Fiat 131

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Fiat 131
Fiat 131 S Mirafiori 1600.jpg
Fiat 131 (series 1)
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Also called Fiat Mirafiori
Fiat SuperMirafiori
Fiat Brava (US)
Fiat SuperBrava
Polski Fiat 131p
Production 1974–1984
Assembly Comprensorio di Mirafiori, Turin, Italy
Bogotá, Colombia[citation needed]
, La Victoria, Aragua, Venezuela, Jakarta, Indonesia[1]
Casablanca, Morocco (SOMACA)[2]
Warsaw, Poland (FSO)[3]
Barcelona, Spain (SEAT 131)
Body and chassis
Class Small family car/Mid-size car
Body style 4-door saloon
2-door saloon
5-door estate
3-door panel van
Layout FR layout
Related SEAT 131
Tofaş Şahin
Tofaş Murat 131
Tofaş Dogan
Tofaş Kartal (estate)
Powertrain
Engine I4
Transmission 4 and 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic[4]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,490 mm (98.0 in)[5]
Length 4,230 to 4,264 mm (166.5 to 167.9 in)[5]
Width 1,644 to 1,651 mm (64.7 to 65.0 in)
Height 1,381 to 1,411 mm (54.4 to 55.6 in)
Curb weight 950 to 1,145 kg (2,094 to 2,524 lb)
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat 124
Successor Fiat Regata

The Fiat 131, additionally called "Mirafiori", is a small/medium family car produced by the Italian car manufacturer Fiat from 1974 to 1984. It was exhibited at 1974 Turin Motor Show.

The 131 was the replacement for the successful Fiat 124, and available as a two-door and four-door saloon and 5-door estate. The 131 was given the Mirafiori name after the Turin suburb where the cars were produced. Naming the car in this way marked a break with the former Fiat convention, established in the 1960s, of naming their mainstream models only with a three digit number, and it set the pattern for Fiat to adopt a new naming practice, with carefully chosen names for subsequent new models. Initially, the 131 was offered with 1.3 L and 1.6 L overhead valve engines. Revisions were made in 1978 and 1981, and all models were produced until production ceased in 1984.

In total, 1,513,800 units were produced in Italy.[4]

Construction and technology[edit]

The Fiat 131 employed construction techniques and technologies typical of its day. The body was a steel monocoque. Designed and styled on the typical three-box design, with distinct boxes for the engine compartment, passenger compartment, and boot.

The major mechanical components were also conventional and contemporary, but with some notable advances. The 131 employed a front engine, rear-wheel drive layout, whereby the engine is longitudinally mounted in the front of the car. The gearbox is directly behind the engine, and a tubular propeller shaft, under the transmission "tunnel", transmits the drive to a solid live rear axle.

The engines were all inline-four types, derived from those used in the outgoing 124 range, with a cast iron cylinder block and aluminium alloy cylinder head. Initially the 131 was offered only with pushrod valve gear, which offered the innovation of being the world wide first engine with OHV valve gear and a belt driven camshaft. Only later in the model’s life came the well known double overhead camshaft (DOHC) engines which used a toothed timing belt. Fuel supply was via a single Weber ADF twin-choke carburettor, fed from a trunk mounted steel fuel tank. Traditional contact breaker ignition systems were used, usually with Marelli distributors.

The suspension system utilised fully independent front suspension, with MacPherson struts, track control arms and anti-roll bar. The rear suspension was quite advanced (when using a solid live rear axle), in that the rear axle was controlled by double unequal length trailing arms and a panhard rod, with coil springs and direct acting dampers. This design proved far superior to many of its contemporaries, especially with vehicle stability and handling.

The braking system was also typical; the front brakes were disc brakes, using a solid iron disc and a single-piston sliding caliper. The rears were drum brakes, utilising leading and trailing shoe design operated by a dual piston fixed slave cylinder. They were operated hydraulically, with a tandem master cylinder assisted by a vacuum servo using two separate circuits. A rear-mounted load sensing valve varied the bias of effort applied to the rear brakes, dependent on the load being carried (and also the pitch dynamics caused by braking effort and road levels). A centrally located floor mounted handbrake operated on the rear axle using bowden cables.

The cars' interior offerend another world wide first in having the secondary switches in the dashboard illuminated by a central bulb somewhere in the dashboard and fibre optics from there to the switches.

Series 1[edit]

Initially the 131 came with 1,297 cc or 1,585 cc OHV inline-four engines, of the engine family first introduced in the Fiat 124. The first series was available with two body styles; saloon and estate Familiare. Station wagons were built by SEAT in Spain, but were labelled Fiats for all non-Spanish markets.[citation needed] There were two trim levels - the basic "131" and the better appointed "131 S" or "131 Special", which could be distinguished from the base model by its quadruple circular headlamps, chrome window surrounds and different instrumentation. US market versions had an SOHC 1.8-litre four and were available with a GM three-speed automatic.[6]

In 1976, 400 examples of the 131 Rally Abarth were built for homologation purposes.[7] These cars were built in a cooperation between Fiat, Bertone and Abarth. Bertone took part-completed two door standard bodyshells from the production line in Mirafiori, fitted plastic mudguards front and rear, a plastic bonnet and bootlid and modified the metal structure to accept the independent rear suspension. The cars were fully painted an trimmed and then delivered back to the Fiat special plant Rivalta where they received the Abarth mechanicals.

The street version of the car used a 16-valve DOHC derivative of the standard DOHC engine, which equipped with a double Weber downdraught carburettor produced 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp). The street cars used the standard gearbox with no synchromesh (Rally type regulations required the use of the same type of synchromesh on the competition cars as on the street versions) and the hopelessly underdimensioned brake system of the small Fiat 127. Competition cars used dry sump lubrication and eventually Kugelfischer mechanical fuel injection. In race specifications, the engine produced up to 240 PS (180 kW) in 1980, being driven to World Champiship status by Walter Röhrl.

Another special version was the nearly 5-metre long "131 Diplomatic" limousine version made in Salvatore Diomante's carrozzeria near Turin.[8]

Model Displacement Engine type Power
Mirafiori 1,297 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Mirafiori 1,585 cc straight-4 ohv 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Familiare 1,297 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Familiare 1,585 cc straight-4 ohv 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Abarth 1,995 cc straight-4 dohc 140 PS (100 kW; 140 hp)
US version 1,756 cc straight-4 sohc 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp)[6]

Series 2[edit]

The 131 got a minor facelift in 1978. New DOHC, or "Twin Cam" (TC) engines arrived, and these models were badged as SuperMirafiori. The biggest change exterior-wise for the Series 2 was larger rectangular shaped front lights (quad round headlights in the US), new bumpers, new bigger rear lights and new interior trim including a chunky, single-spoked steering wheel.

Also in 1978, the 2-door sporting version Racing (Mirafiori Sport in the UK) with 115 PS (85 kW) twin cam engine, was launched. This car had four round headlights (the inner headlights being smaller than the outer ones, unlike any other Mirafiori model produced), different grille, spoilers and extended wheel arches, and a short-throw 5 speed gearbox. The Racing had top speed of 180 km/h (110 mph). Diesel engined versions also had four round headlights (equally sized), and a noticeable (and characteristic) bump in the hood to accommodate the taller engine. The Familiare (estate) was renamed as Panorama.

The Series 2 was marketed in the United States as the Fiat Brava from mid-year 1978 with the same 1.8-litre four as had been used in the US-market 131, but before the year was over this was replaced by the 2 litre twin cam four also seen in the Spider.[9] Initially, a better equipped Super Brava was also available, but the base model and "Super" tag were dropped for 1979. For 1980 a more powerful fuel-injected version was added (102 hp or 76 kW) while the Estate version was dropped. For 1981 the EFI engine became standard equipment and the headlamps were changed for single rectangular units, but this was to be the last year for the Brava/131 in the US.[10]

Model Displacement Engine type Power
Mirafiori 1,297/1,301 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
SuperMirafiori 1,297/1,301 cc straight-4 dohc 78 PS (57 kW; 77 hp)
SuperMirafiori 1,585 cc straight-4 dohc 96 PS (71 kW; 95 hp)
Panorama 1,297/1,301 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Panorama 1,585 cc straight-4 ohv 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Diesel 1,995 cc straight-4 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp)
Diesel 2,445 cc straight-4 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp)
Racing 1,995 cc straight-4 dohc 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)
Brava 1,756 cc straight-4 ohv 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp)[9]
Brava 1,995 cc straight-4 ohv 87 PS (64 kW; 86 hp)
CA: 81 PS (60 kW; 80 hp)[11]
Brava EFI 1,995 cc straight-4 ohv 103 PS (76 kW; 102 hp)[10]

Series 3[edit]

The 131 was updated again in March 1981.[12] By this time, the car was no longer offered in the USA. Production of the Racing/Sport versions ceased, although these were sold well into 1982. The same 2.0 TC (twin cam) engine went to the SuperMirafiori. The car was renamed 131 Super Brava in Australia. The car received a slightly updated interior (instruments, single-piece glovebox lid), whilst lower rubbing strips found their way onto all models up to CL specification. The SuperMirafiori received larger lower door cladding. Mechanically, Mirafiori versions now received overhead cam engines rather than pushrod versions; a new 1.4 litre engine and a revised 1.6 litre. Also new were the clutch and gearboxes, a tweaked suspension was also introduced and the gas tank increased in size by three litres, for a total 53 L (14.0 US gal; 11.7 imp gal) capacity.

In June 1981, a new sport version, the Volumetrico Abarth, was introduced to some markets, with a supercharged version of the familiar 2-litre twin-cam. This car, also known as the 2000 TC Compressore, was built in a small series (about 200 units[13] ) and could reach 190 km/h (118 mph).[14]

In 1983, the production of saloon version was discontinued, but the estate, now named 131 Maratea, remained in production with two engine choices (115 PS 2.0 TC and 72 PS 2.5 D) until 1985, when they were replaced with the Ritmo-based Regata Weekend. These last versions featured four round headlights and the by-now familiar five-bar grille.

Model Displacement Engine type Power
Mirafiori 1,367 cc straight-4 sohc 70 PS (51 kW; 69 hp)LB 0071 A
Mirafiori CL 1,585 cc straight-4 sohc 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)
SuperMirafiori 1,367 cc straight-4 dohc 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
SuperMirafiori* 1,585 cc straight-4 dohc 98 PS (72 kW; 97 hp)
SuperMirafiori 1,995 cc straight-4 dohc 115 PS (85 kW; 113 hp)
Volumetrico Abarth 1,995 cc straight-4 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp)
Panorama 1,301 cc straight-4 ohv 65 PS (48 kW; 64 hp)
Panorama 1,585 cc straight-4 sohc 85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp)
Mirafiori Diesel 2000 1,995 cc straight-4 60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp)
Mirafiori/SuperMirafiori Diesel 2500 2,445 cc straight-4 72 PS (53 kW; 71 hp)

Motorsport[edit]

The Fiat 131 as a rally car[edit]

The Fiat 131 Abarth was a very successful group 4 rally car, winning the manufacturers' World Rally Championship three times: in 1977, 1978, and in 1980. With this car Markku Alen won the 1978 FIA Cup for Drivers and Walter Röhrl won the 1980 drivers' World Rally Championship.[15] Between 1976 and 1981 the Fiat 131 won 20 WRC events; other notable drivers were Sandro Munari, Timo Salonen, Attilio Bettega and Michèle Mouton.

Between 1975 and 1977 the official "works" cars carried the Olio Fiat blue and yellow livery, then during 1978 and 1979 seasons they were sponsored by Italian airline Alitalia and bore their distinctive red, white and green livery.

Other motorsports[edit]

The 131 was also used in the IMSA GT Championship under the GTO classification.

WRC Victories[edit]

No. Event Season Driver Co-driver
1 Finland 26th 1000 Lakes Rally 1976 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
2 Portugal 10o Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1977 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
3 New Zealand 8th South Pacific Rally 1977 Italy Fulvio Bacchelli Italy Francesco Rossetti
4 Canada 5ème Critérium Molson du Québec 1977 Finland Timo Salonen Finland Seppo Harjanne
5 Italy 19o Rallye Sanremo 1977 France Jean-Claude Andruet France Christian Delferrier
6 France 21ème Tour de Corse 1977 France Bernard Darniche France Alain Mahé
7 Portugal 11º Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1978 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
8 Greece 25th Acropolis Rally 1978 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
9 Poland 38 Rajd Polski 1978 Spain Antonio Zanini Spain Juan Petisco
10 Finland 28th 1000 Lakes Rally 1978 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
11 Canada 6ème Critérium Molson du Québec 1978 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
12 France 37ème Tour de France Automobile 1978 France Michèle Mouton France Françoise Conconi
13 France 22ème Tour de Corse 1978 France Bernard Darniche France Alain Mahé
14 Finland 29th 1000 Lakes Rally 1979 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
15 Monaco 48ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
16 Portugal 14o Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
17 Argentina 2o Rally Codasur 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
18 Finland 30th 1000 Lakes Rally 1980 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki
19 Italy 22o Rallye Sanremo 1980 Germany Walter Röhrl Germany Christian Geistdörfer
20 Portugal 15º Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1981 Finland Markku Alén Finland Ilkka Kivimäki

Non-Italian 131 variations[edit]

SEAT 131[edit]

Main article: SEAT 131
1980 blue SEAT 131, Salamanca, Spain

The SEAT 131 started its production in early 1975 in Barcelona with two versions initially offered: SEAT 131 L, featuring rectangular front lamps, 1,438 cc OHC engine and 4 speed gearbox and SEAT 131 E featuring four round headlamps, 1,592 cc DOHC engine and 5 speed gearbox. The range grew up in 1976 with the SEAT 131 Familiar, estate version offered with both engines. In 1977 the 131 Automatico (Automatic gearbox) was released and the following year a very short production of the SEAT 131 CLX 1800 was offered. Spain was the only place where the estate 131 was built, but in the export these were labelled Fiat 131 Familiare.[16]

In 1978, the SEAT 131 evolves into the SEAT 131 Mirafiori/Supermirafiori (Panorama for the estate versions), with the same changes as seen on its Italian cousin. The engines remained largely the same, but a 1.8 litre Diesel Perkins 4.108 engine was available in 1979.

A further CLX special edition was launched in 1980. Available only in metallic silver or metallic bronze colours, this 131 CLX had a 1,919 cc engine, developing 114 PS (84 kW) at 5,800 rpm.[17]

In 1981, the Diesel version was developed with a new Sofim engine. This 2,500 cc engine was much more powerful than the Perkins version (72 hp against only 49 hp) and was one of the most successful taxis in early '80s Spain.

In 1982, the SEAT 131 changed again, gathering all the body changes seen on the Fiat 131 series 3. The 131 was now available in CL, Supermirafiori and Diplomatic versions. The Diplomatic was the top of the range, with a 1,995 cc engine and features such as power steering, power windows or air conditioning. The Panorama versions were the cars chosen by the "Cuerpo Nacional de Policia" (Spanish Police force) as patrol cars.

In 1984, the SEAT 131 range was discontinued, without a direct substitute and the Fiat Ritmo-based SEAT Málaga took its place in 1985.

Murat 131[edit]

Main article: Tofaş Şahin

Tofaş industries in Turkey also based their initial production on Fiat 131s built under Fiat license. 131-based models included the Murat 131 built in Bursa, Turkey, the Doğan, Şahin and the Kartal (the estate). These vehicles enjoyed a very long production run (1986-2002 at Turkey, 1991-2009 at Egypt, 2006-2010 at Ethiopia), and were later replaced by newer Fiat models.

Polski Fiat 131p[edit]

Final assembly of Fiat 131 took also place in Poland by Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) in the years 1975-1981. First series cars were available only in Special trim and were called Polski Fiat 131p Mirafiori, cars of second series were known under the name Fiat 131p Mirafiori and were offered in L and CL trim levels.

Other producers[edit]

The Fiat 131 was also produced at Helwan, in Egypt, by El Nasr since at least 1982,[18] on the basis of complete knockdown (CKD) kits. This was followed by CKD assembly of the Tofaş Murat 131 between 1991-2009. The Tofaş Murat 131 has also been assembled in Ethiopia by Holland Car between 2006-2010.

Other CKD production of the Fiat 131 has taken place in the following countries:[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1985). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 333. ISBN 88-7212-012-8. 
  2. ^ "Somaca Casablanca". Somaca.e-monsite.com. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  3. ^ "FSO Warsaw". fso=sa.com.pl. 22 November 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Fiat 131". carsfromitaly.net. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  5. ^ a b Auto Katalog 1983. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1982. pp. 220–221. 
  6. ^ a b James M. Flammang (1994). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, 1946-1990. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. p. 239. ISBN 0-87341-158-7. 
  7. ^ Robson, Graham (2008). Fiat 131 Abarth. Veloce Publishing Ltd. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-84584-182-9. 
  8. ^ Costa, Andre & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (1981). Salon 1981: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (in French) (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14–15): 200. 
  9. ^ a b Flammang, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, p. 240
  10. ^ a b Flammang, Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, pp. 241–242
  11. ^ Braunschweig, Robert; Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, eds. (6 March 1980). "Automobil Revue '80" 75. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. p. 287. 
  12. ^ Costa, Andre & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (1981). Salon 1981: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (in French) (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14–15): 170. 
  13. ^ "The Fiat 131 Supermirafiori Volumetrico Abarth". 131mirafiori.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  14. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (10 March 1983). "Automobil Revue '83" 78. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. pp. 289–290. ISBN 3-444-06065-3. 
  15. ^ "Walter Röhrl". rallybase.nl. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  16. ^ Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 77/78. Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. 1977. pp. 191–194. 
  17. ^ Automobil Revue '80, p. 472
  18. ^ a b World Cars 1982. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. 1982. p. 403. ISBN 0-910714-14-2. 
  19. ^ Tutte le Auto del Mondo 77/78, p. 197
  20. ^ World Cars 1984. Pelham, NY: L'Editrice dell'Automobile LEA/Herald Books. 1984. p. 403. ISBN 0-910714-16-9. 

External links[edit]