Fiat Croma

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Fiat Croma
2010 Fiat Croma facelift.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Fiat
Production 1985–1996
2005–2011
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Layout Front-engine, front-wheel-drive
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Argenta
Successor none

The Fiat Croma is the name used for two automobiles produced by Italian automaker Fiat, one a large family car built from 1985 to 1996 and the other a cross-over wagon built from 2005 to 2011.

First generation (1985–1996)[edit]

First generation (154)
Fiat Croma front 20071102.jpg
Overview
Production 1985–1996
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 5-door liftback
Platform Type Four platform (Tipo Quattro)[1]
Related Saab 9000
Lancia Thema
Alfa Romeo 164
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,660 mm (104.7 in)
Length 4,495 mm (177.0 in)
Width 1,755 mm (69.1 in)
Height 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight 1,095 kg (2,414 lb) approx
Chronology
Predecessor Fiat Argenta
1987 Fiat Croma CHT

The original Croma (Type 154) was a five-door notchback liftback penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Ital Design and built on the Type Four platform, which was designed in cooperation between several companies and was also used for the Saab 9000, Lancia Thema and Alfa Romeo 164.[2] Although the other models were executive cars, the Croma was marketed in the large family car segment, replacing the Fiat Argenta in the Fiat lineup.

The Croma was the first large car produced by Fiat to feature a transverse-mounted engine and front wheel drive.[3]

Fiat Croma (after 1991 facelift)

Facelift[edit]

The Croma received a light facelift for 1988, first shown in Frankfurt in September 1987. The black plastic between the rear lamps was now ridged rather than smooth, the lower portion of the bumpers were body-colored, and the turn signals received clear glass rather than amber.[4] A more significant facelift in 1991 with new front design including changes to the lights, bumpers grille and sheet-metal changes to wings and bonnet. Also in 1991 the direct injected diesel engine was equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger ("VNT").[5]

Production ceased in 1996, and Fiat abandoned the large family car segment. The Bravo/Brava-based Fiat Marea small family car replaced the Croma and Tempra as the largest saloon and estate in Fiat's model range.

Engines[edit]

The Croma was available with a variety of petrol and diesel engines, the former from the Fiat DOHC engine family. Base models had the 1585 cc, 83 PS (61 kW) and 1995 cc, 90 PS (66 kW) "Controlled High Turbulence" (CHT) powerplants, followed by two fuel injected 2.0 L units, one with 120 PS (88 kW) and the other a turbocharged and intercooled version giving 155 PS (114 kW). The later 2.5 L petrol V6 unit was from Alfa Romeo, but as with the 1.6 L engine, was not available in all markets. The 2.0 CHT was designed specifically to provide low fuel consumption under light and medium loads thanks to two separate inlet manifolds of different diameters.[6]

The Fiat Croma was the first passenger car in the world to have a direct injection Diesel (Turbo D i.d.) engine, in 1986.[7] Other diesel engines were the Fiat's 1.9 L fitted with a turbocharger with direct injection, giving 92 PS (68 kW), and the 2499 cc unit supplied by Iveco, with a normally aspirated version giving 75 PS (55 kW) and a turbocharged one with 115 PS (85 kW). This one replaced the original 2446 cc with 100 PS (74 kW). Diesel engined variants of this car were not marketed in the UK.

Petrol[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power
1.6 I4 SOHC 8V 1585 cc 83 PS (61 kW; 82 hp)
CHT I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)
CHT I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 113 PS (83 kW; 111 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 116 PS (85 kW; 114 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp)
i.e. 16V I4 DOHC 16V 1995 cc 137 PS (101 kW; 135 hp)
i.e. Turbo I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp)
i.e. Turbo I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp)
V6 V6 DOHC 12V 2492 cc 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp)

Diesel[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power
Turbo D i.d. I4 SOHC 8V 1929 cc 94 PS (69 kW; 93 hp)
Diesel I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Turbo Diesel I4 SOHC 8V 2446 cc 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)
2500 TD I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp)
2500 TD I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 116 PS (85 kW; 114 hp)
2500 TDE I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp)

Second generation (2005–2011)[edit]

Second generation (194)
Frontale3quarti FiatCroma.JPG
Overview
Production 2005–2011[8]
Assembly Cassino – Piedimonte S. Germano (Frosinone), Italy
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Body style 5-door estate
Platform GM Epsilon platform
Related Cadillac BLS
Opel Signum
Opel Vectra
Saab 9-3
Powertrain
Transmission 5 and 6-speed manual
6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (110 in)
Length 4,755 mm (187.2 in)
4,783 mm (188.3 in) (facelift)
Width 1,775 mm (69.9 in)
Height 1,600 mm (63 in)
Chronology
Successor none
Rear view of the second generation Fiat Croma
The 2007 facelifted Fiat Croma

In 2005, Fiat announced a large cross-over wagon with an upright tailgate, reminiscent of that of the Fiat Stilo, resurrecting the Croma nameplate. Again, Giugiaro styled the exterior, while the chassis was provided via the short-lived link with General Motors. The new Croma (Type 194) is therefore based on the extended variant of the GM Epsilon platform sharing components with the Opel Vectra and Saab 9-3. It went on sale in Italy in June 2005.

Unlike the previous model, and aware of its lack of image in the upper market segments, Fiat opted for not developing a standard large family car but developing a "Comfort Wagon",[9] an automobile with design elements of both estates and large MPVs. Its height of 1,600 mm (63.0 in) falls between the Mitsubishi Grandis and Ford S-Max large MPVs (1,655 mm (65.2 in) and 1,660 mm (65.4 in) respectively) and SEAT Altea XL (1,525 mm (60.0 in)).

In February 2007, Fiat UK announced that the Croma would no longer be generally available in the UK, after less than 900 were sold in the whole of 2005. Production of the second generation Croma stopped in early 2011. Despite not being a showroom hit the Croma managed to sell in quite reasonable numbers with 65,000 sold in one year alone.[10]

Safety[edit]

The Croma has seven airbags as standard including knee bag for the driver. As standard the Croma is equipped with anti-lock braking system and electronic brakeforce distribution. It has a five-star EuroNCAP crash rating for adult occupant protection:

Euro NCAP test results
Fiat Croma (2008)
Test Score Rating
Adult occupant: 34 5 /5 stars
Child occupant: 39 4 /5 stars
Pedestrian: 6 1 /4 stars

Facelift[edit]

The Croma got a minor facelift at the end of 2007 and was termed the Nuova Croma. A new grille (Bravo look) and rear bumper, as well as some material changes inside are the main differences. Fiat now designates the revised model as "Station Wagon" instead of the previously used term "Comfort Wagon".[11] The Nuova Croma is only sold in mainland Europe.

Engines[edit]

The Croma, built at Fiat's Cassino factory, has three trim levels and five engine options. Like the chassis, petrol engines were supplied by Opel, beginning with the brand new evolution of the Family 1 Ecotec 1.8 L with 140 PS (103 kW), followed by the torquier L850 Ecotec 2.2 L with 147 PS (108 kW). However, the bulk of the sales is represented by Fiat's own Multijet engine, available in three variants 1.9 L with 8 valves and 120 PS (88 kW), 1.9 L with 16 valves and 150 PS (110 kW), and the range topper five-cylinder 2.4 L 20V, with 200 PS(147 kW). The Diesel engines are fitted with a standard six-speed manual gearbox, 6-speed automatic (standard on 2.4 engines) is also available.

Petrol[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque
1,8 MPI 16V I4 DOHC 16V 1,796 cc 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 6,300 rpm 175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 3,800 rpm
2,2 MPI 16V I4 DOHC 16V 2,198 cc 147 PS (108 kW; 145 hp) at 5,800 rpm 203 N·m (150 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm

Diesel[edit]

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque
1,9 MultiJet 8V I4 DOHC 8V 1,910 cc 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp) at 4,000 rpm 280 N·m (207 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm
1,9 MultiJet 16V I4 DOHC 16V 1,910 cc 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp) at 4,000 rpm 320 N·m (236 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm
2,4 MultiJet 20V I5 DOHC 20V 2,387 cc 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 4,000 rpm 400 N·m (295 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Curiosidades Tipo". Fiat Tipo Portugal. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  2. ^ "Octane Model Specs". Classicandperformancecar.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01. 
  3. ^ Autocar Test Update 19 August 1987
  4. ^ Baghetti, Giancarlo (1987-12-17). "Che diesel volete?" [Which diesel do you want?]. In Liberali, Sandro. Auto Oggi (in Italian) (Verona, Italy: Arnoldo Mondadori) 2 (54): 19. 
  5. ^ "Turbo Pioneer". honeywell.com. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  6. ^ Letrou, Jean-Claude (January 1986). "Fiat Croma: En quête d'image" [On a quest for image]. L'Automobile Magazine (in French) (Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Societé des Editions Techniques et Touristiques de France): 34. ISSN 0758-6957. 
  7. ^ "Air technologies - Heritage". fiat.com. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  8. ^ "Fiat Croma uit productie; het einde van een tijdperk". autoedizione.nl. Retrieved 2011-04-06.  (Dutch)
  9. ^ Car Reviews: First Drives: Fiat Croma - Autoexpress
  10. ^ "Fiat Croma". eurocarblog.com. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  11. ^ "NUOVA FIAT CROMA". italiaspeed.com/new_models/2007. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 

External links[edit]