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "Super 20 - Amanda Lear". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
- "One Night of Sin by Joe Cocker". New Zealand: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Farber, Jim (October 19, 1989). "Joe Cocker One Night Of Sin Review". Rolling Stone (Wenner Media). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Brace Yourself! - A Tribute To Otis Blackwell by Various Artists". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Estaba en llamas Cuando me Acosté (Compact Disc liner notes). Charly García. Columbia. 1995. 2-478667.
- Latham, Aaron. "Michael Bublé - Michael Bublé". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Come Fly With Me (CD & DVD)". Amazon.com. Amazon Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Bette Midler Sings the Peggy Lee Songbook by Bette Midler". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Fever (Club Mixes) - EP by Bette Midler". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Woman In Sin by Fishtank Ensemble". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Lulu Roman Recruits Dolly Parton, Georgetta Jones on New Album". Billboard (Prometheus Global Media). January 14, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Original versions of Fever by Ray Charles with Natalie Cole. SecondHandSongs. Retrieved on 2014-05-12.
- Pettibone, Shep. "Erotica Diaries - Written by Shep Pettibone". ShepPettibone.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
- "Sounds and Visions". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media Inc.) 120 (47): 31. November 22, 2008. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Rooksby 2004, pp. 39–40
- Holden, Stephen (October 18, 1992). "RECORDINGS VIEW; Selling Sex and (Oh, Yes) a Record". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Considine, J. D. (October 18, 1992). "Madonna's 'Erotica' delivers more than just sexuality". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- Soto, Alfred (January 17, 2006). "Madonna - Erotica - On Second Thought". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Madonna - Erotica". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media Inc.) 103 (41): 62. October 24, 1992. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Browne, David (October 23, 1992). "Music Review: Erotica, by Madonna". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- "Dance Club Songs : May 15, 1993". Billboard (Business Media Inc.). Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- "Your charts for 3rd April 1993". Official Charts Company. April 3, 1993. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- Nyman, Jake (2005). Suomi soi 4: Suuri suomalainen listakirja (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Helsinki: Tammi. ISBN 951-31-2503-3.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Fever". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Australian-charts.com – Madonna – Fever". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "Madonna.com > News > Madonna's Fever" video is filmed by Stephane Sednaoui in Miami". Madonna.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "Inlay credits". The Video Collection 93:99 (VHS, DVD, CD). Madonna. Warner Bros. 1999. 9362-49729-6.
- Kinser, Jeremy (October 26, 1999). "Madonna's Wild Ride". The Advocate (Here Media Inc.) 1083 (797): 74. ISSN 0001-8996. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Aaron, Charles (October 1993). "Madonna, "Rain" (Maverick/Sire/Warner Bros.)". Spin (Spin Media LLC) 9 (7). ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- Parish & Pitts 2003, p. 525
- "Another 'Bad Girl' Rips Up a Photograph on 'SNL'". Deseret News (Deseret News Publishing Company). 1993-01-18. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- Willman, Chris (1993-05-15). "Pop Music Review: Madonna Bowls Over Arsenio's Show". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- Lenig, Stuart (June 16, 2010). The Twisted Tale of Glam Rock. p. 145. ISBN 9780313379864. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- Madonna: The Rolling Stone Files : The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions from the Files of Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone. 1997. ISBN 978-0786881543. Retrieved 2013-02-24.
- "Ultratop.be – Madonna – Fever" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "Lescharts.com – Madonna – Fever" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Madonna: Discografia Italiana" (in Italian). Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "Charts.org.nz – Madonna – Fever". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- "Madonna: Artist Chart History" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Madonna. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1993" [Top Singles of 1993] (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Federation of the Italian Music Industry. 1996-12-31. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- "1993 Hot Dance Music Club Play Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media Inc. December 31, 1993. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Beyonce Tunes Lead 'Temptations' Soundtrack". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media Inc.). August 13, 2003. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Phares, Heather. "The Fighting Temptations". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Hay, Carla (October 11, 2003). "Beyoncé Tempts Fans with More Movie Songs". Billboard 115 (34) (Nielsen Business Media). p. 20. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Fuchs, Cynthia (September 18, 2003). "The Fighting Temptations (2003)". PopMatters. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (April 12, 2002). "Damon Elliott Gives Beyonce 'Fever,' Writes Lame Raps". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Ed Gonzalez (September 14, 2003). "The Fighting Temptations Original Soundtrack". Slant Magazine. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Season 11. Episode 156. September 17, 2003. NBC.
- Simpson, Dave (November 4, 2003). "Beyoncé, Manchester Arena". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- "Live at Wembley - Beyoncé". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Speak My Mind". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Beyoncé Catches 'Heat' in Fragrance Ads". Rap-Up (Devin Lazerine). December 29, 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Fever - Single by Beyoncé - Download Fever - Single on iTunes". US: iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Fever: Beyonce". Amazon.com. Amazon Inc. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- "Fever". Amazon UK. Amazon Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Heat (Media notes). Beyoncé. Columbia Records/Coty, Inc. 2011.
- Dinh, James (November 17, 2010). "Beyonce's Perfume Commercial Banned From Daytime Broadcast In U.K.". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- "Beyoncé Brings Back Sasha Fierce For Vizio Commercial". Rap-Up (Devin Lazerine). November 10, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- "Beyonce Discusses Launch of 'Heat' Fragrance - Beauty Industry and Products News". Women's Wear Daily (Ralph Erardy, Sr.). Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- "Beyonce's Heat perfumer advertisement deemed too sexy for UK day-time TV". News.com.au. News Corp Australia. November 18, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Vena, Jocelyn (November 18, 2010). "Beyonce's Banned Perfume Ad Defended By Company". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Vena, Jocelyn (November 22, 2010). "Beyonce Laughs Off Heat Commercial Controversy". MTV News. MTV Networks. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Adams, Erik (November 15, 2011). "The Muppet Show: "Episode 104: Ruth Buzzi"/"Episode 105: Rita Moreno"". The A.V. Club (The Onion, Inc.). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Who's the Boss?. Season 7. Episode 3. October 2, 1990. American Broadcasting Company.
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Season 6. Episode 20. April 22, 1998.
- Martyn, Warren; Adrian, Wood. "A new car brings out Marge's aggressive side.". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- Harris, Will (June 21, 2013). "Magic City: "Angels Of Death"". The A.V. Club (The Onion). Retrieved September 11, 2014.
- Zielinski, Peter James. "Photo Coverage: Million Dollar Quartet Opens on Broadway". Posted: 12:04 PM; Monday, April 12, 2010.
- MDQ Merchandising LLC (2010). “Song List” and “Performing Credits”. In Million Dollar Quartet (p. 5) [CD booklet]. New York City: Avatar Studios; and Chicago: Chicago Recording Company.
- Hoosier hollywood: MG and the Gas City Three | Profiles | NUVO News | Indianapolis, IN. Nuvo.net. Retrieved on 2014-05-12.
- Turan, Kenneth (September 12, 2013). "Review: 'Red Obsession' takes on China and the Bordeaux mania". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Garland to O'Connor. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415943337.
- Rooksby, Rikky (2004). The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9883-3.