Fevzi Çakmak

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Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak
1311 (1895)-c-P. 7
Fevzi cakmak.png
Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak (October 26, 1923)[1]
Nickname(s) Kavaklı Fevzi,
Müşir, Mareşal
Born (1876-01-12)January 12, 1876
Cihangir, Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died April 10, 1950(1950-04-10) (aged 74)
Teşvikiye, Istanbul, Turkey
Buried at Eyüp Sultan Mezarlığı
Allegiance  Ottoman Empire (1896–1920)
 Turkey (1920–1944)
Years of service 1896–1944
Rank Mareşal
Commands held 2nd Division, 5th Corps, 2nd Caucasian Corps, 2nd Army, 7th Army, 1st Army Troops Inspectorate, Chief of the General Staff
Battles/wars Albanian Uprising
Italo-Turkish War
Balkan Wars
First World War
War of Independence
Sheikh Said rebellion
Ararat rebellion
Dersim Rebellion
Other work Member of the GNAT (Kozan)
Member of the GNAT (Istanbul)

Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak (January 12[2][3] or January 24, 1876[4] – April 10, 1950) was a Turkish field marshal (Mareşal) and politician. He was the Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire; the National Defence Minister, the second Prime Minister, and the second Chief of the General Staff of the provisional Ankara Government (Government of the Grand National Assembly); and the first Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.[5]

Ottoman era[edit]

Family and schools[edit]

Mustafa Fevzi was born on January 24, 1876 in Cihangir (Istanbul, Ottoman Empire) to mother Hesna Hanım, daughter of Varnalı Hacı Bekir Efendi, who is the youngest son of Ömer Ağa, and father Ali Sırrı Efendi, who is son of Çakmakoğlu Hüseyin Derviş Kaptan and served for Tophane (Arsenal) as secretary. In 1879 his father Ali Sırrı Bey was appointed to Black Sea Artillery Regiment (Karadeniz Topçu Alayı) at Rumeli Kavağı, family move there. Thus Fevzi's name in the Army will become "Kavaklı Fevzi Pasha".[6]

He studied at Sadık Hoca Mektebi in Rumeli Kavağı between 1882 and 1884. And he continued to study at Tedrisiye-i Haybiye Mektebi in Sarıyer between 1884 and 1886, at Salonica Military School (Selânik Askerî Rüşdiyesi ) between 1886 and 1887, at Soğukçeşme Askerî Rüşdiyesi between 1887 and 1890. And he learned Arabic and Persian languages from his grandfather Hacı Bekir Efendi, who had studied in Egypt and Baghdad and was one of the prominent intelligentsia at the time.[6] He continued to Kuleli Military High School (Kuleli Askerî İdadisi) between 1890 and 1893.[7] After graduating from Kuleli military highschool, he entered Harbiye Mektibi (Mekteb-i Füsûn-u Harbiyye-i Şâhâne) in Pangaltı, April 29, 1893. He completed the military school as the seventh of the class on January 28, 1896 and joined the Ottoman military as an Infantry[8] Second Lieutenant (Mülâzım-ı Sani).[4]

On January 28, 1898, he entered the War Academy (Staff College, Mekteb-i Erkân-ı Harbiye-i Şâhâne), present day: Harp Akademisi) and on March 16, 1897, he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant (Mülâzım-ı Evvel).[4] On December 25, 1898, he graduated from Academy as a Staff Captain (Erkân-ı Harp Yüzbaşısı) and was assigned to the 4th department of the General Staff.[9]

Western Rumelia[edit]

Railway station of Metroviça (Mitrovica)
Mosque and bazaar of Taşlıca (Pljevlja)

On April 11, 1899, he became the staff officer of 18th Regular Division (On Sekicinsi Nizamiye Fırkası) under the command of Şemsi Pasha at Metroviça (present day: Mitrovica) of the 3rd Army.[9] He studied Serbian, Bulgarian, Albanian languages to read their newspapers for collecting information. On April 20, 1900, he was promoted to the rank of Kolağası, on April 20, 1902, Major (Binbaşı),[4] on July 19, 1906, Lieutenant Colonel (Kaymakam) and on December 17, 1907, Miralay.[9]

According to some researchers, he was in contact with Committee of Union and Progress and elected the member of the secret board of directors of the Metroviça blanch of the committee.[10][11][12] On July 3, 1908, Senior Captain Ahmed Niyazi Bey stationed at Resne (present day: Resen), an ethnic Albanian, took to the hills with 200 soldiers and a number of civilians, and issued a manifesto which demanded the restoration of constitutional government. Şemsi Pasha, an ethnic Albanian, was ordered to crush the rebel and went to Monastir with two battalions. But he was shot and killed by Second Lieutenant Bigalı Atıf Bey.

On August 19, 1909, he was demoted to Major, because of the Law for the Purge of Military Ranks (Tasfiye-i Rüteb-i Askeriye Kanunu).[9]

On December 29, 1908 he was appointed to Governor (mutassarıf) and commander of Taşlıca (present day: Pljevlja), and at the same time, the commander of the 35th Brigade (Otuzbeşinci Liva).[9] On January 15, 1910, he was temporarily assigned to the headquarters of the Kosovo Provisional Corps (Mürretep Kosova Kolordusu), on September 29,[9] he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (Kaymakam) and on July 27,[4] became the chief of staff of the same corps.[9]

On January 15, 1911, he was assigned to the 4th department of the General Staff. On October 2, 1911, when he was staying in İşkodra (present day: Shkodër), because Italo-Turkish War (September 29, 1911 – October 18, 1912) broke out, he was assigned to the Western Army that was formed for the defense of Western Rumelia under the command of Birinci Ferik Ali Rıza Pasha. On October 6, he was appointed to the Governor (mutassarıf) of İpek Sancağı (present day: District of Peć). On October 19, he went back to Istanbul to continue his task at the 4th department of the General Staff. On February 11, 1912, he was appointed to the member of the committee that was formed under the chairmanship of the Minister of the Interior Hacı Adil Bey with the decision about reform of Albania and three vilayet (Salonica, Monastir, Kosova). 9 May, he was appointed to a secretariat formed in the Sadaret and on July 3, to the deputy commander of the 21th[clarification needed] Infantry Division (Yirmi Birinci Fırka) at Yakova (present day: Đakovica),[9] on August 6, to the staff of the General Forces of Kosovo (Kosova Kuva-yi Umumiyesi).[13]

Balkan Wars[edit]

On September 29, 1912, he was appointed to the chief of the 1st department (chief of operations) of the Vardar Army under the command of Ferik Halepli Zeki Pasha, formed within the Western Army.[13] During the First Balkan War (October 8, 1912 – May 30, 1913), after the defeat at the Battle of Kumanovo ( October 23–24, 1912), Fevzi wrote that the distributions of the Ottoman forces over a wide area gave initiative to the enemy and that mobilization and concentration plan was poorly designed and flawed. He also noted that there were great deficiencies in artillery, wireless, and air units.[14] But he wrote that he had put the idea of creating a six-corps army of one hundred thousand men operation on interior lines from the Monastir (present day: Bitola) area.[14] The Vardar Army retreated to Monastir.

On November 16, during the Battle of Monastir ( November 16–19, 1912), his younger brother Muhtar Efendi was killed in action at the heights of Oblakovo, northwest of Bitola.[15] After the defeat at the Battle of Bitola, he wrote that the Vardar Army's effective strength for its 78 infantry battalions was 39,398 men.[16] The Vardar Army retreated to Albania. On 10 May, because Miralay Ibrahim Halil Bey (Sedes), who was the chief of staff of the Vardar Army, went to Istanbul, Fevzi deputized the chief of staff.[17] On June 19 the headquarters of the Vardar Army, left pier at Seman with steamships named Karadeniz and Gülcemal and arrived at Istanbul on June 22.[18]

Fevzi wrote:

On the morning of June 6, 1329, Karadeniz, in late afternoon Gülcemal, left pier at Seman. I also got on board Gülcemal. We've bid farewell to five centuries of Turkish rule of Western Rumelia. When the sun went down, the coast of Albania was gradually ceasing to be visible in front of our eyes. The cession of the part of our homeland, where our ancestors irrigated with their blood for centuries and many old and new martyrs were buried, brought unacceptable heartbreak and nostalgia to our hearts. Today, Western Rumelia that is the victim of ignorance and politics, was fluttering in pathetic sorrows.[19]

On August 2, 1913, he was appointed to the commander of the Ankara Reserve Division (Ankara Redif Fırkası), on November 6, to the commander of the 2nd Infantry Division (İkinci Fırka)[13] and on November 24, he was promoted to the rank of Miralay.[4]

World War[edit]

On December 22, 1913, he was appointed to the commander of the V Corps. His corps engaged in the defense of Gallipoli.[13] On March 2, 1915, he was promoted to the rank of Mirliva.[4] He arrived at the Gallipoli Front on July 13 and command his corps in battles of Achi Baba (İkinci Kerevizdere Muharebesi) and Sari Bair. On August 8, his younger brother, the commander of the 1st Company of the 2nd Battalion of the 64th Regiment, Lieutenant Mehmed Nazif Efendi was killed in action in the Battle of Chunuk Bair.[20]

On December 6, 1915, he served concurrently as the commander of the Anafartalar Group. In April 1916, he was appointed to the 3rd military district of Eastern Front and on September 7, 1916, to the commander of II Caucasian Corps consisted of 5th, 11th and 37th Caucasian divisions. On July 5, 1917, he was appointed to the commander of the 2nd Army at Diyârbekir.[13]

On October 9, 1917, he was assigned to the command of the 7th Army at the Sinai and Palestine Front and he remained in Aleppo until October 18 and began to move his headquarters forward to Halilürrahman and arrived there on October 23.[21] Erich von Falkenhayn gave Fevzi control of Beersheba and the eastern half of the Palestine Front on October 28. But Falkenhayn gave alternating orders on the same day. According to these orders, gave the command of all units on the Sinai Front Kress von Kressenstein until the new command arrangements are functional[22]

On February 15, 1918, he wrote to Erich von Falkenhayn, serious problems with the inefficient lines of communication and the supply and recruiting Zone proportionate with the strength and situation of the army. Moreover, he mentioned that here were combat skills proficiency problems caused by the inability of his under-strength army to withdraw front-line units for training in the rear area.[23]

on July 28, 1918, he was promoted to the rank of Ferik.[4] But in August 1918 he became ill and went to Istanbul to get medical treatment.[13]

After World War I, on December 24, 1918, Fevzi Pasha was appointed to the Chief of the General Staff (Erkân-ı Harbiye Umûmiye Riyaseti) of the Ottoman Empire. In April 1919, he met with Şevket Turgut Pasha, Cevat Pasha secretly in Constantinople and prepared a report called "Trio Oath" (Üçler Misâkı) to establish army inspectorate for the defense of homeland. In late April, Fevzi Pasha submitted this report to the Minister of War Şakir Pasha. On April 30, 1919, the War Ministry and Sultan Mehmed VI ratified the decision about the establishing of army inspectorates that had been accepted by the Chief of General Staff[24] On May 14, 1919, he was appointed to the commander of the Inspector of the 1st Army Troops Inspectorate (Birinci Ordu Kıt'aatı Müfettişi). On November 3, he assigned to the task in Heyet-i Nasîha and on December 31, he was appointed to the member of the Military Council (Askerî Şûra). He became the Minister of War of Ali Rıza Pasha Cabinet (February 3 – March 3, 1920) and Salih Pasha Cabinet (March 8 – April 2, 1920).[13]

War of Independence[edit]

A portrait of Fevzi Çakmak by the painter Hüseyin Avni Lifij (1886–1927)
Commanders of the Army of Ankara government: 1st line: Ferik Ali Fuat (Cebesoy), Ferik Cevat (Çobanlı), Müşir Fevzi (Çakmak), Ferik Kâzım Karabekir, Ferik Fahrettin (Altay); 2nd line: Mirliva Kazım (İnanç), Mirliva Ali Sait (Akbaytogan), Mirliva Ali Hikmet (Ayerdem), Mirliva Kemalettin Sami (Gökçen), Mirliva Cafer Tayyar (Eğilmez), Mirliva İzzettin (Çalışlar), Mirliva Şükrü Naili (Gökberk); 3rd line: Mirliva Asım (Gündüz), Miralay Alaaddin (Koval), Mirliva Mehmet Sabri (Erçetin), Miralay Sabit (Noyan), Miralay Ömer Halis (Bıyıktay)[25]

After the resignation of Salih Pasha Cabinet, he went to Anatolia to participate in the national movement arriving at Ankara on April 27, 1920. On 3 May, he was elected the Minister of Defense (Milli Müdafaa Vekili) and Vice Prime Minister (Heyet-i Vekile Riyaseti Vekili) as a parliamentary deputy from Kozan.[26]

The Ottoman Military Court declared a death sentence for him, in absentia. This sentence was published in Takvim-i Vakayi newspaper on May 30, 1920.[27]

He became one of the founders of the "Official" Communist Party established on October 18, 1920.[28]

On November 9, in addition to his existing tasks, he was temporarily appointed Vice Minister of the Chief of the General Staff, because the Chief of the General Staff İsmet Bey was continuously at the front as the commander of Western Front. On January 24, 1921,[13] in addition to his other tasks, he became Prime Minister (Heyet-i Vekile Riyaseti)[26] and on April 3, he was promoted to Birinci Ferik.[4]

Battle of Kütahya-Eskişehir[edit]

Fevzi Çakmak took control of the Army after the Turkish loss in Kütahya-Altıntaş under İsmet Bey (İnönü) and was able to stop the retreat of the Army of Grand National Assembly afterward.

Battle of Sakarya[edit]

Before the Battle of Sakarya, on August 5, 1921, he resigned as the Minister of War and was appointed the Minister of the Chief of the General Staff.[26]

The Army of Grand National Assembly defeated the Greek forces at the Battle of Sakarya on the outskirts of Ankara.

[29]

On July 12, 1922, he resigned as the Prime Minister.[26]

Great Offensive[edit]

Fevzi Çakmak and Mustafa Kemal planned and commandeered the Battle of Dumlupınar[citation needed]. On August 31, 1922, he was promoted to rank of Müşir (Mareşal) with the recommendation of Mustafa Kemal.[4]

They were and still are the only field marshals that the Republic of Turkey has had up till now. So even today[citation needed], an unspecified nickname Mareşal (Field Marshal) means Fevzi Çakmak.

Republican era[edit]

Mustafa Kemal's 1933 speech at the 10th anniversary of the Republic of Turkey, left to right: Chief of General Staff Mareşal Fevzi (Çakmak), President Gazi Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Speaker of the Grand National Assembly Kâzım Köprülü (Özalp), Prime Minister İsmet (İnönü)
With Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Republic Day, October 23, 1937)

Musul offensive plan[edit]

[30]

On August 14, 1923, he was elected a deputy from Istanbul.[26]

On March 3, 1924, he was appointed as the Chief of the General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.[26]

İzmir assassination attempt and purge[edit]

He quit politics by resigning from the parliament on October 31, 1924.[26]

Sheikh Said Rebellion and the Reform Plan for the East[edit]

Dersim Rebellion[edit]

Candidate to be Atatürk's successor[edit]

[31]

World War II[edit]

He retired on January 12, 1944.[26]

Transitional period[edit]

Hasan Âli Yücel – Kenan Öner Case[edit]

Nation Party[edit]

Death[edit]

Fevzi Çakmak's tomb

He died on the morning of April 10, 1950 in his house in Teşvikiye.[32] His funeral service was held at the Beyazıt and he was laid to rest in Eyüp Cemetery, Istanbul) on April 12, 1950.[33] His family rejected an effort to exhume his body and effect a transfer to Turkish State Cemetery in Ankara.

He knew French, English, German, Russian, Persian, Arabic, Albanian, and Bosnian.[4] He spoke French and translated English and German.[34]

Medals and Decorations[edit]

Works[edit]

  • Fevzi Çakmak (Mareşal), Garbî Rumeli'nin Suret-i Ziya-ı ve Balkan Harbinde Garp Cephesi Hakkında. Konferanslar, Erkan-ı Harbiye Mektebi Matbaası, İstanbul, 1927.
  • Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, Büyük Harpte Şark Cephesi Hareketleri, Gen.Kur. Basımevi, Ankara, 1936.

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kamile
(?-1915)
 
Limnili Hacı Derviş
Hüseyin Kaptan
(1782?–1897/98)
 
Üzile
 
 
 
 
 
Hoca Bekir Efendi
(1815–1898)
 
Fitnat
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan Vasfi
(1858–1927)
 
Hacı Rasim
(1870–1945)
 
Tevfik
 
Ali Sırrı
(1855/6-1914)
 
Hesna
 
Ayşe Şahver
 
Ali Nuri
(1866–1901)
 
Emine Eda
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mehmed Nazif
(1882 – August 8, 1915 [20])
 
Muhtar
(1884 – November 16, 1912 [15])
 
 
Sami
(1892–1909)
 
Nebahat
(1894–1986)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak
("Mareşal")
 
Fatma Fitnat
(1891–1969)
 
 
 
 
 
Münir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
M. Şefik Çakmak
(1892–1966)
 
Nigar Çakmak
(1909–1982)
 
A. Muazzez
(1911–1939)
 
Burhan Toprak
(1906–1967)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
E/Prof. of Princeton Uni.[35]
Ahmet Çakmak
(1934–)
 
Noriko Nagafuji Çakmak
Ja チャクマク・長藤紀子
(1949–)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Erika Leyla
(1972–)
 
Lisa Ayla
(1978–)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nilüfer Hatemi, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak ve Günlükleri, II. Cilt: 1918-1921/1950, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 2002, ISBN 975-08-0131-8, p. 1085. "Gazi M. Kemal Paşa Hazretlerine takdim, 26 Teşrinievvel '29" (Turkish)
  2. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, Genelkurmay Basım Evi, 1997, ISBN 978-975-409-098-7, p. 2, TBMM Arşivi; VIII. Dönem İstanbul millet vekili Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın hâl tercümesi, sicil no. 293, defter no. 486, zarf no. 32. (Turkish)
  3. ^ Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, II. Cilt, p. 907.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genelkurmay Başkanlığı Basımevi, Ankara, 1972, p. 52. (Turkish)
  5. ^ Fevzi Çakmak, Chief of the General Staff (Turkish)
  6. ^ a b Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 3.
  7. ^ Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, II. Cilt, p. 910.
  8. ^ Nusret Baycan, "Büyük Taarruz'da Komuta Kademelerinde Görev Alanlarla Üst Düzeydeki Karargâh Subayları", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 26, Cilt: IX, Mart 1993, [1] (Turkish)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 53.
  10. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 9.
  11. ^ Ayfer Özçelik, "Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak", Millî Kültür, Sayı: 83, Nisan 1991, Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, Ankara, 1991, p. 56. (Turkish)
  12. ^ Nilüfer Hatemi, "Marshal Fevzi Cakmak’s Family and Education: A Formation Process" in Identity and Identity Formation in the Ottoman Middle East and the Balkans: A Volume of the Essays in Honor of Norman Itzkowitz, Baki Tezcan (ed.), International Journal of Turkish Studies, 13:1&2, (Fall 2007): p. 203.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 54.
  14. ^ a b Edward J. Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913, Praeger, 2003, ISBN 0-275-97888-5, p. 183.
  15. ^ a b Nilüfer Hatemi, Günlükleri, I. Cilt., p. 191.
  16. ^ Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913, p. 194.
  17. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 14.
  18. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 15.
  19. ^ Fevzi Çakmak (Mareşal), Garbî Rumeli'nin Suret-i Ziya-ı ve Balkan Harbinde Garp Cephesi Hakkında. Konferanslar, Erkan-ı Harbiye Mektebi Matbaası, İstanbul, 1927, p. 475, modern Turkish text: ... 6 Haziran 1329 sabahı Karadeniz, akşama doğru da Gülcemal, seman iskelesinden hareket ettiler. Ben de Gülcemal'de indim. Garbî Rumeli'nde beş asırlık Türk hâkimiyetine veda ettik. Güneş batarken Arnavutluk sahilleri tedricen gözümüzün önünden siliniyordu. Atalarımızın asırlarca müdded kanlarıyla suladığı ve eski yeni birçok şühedamızın gömüldüğü vatan parçasının terki kalplerimizde nâ kabul izale acılar, hasretler tevlîd ediyordu. Cehalet ve politika kurbanı olan Garbî Rumeli elyevm elîm hicrânlar içinde çırpınmakadır.
  20. ^ a b Kemal Arı, "Mülâzım-ı Evvel Mehmed Nazif Efendi'nin Conkbayırı'nda Şehit Düşüşü ve Buna İlişkin Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)'in Bir Mektubu", Türk Tarih Kurumu, Belleten, LVIII/222 (Ağustos, 1994), pp. 451–459. (Turkish)
  21. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 978-0-415-77099-6, p. 115.
  22. ^ Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, p. 120.
  23. ^ Erickson, Ottoman Army Effectiveness in World War I: A comparative study, p. 143.
  24. ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918–1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 105. (Turkish)
  25. ^ Fotoğraflarla Büyük Taarruz at the Wayback Machine (archived February 16, 2007), Afyon Kocatepe University (Turkish)
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Genelkurmay, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, p. 55.
  27. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 45.
  28. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, p. 44.
  29. ^ Sadri Karakoyunlu, "Sakarya Meydan Muharebesi'nin Yankıları (Melhâme-i Kübrâ Büyük Kan Seli veya büyük Savaş Alanı)", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 31, Cilt: XI, Mart 1995, [2] (Turkish)
  30. ^ Zekeriya Türkmen, "Özdemir Bey’in Musul Harekatı ve İngilizlerin Karşı Tedbirleri (1921–1923)", Atatürk Araştırma Merkezi Dergisi, Sayı 49, Cilt: XVII, Mart 2001, [3] (Turkish)
  31. ^ Hasan Rıza Soyak, Atatürk's secretary, quotes Atatürk on the subject of his successor, “Of course, the right to speak and elect belongs to nation and its representative Grand National Assembly. But I'll state my opinion about this issue. Firstly İsmet Paşa comes to mind; he has performed many great contributions to this country. However, for some reason he seems not to get (sic) public sympathy. So he should not be very attractive (sic). And Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, he has great contributions in this country and also he fared well with everyone, he always has appreciated opinions of owners of authority; he is in a fight with nobody. In this regard, I think he is the most appropriate friend for the Head of State.” Atatürk'ten Hatıralar, Yapıkredi Yayınları, 2004, ISBN 975-08-0882-7, p. 717.(Turkish)
  32. ^ "Mareşal Fevzi Çakmağı dün sabah kaybettik", Cumhuriyet, 26 ncı yıl Sayı: 9221, Tuesday April 11, 1950. (Turkish)
  33. ^ "Mareşal Çakmağı Dün Toprağa Verdik", Cumhuriyet, 26 ncı yıl Sayı: 9223, Thursday April 13, 1950. (Turkish)
  34. ^ Hayrullah Gök, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın askerî ve siyasî faaliyetleri, 1876–1950, appendix: 25, İstanbul Milletvekili Seçilen Fevzi Paşa için tanzim edilen tutanak.
  35. ^ "Cakmak, Irby, Keaney, Miner, Obeyesekere, Peebles transfer to emeritus status", Princeton Weekly Bulletin, May 22, 2000, Princeton University.

Further reading[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Süleyman Külçe, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: Askerî Hususî Hayatı, Yeni Asır Matbaası, İzmir, 1946. (Turkish)
  • Sinan Omur, Büyük Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak'ın Askerî Dehâsı, Siyasî Hayatı, Sinan Matbaası, İstanbul, 1962. (Turkish)
  • Ziya Tütüncü, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: büyük milletin, büyük askeri, Milliyetçi Yayınlar, İstanbul, 1968. (Turkish)
  • Ali Gümüş, Kahraman Asker Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak, Tercüman Aile ve Kültür Kitaplığı, İstanbul, 1986. (Turkish)
  • Veli Yılmaz, Fevzi Çakmak, Kastaş Yayınları, İstanbul, 2006. (Turkish)
  • Rahmi Akbaş, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak: 1876–1950, Ötüken Neşriyat, İstanbul, 2008. (Turkish)

Articles[edit]

  • Adnan Çakmak, "Fevzi Çakmak'ın Hatıraları", Hürriyet Gazetesi, April 10 – May 20, 1975 (41 volumes). (Turkish)

External links[edit]

Political offices
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Hulusi Salih (Kezrak)
Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire
February 3, 1920 – March 3, 1920
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Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire
March 8, 1920 – April 2, 1920
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Damat Ferid
New title Minister of National Defense of the Ankara Government
May 3, 1920 – August 5, 1921
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January 24, 1921 – July 9, 1922
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Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk)
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