Fiat 124 Sport Spider

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This article is about the Fiat 124 Spider. For the 124 Coupé, see Fiat 124 Coupé. For the 124 sedan, see Fiat 124.
Fiat 124 Sport Spider
Nationale oldtimerdag Zandvoort 2010, 1974 FIAT 124 SPORT SPIDER 1800, 72-YA-19.JPG
1974 Fiat 124 Sport Spider
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat 1966-1982
Pininfarina 1983-1985
Also called Pininfarina Spider (1983-1985)
Production 1966-1985
Assembly Turin, Italy
San Giorgio Canavese, Italy (Pininfarina)
Designer Tom Tjaarda Designer, Franco Martinengo Design Director, Battista Pininfarina,[1] Pininfarina
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door cabriolet
Layout FR layout
Related Fiat 124
Powertrain
Engine 1,438 cc (1.4 L) I4
1,592 cc (1.6 L) I4
1,608 cc (1.6 L) I4
1,756 cc (1.8 L) I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) turbo I4
1,995 cc (2.0 L) sc I4
Transmission 4/5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 89.75 in (2,280 mm)[2]
Length 156.25 in (3,969 mm)[2]
Width 63.5 in (1,613 mm)[2]
Height 49.25 in (1,251 mm)[2]

The 124 Sport Spider is a 2+2 convertible sports car marketed by Fiat from 1966 to 1980 – having debuted at the November 1966 Turin Auto Show. Designed and manufactured by Italian carrozzeria Pininfarina, Fiat and Pininfarina continued to market the monocoque-bodied car as the 2000 Spider from 1979 to 1982. Pininfarina itself assumed the car's marketing from 1983 to the end of its production in 1985 – as the Pininfarina Spider Azzura.

The body of the car was designed and marketed by Pininfarina. The convertible body was designed by Tom Tjaarda, who used his earlier designs of Chevrolet Corvette “Rondine” and Ferrari 275 GTS. Several years later, in 1981, on the 50th anniversary of Pininfarina, this fact was further emphasized by producing a Fiat Spider 2000 Pininfarina 50th (Golden) Anniversary Edition. In 1972, a sports version of the Spider was revealed. This was required for a type-approval of its rally version, which earned some remarkable success. The models sold in showrooms were marked as 124 CSA (C-Spider-Abarth). The vehicle had a capacity of 128 hp. In three years, Fiat manufactured less than 1,000 CSA models, which were intended for sale to individual clients. Apart from the Fiat Spider 2000 Pininfarina 50th (Golden) Anniversary Edition, this is one of the versions most eagerly sought by collectors.

The car was sold in Europe and the U.S. from its introduction until the 1975 model year when it was modified to comply with new U.S. regulations and no European version was produced. Sales in Europe resumed when Pininfarina took over production in 1983 under the name Pininfarina Europa Spider.[3]

The Sports Spider and the Fiat 124 Coupé shared the numeric portions of their name with the 124 sedan along with much of their running gear – and, in the case of the Coupé, a shared platform. The Sports Spider utilized a shorter platform along with a shorter wheelbase, and in contrast to the Pinifarina styled and manufactured Spider, Fiat designed and manufactured the Coupé in-house.

Engines[edit]

The four-cylinder engine used in the Spider and Coupé was a double overhead cam, aluminum crossflow head version of the sedan's pushrod unit. It started in 1966 with a capacity of 1438 cc progressively increasing to 1608 cc in 1970 (although this reduced to 1,592 cc in 1973), 1,756 cc in 1974 and finally 1,995 cc in 1979. The Fiat Twin Cam engine was designed by Aurelio Lampredi.[4] Bosch fuel injection replaced the previously used Weber carburetors midway through 1980. In 1981 and 1982, Fiat USA, Inc. partnered with Legend Industries to create approximately 700 turbo models for US markets. There was also a supercharged model called Volumex offered toward the end of production, which was sold only in Europe, where it cost 35% more than a regular, fuel-injected Spidereuropa.[a] This family of engines was designed by ex-Ferrari chief engineer Aurelio Lampredi and in one form or another remained in production into the 1990s giving it one of the longest production runs in history. The double overhead cam (DOHC) version was the first mass manufactured DOHC to utilize reinforced rubber timing belts, an innovation that would come into nearly universal use in the decades after its introduction. Its family powered race cars such as: FIAT 131 Mirafiori, Special T, Lancia Beta Montecarlo, Delta Integrale and many others.

Years Engine Capacity Bore & Stroke Compression Ratio Output @RPM
67-73 124AC 000 1438 cc 80x71.5 8.9:1 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp) 6000
73-77 132AC 000 1592 cc 80x79.2 9.8:1 108 PS (79 kW; 107 hp) 6000
70-73 125BC 000 1608 cc 80x80 9.8:1 110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) 6400
73-77 132AC1 000 1756 cc 84x79.2 9.8:1 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp) 6000
74-78 132A1 040 1756 cc 84x79.2 8.9:1 118 PS (87 kW; 116 hp) 5800
74-78 131A1 040 1756 cc 84x79.2 8.1:1 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp) 6200
79-81 132C2 040 1995 cc 84x90 8.1:1 83 PS (61 kW; 82 hp) 5800
79-85 132C3 031 1995 cc 84x90 8.2:1 102 PS (75 kW; 101 hp) 5500
79-85 Spidereuropa 132C3 031 1995 cc 84x90 8.2:1 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp) 5500
84-85 Volumex 132V3 031 1995 cc 84x90 7.5:1 135 PS (99 kW; 133 hp) 6000
73-75 Abarth 132AC4 000 1756 cc 84x79.2 9.8:1 128 PS (94 kW; 126 hp) 6200

Suspension[edit]

Suspension was conventional by unequal length wishbones and coil over damper at the front and by coil sprung live rear axle at the rear which was located by a transverse link (Panhard rod) and two pairs of forward extending radius rods to react braking and acceleration and to control axle wind-up.

Specification[edit]

The Coupe and Spider were first sold in the US market in 1968. In 1969, the Spider featured four-wheel disc-brakes, double overhead cams, hesitation wipers, steering-column mounted lighting-controls, radial ply tires and a five-speed manual transmission. An optional three-speed automatic transmission from General Motors was available from 1979 through 1985 for North America as well as Japan. Its convertible top could be raised and locked in under a minute. When the engine was upgraded to two litres, the model was renamed as the Fiat 2000 Spider.

Fiat subsequently stopped marketing the Spider and the X1/9 — to have their marketing assumed by their respective carozzeria.[3] In Europe, the Ritmo Cabrio was also marketed by Bertone rather than Fiat themselves.[6] In the USA, Fiat turned over marketing and support of the Spider and the X1/9 to International Automobile Importers, Inc., headed by Malcolm Bricklin.

An early special version was the 124 Spider Abarth which featured an independent rear axle, hardtop, different seats, interior etc. and only came in 3 colours.

Rallying[edit]

Fiat Abarth 124 Rallyes in Abarth factory in Turin.

In 1971 the 124 Spider was prepared for the World Rally Championship when Abarth became involved with its production and development. Abarth designer Ing. Colucci was responsible for getting the 124 Spider into Group 4 rally trim. Over this period the Abarth Spider had relative success with wins at the 1972 Hessen Rally, Acropolis Rally, 1973 Polish Rally, 19th on the 1973 RAC rally and 7th to mostly the Alpine Renaults on the 1973 Monte Carlo Rally. The Spider continued to perform with 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the 1974 8th Portuguese TAP Rally, 6th in the 1974 1000 Lakes, 4th in the 1975 Monte Carlo Rally and also with Markku Alén driving the Spider to 3rd place. By 1976 the days of 124 rallying were numbered due to the appearance of the Fiat-Abarth 131.[7]

Production[edit]

The model line ceased in 1985 after almost 200,000 Spiders alone had been built, of which 75% were for the US market. There were nine models of the Spider, the AS, BS, BS1, CS, CSA (Abarth), CS1, CS2, CS0, and DS.

Year Model Starting Chassis Numbers CC's Engine Type Fuel Delivery Aspiration
1966 AS 000001 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1967 AS 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1968 AS 0005619 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1969 AS 0010554 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1970 BS 0021861 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1971 BS 22589 1438 124AC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1971 BS1 33950 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1972 BS1 47032 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1973 CS 59592 1608 125BC.040 Carbureted Naturally
1973 CS1 63308 1592 132AC.040.3 Carbureted Naturally
1974 CS1 71650 1756 132A1.040.4 Carbureted Naturally
1975 CS 88792 1756 132A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1975 CS 88792 1756 132A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1976 CS1 99909 1756 132A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1976 CS1 99909 1756 132A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1977 CS 113343 1756 132A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1977 CS 113343 1756 132A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1978 CS 126001 1756 132A1.040.5 Carbureted Naturally
1978 CS 126001 1756 132A1.031.5 US market Carbureted Naturally
1979 CS2 142514 1995 132CS2.040 Carbureted Naturally
1979 CS2 142514 1995 132CS2.031 US market Carbureted Naturally
1980 CS0 00171001 1995 132C3.031 Fuel Injected Naturally
1980 CS0 1938507 1995 132C3.031 Carbureted Naturally
1980 CS2 0157654 1995 132C3.040 Carbureted Naturally
1981 CS0 171001 1995 132C3.031 Fuel Injected Naturally
1981 CS2 164089 1995 132C3.040 Fuel Injected Turbocharged option
1982 CS2 1938507 1995 132C3.040 Fuel Injected Turbocharged option
6/1982 DS0 1967897 1995 132C3.040 Fuel Injected Naturally
1983 DS0 5500001 1995 132C3.040 Fuel Injected Naturally
1984 DS0 5503666 1995 132C3.040 Fuel Injected Naturally
1985 DS0 5506060 1995 132C3.040 Carbureted Supercharged (Volumex)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tom, Tjaarda. "Fiat 124 Spyder Design Story". Spidersweb.nl. Spidersweb.nl. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Sport-out of Fiat 124: The 124 spider; larger engine: twin overhead camshafts; Pininfarina 2+2 body". The Motor (magazine): pages 25–27. 5 November 1966. 
  3. ^ a b The Concise 1966-78 FIAT 124 Spider, 1979-82 FIAT 2000 Spider & 1983-85 Pininfarina Spider History
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiat_Twin_Cam_engine
  5. ^ World Cars 1984. Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1984. p. 222. ISBN 0-910714-16-9. 
  6. ^ World Cars 1984, p. 199
  7. ^ Giacosa, John Tipler ; foreword by Dante (1993). Fiat & Abarth 124 Spider & coupé. Godmanstone, England: Veloce Pub. Plc. ISBN 1-874105-09-X. 
  1. ^ 22,000,000 versus 16,300,000 liras in 1984[5]

External links[edit]