An early first generation Fiat Panda
|Body and chassis|
|Predecessor||Fiat 126 (first generation)
Fiat Seicento (second generation)
The Fiat Panda is a city car from the Italian automobile manufacturer Fiat Automobiles, now in its third generation. The first generation Fiat Panda was introduced in 1980, and was produced until 1986, when it underwent several changes. From 1986 until 2003, it was produced with only a few changes. They are now sometimes referred to as the "old Panda".
The second generation, launched in 2003, is sometimes referred to as the "New Panda" or "Nuova Panda" (in Italian), and was the European Car of the Year in 2004. The third generation debuted at Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011 and will be assembled in Italy at Pomigliano d'Arco.
- 1 First generation (1980–2003)
- 2 Second generation (2003–2012)
- 3 Third generation (2011–present)
- 4 References
- 5 External links
First generation (1980–2003)
|First generation (141)|
The original Fiat Panda 45
|Production||1980–2003 (4,500,000 units)|
|Assembly||Mirafiori plant, Turin, Italy|
|Designer||Giorgetto Giugiaro at Italdesign|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3-door hatchback
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive|
|Platform||Type Zero platform (Tipo Zero)|
|Engine||652 cc I2 (petrol)
769 cc I4 (petrol)
903 cc I4 (petrol)
965 cc I4 (petrol)
999 cc I4 (petrol)
1,301 cc I4 (diesel)
19 bhp (14 kW) (electric)
23.8 bhp (18 kW) (electric)
|Wheelbase||2,160 mm (85.0 in)|
|Length||3,380 mm (133.1 in)|
|Width||1,460 mm (57.5 in)|
|Height||1,445 mm (56.9 in)|
Introduced in 1980, the Panda (Tipo 141) was designed as a cheap, easy to use and maintain, no-frills utility vehicle, positioned in Fiat's range between the 126 and 127. It can be seen as a then-modern approach to the same niche which the Citroën 2CV and Renault 4 were designed to serve. The first Panda was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign. In an interview to Turinese newspaper La Stampa published in February 1980, Giugiaro likened the Panda to a pair of jeans, because of its practicality and simplicity:
«La Panda (...) è come un paio di jeans, che sono poi un vestire semplice, pratico, senza fronzoli. (...) Ho cercato di portare in questa auto lo spìrito delle costruzioni militari, in particolare degli elicotteri, ossia di mezzi leggeri, razionali, nati per assolvere nel modo migliore a certi scopi».
The Panda is like a pair of jeans, that simple, practical, no frills piece of clothing. I tried to bring into this car the spirit of military machinery, especially helicopters, that means light, rational, built-for-purpose vehicles.
The car was introduced to the press in December 1979; it went on sale in Italy in late February, ahead of its European première at the March 1980 Geneva Motor Show.
Mechanically the first Pandas borrowed heavily from the Fiat parts bin. Engines and transmissions came from the Fiat 127 and, in certain territories, the air-cooled 652 cc two-cylinder powerplant from the Fiat 126. The plan for a mechanically simple car was also evident in the rear suspension, which used a dead axle suspended on leaf springs. Later versions of the car added various mechanical improvements but this spirit of robust simplicity was adhered to throughout the life of the model.
Many design features reflect the Panda's utilitarian practicality. Examples include a seven-position adjustable rear seat which could be folded flat to make an improvised bed, or folded into a V shape to support awkward loads, or easily and quickly removed altogether to increase the overall load space. The first Pandas also featured removable, washable seat covers, door trims and dashboard cover, and all the glass panels were flat making them cheap to produce, easy to replace and interchangeable between left and right door. Much like its earlier French counterparts the Panda could be specified with a two piece roll forward canvas roof.
At launch two models were available: the Panda 30, powered by a longitudinally-mounted air cooled 652 cc straight-two-cylinder engine derived from the 126, or the Panda 45, with a transversely-mounted water cooled 903 cc four-cylinder from the 127. As a consequence of the different drivetrain layout the 45 had the radiator grille to the right side, the 30 to the left. In September 1982 Fiat added another engine to the line-up: the Panda 34 used an 843 cc water-cooled unit, derived from that in the 850. It was originally reserved for export to France, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands.
Fiat launched the Panda 45 Super at the Paris Motor Show later in 1982, with previous specification models continuing as the "Comfort" trim. The Super offered numerous improvements, most significant being the availability of a five-speed gearbox as well as improved trim. There were minor styling changes to the Super including the introduction of Fiat's new black plastic "corporate" grille with five diagonal silver bars. The earlier grille design (metal with slots on the left for ventilation) continued on the Comfort models until the next major revision of the line-up. A 30 Super was added to the range in February 1983, offering the Super trim combined with the smaller engine.
The Panda 4x4 was launched in June 1983, it was powered by a 965 cc engine with 48 bhp (36 kW) derived from that in the Autobianchi A112. Known simply as the Panda 4x4, this model was the first small, transverse-engined production car to have a 4WD system. The system itself was manually selectable, with an ultra-low first gear. Under normal (on-road) conditions starting was from second, with the fifth gear having the same ratio as fourth in the normal Panda. Austrian company Steyr-Puch supplied the entire drivetrain (clutch, gearbox, power take-off, three-piece propshaft, rear axle including differential and brakes) to the plant at Termini Imerese where it was fitted to the reinforced bodyshell.
Minor revisions in November 1984 saw the range renamed "L", "CL", and "S". Specifications and detailing were modified across the range including the adoption of the Fiat corporate grille across all versions. Mechanically, however, the cars remained largely unchanged.
In January 1986, the Panda received a substantial overhaul and a series of significant mechanical improvements. Most of these changes resulted in the majority of parts being changed and redesigned, making many of the pre-facelift and post-facelift Panda parts incompatible between models. The 652 cc air-cooled 2-cyl engine was replaced by a 769 cc (34 bhp) water-cooled 4-cyl unit, and the 903/965cc by a 999cc (45 bhp, 50 bhp (37 kW) in the 4x4) unit. Both new engines were from Fiat's new FIRE family of 4-cylinder water-cooled powerplants with a single overhead camshaft. The rear suspension was also upgraded, the rear leaf springs being replaced by a more modern independent suspension system using a rigid rear axle (known as the 'Omega' axle) with a central mounting and coil springs. The 4x4 retained the old leaf sprung set-up, presumably to avoid having to redesign the entire 4WD system. Improvements were also made to the interior and the structure. The body was strengthened and fully galvanised on later models, virtually eliminating the earlier car's strong tendency to rust. The rear panel design was also revamped to include flared arches that mirrored those of the front wings, replacing the un-sculpted style seen on earlier models, and the doors received a slight redesign with the earlier car's quarter light windows being removed and replaced by a full width roll-down window. The bottom seam of the facelifted model's doors unfortunately retained much the earlier car's susceptibility to rust. In ascending order of specification and cost, the revised range was as follows: 750L, 750CL, 750S, 1000CL, 1000S, 4x4.
April 1986 saw the introduction of a 1,301 cc diesel engine with 37 bhp (a detuned 127/Uno unit). Fitted as standard with a five-speed gearbox it was only available in the basic "L" trim. A van variant of the Panda was also introduced, with both petrol and diesel engines. The van was basically a standard Panda without rear seats. The rear windows were replaced with plastic blanking panels and a small (always black) steel extension with side hinged doors was fitted instead of the usual hatchback tailgate. Neither the van nor the diesel were available in right hand drive markets.
In 1987, a new entry-level model badged "Panda Young" was added to the range. This was essentially an L spec car with a 769 cc OHV engine based on the old 903 cc push-rod engine and producing the same 34 bhp (25 kW) as the more sophisticated 769 cc FIRE unit. The Panda 4x4 Sisley limited edition was also released; this was based on the standard 4x4, but came with metallic paint, inclinometer, white painted wheels, roof rack, headlamp washers, bonnet scoop, "Sisley" badging and trim. Although originally limited to the production of only 500, in 1989 the Sisley model became a permanent model due to its popularity.
The two-seat Panda Elettra, introduced in 1990, added an all-electric power-train to the line. Batteries replaced the rear seats and occupied some of the engine bay where the 19 bhp (14 kW) DC motor was also fitted, driving through the normal clutch and gearbox. This increased the weight of the car significantly, to 1,150 kg (2,535 lb) (450 kg (992 lb) more than the standard model), necessitating stiffer suspension and uprated brakes. 1992 revisions to the Elettra saw the power increased to 23.8 bhp (17.7 kW) and the weight reduced, though the Elettra remained significantly heavier than the standard Panda. This, and the steep price (25.600.000 lire in Italy, three times the price of the Panda 750 Young) made it a commercial failure. The Elettra was discontinued in 1998.
In 1991, a facelift was introduced. This entailed a new front grille with a smaller five-bar corporate badge, plus revisions to trim and specifications across the range. New arrivals included the 'Selecta', which had a continuously variable transmission with an electromagnetic clutch. This advanced transmission was available either with the normal 999 cc FIRE engine (revised with single-point fuel injection and a catalytic converter) or an all new 1108 cc FIRE unit, fitted with electronic fuel injection and a three-way catalytic converter and producing 51 bhp (38 kW).
The new CLX trim also featured a five-speed gearbox as standard. The range now comprised the 750 Young (769 cc ohv), 750 and 750 CLX (both 769 cc FIRE sohc), 900 Dance (903 cc ohv), 1000 Shopping, CLX, CL Selecta and S (all with 999 cc sohc, available with or without SPI and catalytic converter depending on the market), 1100 CL Selecta (1108 cc sohc with SPI and cat) and the 4x4 Trekking (999 cc, again available with and without a cat depending on the market). The Elettra concluded the range.
In 1992, the 1108 cc engine, complete with SPI and catalytic converter, replaced the 999 cc unit in the 4x4 (with 50 bhp) and also in 1992 an 899 cc (with injection and catalyst) became available, in the 'Cafe' special edition. This was a reduced capacity 903 cc unit, designed to meet tax requirements in some markets.
End of production
From 1996 onwards, the Panda was gradually phased out across Europe, due to tightening emissions and safety legislation. The car remained in production in Italy until May 2003. Its total production run of 23 years makes the Panda one of Europe's longest-lived small cars.
During the period between 1999 and 2003, sales and popularity of the Panda diminished, mainly because it was "old fashioned", according to a survey in 2000.
Most original models have long since succumbed to rust, but the second facelift variant remains a relatively common sight on the roads of continental Europe, and many are still in daily use in the UK where the model ceased being available new in 1996. While the original Panda never gained the kind of cult following that similar cars such as the 2CV and VW Beetle enjoy, it nonetheless engendered strong feelings of attachment among many owners for its robustness, affordability, simplicity and flexibility.
With the end of production, the 4x4 version of the Panda came to be seen as a valuable used car: it was cheap, sturdy and useful in rural areas, while most of the other 4x4 vehicles on the market were expensive SUVs. Also Fiat were not planning to build a 4x4 version of the replacement Nuova Panda.
The New Panda 4x4 Climbing version was introduced almost two years later, but didn't command the same success, being considered less reliable and too low to be employed in off-road duty.
SEAT Panda / Marbella
Spanish car maker SEAT also produced a version of the Panda between 1980 and 1986, based on the first Panda model. It was called SEAT Panda. SEAT also made a tiny, tall delivery version of the Panda called the SEAT Trans.
Up to 1983, SEAT made rebadged versions of Fiat cars through a licence agreement between the two firms. Thus, there existed a Spanish version of the Panda. When Pope John Paul II visited Spain in 1982, he rode in a specially built SEAT Panda.
After Fiat sold their share in SEAT and the licence agreement ended, the whole Fiat-based line of SEAT cars were quickly given minor facelifts. The SEAT Panda had its bonnet, bumpers and rear tailgate redesigned. From 1986, when it received a second facelift, it was known as the SEAT Marbella until the end of production in 1998. Emelba also produced a roofless version called the Pandita, which was popular as a rental car in resort areas. The SEAT Trans also received a major facelift and was renamed SEAT Terra.
As Fiat and SEAT's licensing agreement had expired in 1986 the Marbella never received the major mechanical upgrades of the facelifted Fiat Panda, instead continuing with the old pushrod Fiat-based engines, quarter light doors, un-galvanised frame and leaf-sprung suspension as for the original model. It was popular in Spain throughout its production life, but was less popular on export markets (where the Fiat version was firm favourite) and by 1996, exports had mostly finished.
Reception and awards
The first generation Panda met with great success across Europe, polling 2nd in the 1981 European Car of the Year awards in its first full year of production (pipped to first place by the Ford Escort Mark III) and remaining on sale in some regions until May 2003.
In 1981 Giugiaro received the Italian Compasso d'Oro ADI industrial design award for the Panda. A less positive reaction to the design came from German magazine Der Spiegel, which in 1980 contrasted Giugiaro defining the Panda as "the most enchanting work of his life", and chief designer Felice Cornacchia describing himself as "proud overall of the car's architecture" to Peter Glodschey, road tester of mass-market Bild newspaper, who likened the car to "a shoe box". In several key markets the Panda's styling would continue to attract mixed reactions as the Uno followed in 1983 and the aggressively boxy look became the house style for Fiats throughout the 1980s.
Second generation (2003–2012)
|Second generation (169)|
|Production||2003–December 2012 (2,168,491 units)|
|Assembly||Tychy, Poland (Fiat Poland)|
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive|
|Platform||Fiat Mini platform|
|Engine||1.1 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.2 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.2 L Fire Natural Power I4 (CNG)
1.4 L Fire I4 (petrol)
1.4 L Fire Natural Power I4 (CNG)
1.3 L Multijet I4 (diesel)
|Wheelbase||2,299 mm (90.5 in)
2,305 mm (90.7 in) (4x4)
|Length||3,538 mm (139.3 in)|
|Width||1,578 mm (62.1 in)|
|Height||1,578 mm (62.1 in)|
|Curb weight||840–975 kg (1,852–2,150 lb)|
The second generation, nicknamed New Panda and codenamed Model 169, first appeared in 2003. In its development phase, the new Panda was originally intended to be called "Gingo". However, this name was considered to be too similar to the Renault Twingo, so Fiat decided to continue with the Panda name, although it has almost no direct engineering link to the original 1980 car.
Successor to the Fiat Seicento, the new model also effectively replaced the old Panda after 23 years of production, although the Seicento itself proved still popular and remained in production. Like the Seicento, the Panda is manufactured only in Tychy, Poland, by Fiat Auto Poland. A smaller, 3-door Fiat has been added to the range in 2007, the new 500.
The high-bodied Panda takes clear styling cues from mini MPVs and mini SUVs, especially the second generation Fiat Multipla. Its long high positioned vertical tail lights are in particular reminiscent of much larger cars (especially estate cars) from the likes of Volvo, although Fiat started using smaller versions of this style of lights on the 1994 Italdesign Giugiaro Fiat Punto. The Panda won the European Car of the Year award in 2004.
The Panda includes an option for split rear seats, which makes the Panda a four-seater. Since September 2005, all Pandas are equipped with ABS, EBD and at least two front airbags. The gear-lever is located high on the central dashboard, which is designed to make changing gears more comfortable than with a conventional floor-mounted gearstick.
The financially troubled Fiat needed the new Panda to be a success, and indeed it was, selling half a million units by October 2005. It sells particularly well in Italy (over half of the cars produced are sold in Italy), being seen as closer to a spiritual successor to the Fiat 500 than a replacement for either the Seicento or the old Panda.
- The 500,000th new Panda was built on October 5, 2005, a light blue Panda Emotion with the 1.3-litre diesel engine.
- The 1,000,000th new Panda was built on September 5, 2007, a red Panda 4x4 Climbing with 1.2-litre petrol engine.
- The 1,500,000th new Panda was built on July 21, 2009, a blue Panda Emotion with 1.3-litre diesel engine.
- The 2,000,000th new Panda rolled out of factory on July 4, 2011, a red Panda 4x4 Cross with 1.3-litre 75 bhp Multijet diesel engine.
Top Gear Motoring Survey in 2006 ranked the Panda 8th out of 152 cars surveyed for reliability, craftsmanship, ownership costs, driving experience and service received. (One of the show's hosts, James May, went on to purchase one). Traditionally, Fiat have ranked at the lower end of this table, showing that the Nuova Panda is reversing the trend and suggesting a rise in quality standards for Fiat.
The Panda is produced for police departments (the Polish police have bought some blue and white Panda Actual models), military agencies (the Italian Army uses several dark green Panda Climbing models), forest services (the Italian forest service has dark green Panda Climbing models), and mail delivery services (the yellow Swiss Post model even comes in a popular toy car format readily available in grocery stores).
Tested model: 2004 Fiat Panda 1.2.
|Euro NCAP test results|
|Fiat Panda 1.2 (2004)|
In September 2005 several changes were made to the Panda, including standard fitment of ABS and a front passenger's airbag.
The Panda range received minor updates in March 2007, including a new, darker dashboard. The Active model also received new darker seat fabrics of better quality and the addition of a CD player as standard. The new dark red Fiat badge was also added to the Panda in Summer 2007.
The Panda range was mildly rearranged again in 2009, with the addition of Active Eco and Dynamic Eco models. These models feature revised 1.1 and 1.2 petrol engines respectively, with better fuel economy and CO2 emissions. Both models also qualify for £30 annual road fund license in the UK, and replace the original standard engines. Dynamic Aircon and SkyDome models were also dropped in favour of simplifying the Panda range.
On July 4, 2011, Fiat announced that the 2,000,000th Panda had rolled off of their Tychy, Poland assembly line. The milestone car was a Panda Cross finished in Rosso Sfrontato and equipped with the 75 hp 1.3 L Multijet four-cylinder diesel. Fiat did not say which country it was headed to.
The Panda Classic was a second series Fiat Panda renamed and with a reduced list price to distinguish it from the new generation introduced in late 2011. The engine range comprised the 1.2 Fire petrol, 1.2 Fire EasyPower (petrol and LPG), 1.4 Fire Natural Power (petrol and CNG) and 1.3 Multijet diesel. The 4x4 was offered with 1.2 petrol and 1.3 Multijet diesel. The Panda Cross was no longer manufactured. The Panda Classic was produced through 2012.
- The Natural Power is a dual-fuel version, it can burn either gasoline or CNG (Compressed Natural Gas a.k.a. methane). Methane results in low emissions and increased fuel economy. The chassis is the same of the 4x4, the space of the rear wheels differential is occupied by two methane tanks allowing over 240 km of autonomy on gas only.
- The basic Actual has black bumpers, lacks electric windows and a full-size spare wheel. The Actual was introduced in January 2004.
- The Active, introduced in May 2003, features black self-coloured bumpers and front electric windows, central door locking, radio/cassette player, driver's airbag, power steering. Manual climate control is available as an option. Since September 2005, ABS and the front passenger's airbag have been made standard. This model has the 1100 cc "FIRE" engine and a five-speed gearbox.
- The Active Plus edition is an up-equipped Active, with a cassette/CD player as standard. Production of the Active Plus stopped in December 2003.
- The Dynamic edition features ABS, dual airbags, roof bars, power steering and a cassette player as standard. A CD & MP3 player, CD changer, alloy wheels, manual or automated climate control, glass sunroof and a semi-automatic transmission are available as options. Since September 2005, four airbags have been standard in some countries, with an option for two additional side curtain airbags.
- The Emotion (Eleganza) edition is the highest trim level. This particular trim level features significant enhancements over the Dynamic, with a standard CD player, alloy wheels with low profile tires and automated climate control. In some countries such as the UK, the Emotion is sold as the "Eleganza".
- The 100 HP edition is the sportiest Panda model. It has the 1.4-litre 16-valve FIRE petrol engine from the Fiat Punto tuned to develop 100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) through a six-speed manual transmission. It differs from other Pandas by being equipped with 4-wheel disc brakes, tinted windows, and sports styled front and rear bumpers. The Panda 100 HP features a unique suspension setup with modified springs, dampers, bushes and compliance giving a considerably firmer ride.
The Panda 100 hp offers 0–100 km/h acceleration in 9.5 s and a maximum speed of 185 km/h (115 mph), with fuel consumption at 6.5 L/100 km (43.5 mpg-imp; 36.2 mpg-US) in the EU combined cycle and 154 g/km of CO2 emissions. It was available in black, white, red, metallic blue, and metallic gray while a "Pandamonium Pack" which added red disc brakes, decals and colour-coded wing mirrors was an optional extra.
Due to tightening emissions regulations, Fiat halted all Panda 100HP production in July 2010.
- The 4x4 Climbing edition, introduced in December 2004, has a higher ride height and larger wheels and tires than other editions. The four-wheel drive system also makes this edition slower than others. Features are similar to those found in the Dynamic. The Climbing, however, lacks a differential lock and transmission with reductor. The Climbing edition can be distinguished by a slightly higher suspension, additional black plastic overlays on the bumpers and a "Climbing" badge just below the "Panda" badge on the left side of the rear licence plate. Swedish magazine Vi Bilägare found in a test 2007 that Panda 4x4 is a good and economical choice for a small family who need a car with four-wheel drive.
- The 4x4 Cross edition, similar to the Climbing, features differently shaped front and rear lights and additional side cladding. Unlike the Climbing, the Cross does have a differential lock. The Cross edition became available in January 2006 in Italy.
The Actual and Active are also bases for the Actual Van and Active Van, which can be used as small vans (they also have an additional safety net behind the front seats and removable rear seats). These versions can be identified by small "Van" label on the back door.
During the time, many limited editions of Panda (Active and Dynamic editions only) were produced. Each of them had additional interior fittings, differentiating them from the base model.
Prototypes and special editions
- The 360 Special Series, based on the 1.2 L Dynamic, is distinguished by a black and white crosshair style logo on the B pillar. Other upgraded features include; 14 inch alloy wheels, metallic paint, special interior trim (including the Fiat brand on the front seats), built in bluetooth phone system, CD player, air conditioning and a split folding rear seat. Other more standard features include; electric windows, central locking system and dual speed power steering. The total of all these extras comes somewhere in the region of £1,600 but surprisingly the upgraded 360 model actually retails at roughly £400 less than the Dynamic model. On the safety side of things, it comes with anti lock brakes and brake assist as well as two airbags as standard (driver and passnger) with the option of adding an extra four airbags taking the total up to six.
- Fiat Panda Alessi
Italian Design house Alessi created a special edition featuring a two-tone paint scheme and unique trim inside and out. Fiat gave away some of Alessi's products (coffee machine and tin-can openers) for the special model's debut at the Ideal Home Show in the UK.
- Fiat Panda Jolly
The Fiat Panda Jolly was created by Fiat Styling Center and Stola and inspired by boat design. It served as a special shuttle bus in Capri during the summer of 2006. The interior features innovative materials and exclusive trims. The concept mainly came from the 600 Multipla Jolly, a car created by Carrozzeria Ghia in 1956, which could be found on the streets of Capri 50 years ago. Defined by Fiat as "a car with a fresh, light and Mediterranean look both in the colors and materials", the Panda Jolly is inspired by the interior design and yacht design worlds, and features styling elements that remind of the spirit and way of life of the 1960s.
The interiors are created by Paola Lenti, an Italian leading company in the Interior Design sector, specialized in the research and development of innovative fabrics and materials. All the seats are upholstered in the exclusive sailing-inspired Rope fabric. This material is nonallergic, nontoxic, antibacterial and resistant to UV rays. Many structural elements like the floor, sills and various trims are made with pickled natural ash finish with white ash inlays.
- Fiat Panda Terramare 4
Panda Terramare's creator is Milan born Maurizio Zanisi, an independent former Iso Rivolta engineer, and his self-built amphibian is based on a Panda 4x4 chassis, but with an inflatable flotation belt, and waterjet propulsion driven off the rear axle.
- Fiat Panda Luxury
At the 'Luxury & Yachts' show in February 2006, Fiat exhibited a one-off car based on the 4x4 called the 'Luxury'. The outside of the car features dipped silver paintwork, precious metal trim and gleaming jewel-like mouldings with back-lit inset crystals. The interior features dipped silver appointments, precious metal details, Jewel Alcantara upholstery and leather with mother of pearl finish. The Fiat logo is also worked on the seats with stylish studs and crystals.
- Fiat Panda Hydrogen
The Panda Hydrogen, a car prototype driven by a hydrogen Fuel Cell, was a joint venture between Fiat Auto, the Fiat Research Centre and Fiat Powertrain Research & Technology with the support of the Research and Environment Ministries.
On the Panda Hydrogen, the Fuel Cell System is housed beneath the floorpan. The fuel cells are made up of several cells connected in series. Inside, the hydrogen and oxygen molecules are forced to react with the aid of a catalyst to produce water and heat. Electrical energy is generated with very high efficiency and zero emissions from the vehicle itself.
At full power, the Fuel Cell engine on the Panda Hydrogen delivers 60 kW (82 PS; 80 hp) that allows the car to reach a top speed of more than 130 km/h (81 mph), with acceleration from 0 to 50 km/h (31 mph) in 5 seconds. The car can also easily climb a gradient of 23% at take-off.
During 2006 a demonstration stage of small Panda Hydrogen fleets, was a forerunner to other demonstration programs promoted and supported by the European Union and by the Italian Ministries and Regions. The aim is for such vehicles to be marketed within 15 to 20 years.
- Fiat Panda Tanker
Unveiled at the Bologna Motor Show in Italy, the Panda Tanker features only three doors. And although the overall shape has remained unchanged, the two rear doors have been replaced by solid panels to free up some extra load space in the practical cabin. Rugged extras and underbody protection also help to set the Tanker apart from the standard Panda 4x4 model. Designed in conjunction with Italian extreme sport clothing manufacturer Dainese, the show star is equipped with sports seats incorporating a rigid titanium fibre shell.
Reflecting the matt paint finish of the exterior, the cabin has a back-to-basics feel. With no rear seats, the load floor offers flexible attachments for fixing sports kit, while an aluminium structure is designed to carry mountain bikes.
- Fiat Panda MultiEco
The Panda MultiEco show-car made its world debut in Geneva 2006. Fiat sees this unit as the future of cars with a low environmental impact: the concept car represents the most advanced frontier achievable in terms of emissions and consumption, combining technologies that already exist or are ready for production.
The show-car combines an innovative 'powertrain' architecture – an engine with dual petrol/methane fuel supply, MTA transmission and BAS device – with the use of eco-compatible materials (recycled, recyclable or of natural origin) for the exterior and interior. The result is made even more interesting by the painstaking optimisation of the aerodynamics and a significant weight reduction.
Panda MultiEco is equipped with a dual-fuel (methane and petrol) FIRE engine – future developments will also make it possible to use a methane/hydrogen mix – combined with a BAS (Belt-driven Alternator-Starter) device and a Dualogic robotised gearbox.
- Fiat PanDAKAR
Two factory-built Fiat Panda 4x4s were prepared to contest the gruelling Dakar 2007 rally raid, which started in Lisbon.
Entered in the T2 category, the class which most closely represents production vehicles, the two Panda 4x4s, driven by Miki Biasion and former Dakar winner, Bruno Saby, respectively, are powered by Fiat Auto's 1.3-litre Multijet turbodiesel combined with a six-speed manual gearbox. The engines deliver 105 bhp (78 kW) at 4500 rpm and a peak torque of 123 lb·ft (166.8 N·m). at 2500 rpm. Apart from their small dimensions, the two cars are particularly noteworthy for their automatic all-wheel drive system with viscous coupling and locking differential, a system that provides more grip and traction on rough and soft terrain thanks to the optimal split of drive to the wheels.
The two Pandas competing in Dakar 2007 have been equipped specifically for this rally: so room has been found inside for accessories like aluminium platforms to help extricate the vehicles from soft sand, shovels, spare wheels, water reserves for the crew, and other specialised equipment useful for the occasion. The Fiat expedition to Dakar included a Fiat Sedici as service back-up, and three Iveco trucks to transport spares and technicians.
Both PanDAKAR retired on the fourth stage of the event.
- Fiat Panda Simba
The Simba was unveiled at the Bologna Motor Show in 2002 purely as a concept car to give an idea how the following years production Panda would look. Some of the rugged styling cues made it on the production 'Cross' model
- Fiat Panda Aria
Fiat presented Aria concept in Frankfurt Motor Show 2007. The Aria is equipped with new environment-friendly technology and outputs only 69 g/km CO2. With 900 cc turbocharged straight-2 engine it produces 80 bhp (60 kW), its also capable of using both petrol and CNG.
This new engine is equipped with Fiat's Multiair technology, which uses electrohydraulic valve activation system. In monofuel (petrol) version the engine is capable of producing 105 bhp (78 kW). The car is also equipped with Stop&Start function, which helps to reduce consumption by 10% in urban driving.
The smallest engine, the 1.1 L petrol SOHC FIRE engine, which is rated at 54 bhp (40 kW) and found in the Fiat Seicento, has been criticised for being underpowered for the Panda, which weighs over 850 kg (1,874 lb), and the acceleration in particular was considered to be very slow. This engine is a construction from the early '80s.
The 1.2-litre (actually 1,242 cc), 60 hp (45 kW) engine is a derivative of the 1,1 litre and gives quite adequate performance in the Panda. The higher torque is a more important advantage than higher maximum power on this engine compared to the smaller 1,1 litre.
The 1.3-litre Multijet diesel engine is rated at 75 bhp (56 kW) and 100 lb·ft (140 N·m) of torque; it is the most economical of all available engines. However, this engine is detuned from the Punto (where it develops 120 lb·ft (163 N·m) of torque) due to the Panda's weaker transmission. Pandas with diesel engines can be easily distinguished by a "Multijet" badge on the right side of the rear licence plate.
Introduced into the range in 2006 was the 1368 cc FIRE engine which had previously seen service in the Fiat Stilo and the second generation Punto Sporting (contrary to some press reports, it is not an adapted version of the 1.4 16v Starjet engine used in the Grande Punto). This FIRE engine has four cylinders in-line with sixteen valves actuated by belt driven double overhead camshafts.
The engine is undersquare with bore and stroke of 72 and 84 mm (2.8 and 3.3 in) respectively, running at a compression ratio of 10.8:1. Ignition is by Fiat's Jet Thrust Stochiometric system with sequential multi-point fuel injection.
|Engine||Year of introduction||Type||Displacement||Power at rpm||CO2
|0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)||Top speed
||Average fuel use
|1.1 Fire 8V||2003||straight-4, Petrol||1,108 cc||40 kW (54 PS; 54 hp)||133||15,0 s||93 mph (150 km/h)||41.8 mpg-US (5.63 L/100 km; 50.2 mpg-imp)|
|1.1 Fire 8V Eco||2008||straight-4, Petrol||1,108 cc||40 kW (54 PS; 54 hp)||119||15,0 s||93 mph (150 km/h)||47.6 mpg-US (4.94 L/100 km; 57.2 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V||2003||straight-4, Petrol||1,242 cc||44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)||133||14,0 s||96 mph (154 km/h)||42.6 mpg-US (5.52 L/100 km; 51.2 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V Eco||2008||straight-4, Petrol||1,242 cc||44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)||119||14,0 s||96 mph (154 km/h)||47.6 mpg-US (4.94 L/100 km; 57.2 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V Dualogic||2004||straight-4, Petrol||1,242 cc||44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)||127||14,0 s||96 mph (154 km/h)||44 mpg-US (5.3 L/100 km; 53 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V 4x4||2004||straight-4, Petrol||1,242 cc||44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)||155||20,0 s||96 mph (154 km/h)||36.1 mpg-US (6.52 L/100 km; 43.4 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V Natural Power||2006||straight-4, Petrol-Methane||1,242 cc||44–38 kW (60–52 PS; 59–51 hp)||113||19,0 s||86 mph (138 km/h)||38.3 mpg-US (6.14 L/100 km; 46.0 mpg-imp)|
|1.2 Fire 8V GPL (LPG)||2008||straight-4, Petrol-LPG||1,242 cc||44 kW (60 PS; 59 hp)||116||14,0 s||96 mph (154 km/h)||33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp)|
|1.4 Fire 16V||2006||straight-4, Petrol||1,368 cc||74 kW (100 PS; 100 hp)||154||9,5 s||114 mph (183 km/h)||36.6 mpg-US (6.43 L/100 km; 44.0 mpg-imp)|
|1.3 Multijet 16V||2004||straight-4, Diesel||1,248 cc||51 kW (69 PS; 68 hp)||114||13,0 s||99 mph (159 km/h)||55.4 mpg-US (4.25 L/100 km; 66.5 mpg-imp)|
|1.3 Multijet 16V 4x4||2005||straight-4, Diesel||1,248 cc||51 kW (69 PS; 68 hp)||136||19,0 s (18,0 s Cross)||99 mph (159 km/h) (93 mph (150 km/h) Cross)||45.6 mpg-US (5.16 L/100 km; 54.8 mpg-imp)|
|1.3 Multijet 16V DPF||2007||straight-4, Diesel||1,248 cc||55 kW (75 PS; 74 hp)||113||13,0 s||102 mph (164 km/h)||55.5 mpg-US (4.24 L/100 km; 66.7 mpg-imp)|
Chinese copy controversy
In July 2008, Fiat successfully sued Great Wall and had the Peri banned from importation into Europe. In addition, the court order ruled for Great Wall to pay Fiat a 15,000 euro fine for the first Peri imported, and an additional 50,000 euros for every subsequent car that was imported.
However, on October 2009, Great Wall Motor sued Fiat, accusing the latter of espionage. In the lawsuit, Great Wall claims that "Fiat once instigated espionage to prowl into its research center and take photos of Peri small car that was still under developed."
Third generation (2011–present)
|Third generation (319)|
|Assembly||Pomigliano d'Arco, Italy|
|Designer||Centro Stile Fiat|
|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive|
|Platform||Fiat Mini platform|
|Wheelbase||2,300 mm (90.6 in)|
|Length||3,653–3,686 mm (143.8–145.1 in)|
|Width||1,643–1,672 mm (64.7–65.8 in)|
|Height||1,551–1,605 mm (61.1–63.2 in)|
|Curb weight||940–1,115 kg (2,072–2,458 lb)|
Fiat presented the third generation of the Panda at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011. The new architecture is based on the Fiat Mini platform. The production began in the renewed Pomigliano d'Arco Plant in the last quarter of 2011.
The older model stayed in production and was sold as Panda Classic, remaining popular thanks to its lower pricing (about 27%). The decision to manufacture the car in Italy, instead of manufacturing it with the cheaper workforce in Tychy, Poland, was taken because of the agreement between Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti and Fiat directors not to close down any of Fiat's plants in Italy.
Panda Natural Power
The Natural Power is the CNG/petrol bi-fuel version of the Panda. Unlike the previous generation - which adopted a 70 PS 1.4 FIRE inline four - it is powered by the turbocharged, 0.9 liter, two-cylinder TwinAir engine. The system is developed in-house and factory installed. CNG is stored in two - one 22 L and one 50 L - gas cylinders: the former housed longitudinally in the transmission tunnel, the latter transversally behind the rear axle. The boot's volume remains unvaried, thanks to the cylinders being both located under the floorpan; on the other hand this requires a 40 mm taller ride height and a reworked, transversal silencer.
Total fuel capacity is 72 liters - or 12 kilograms - of CNG and 35 L of petrol - two liters less than the monofuel version's 37. At startup the engine runs on petrol, but switches to CNG immediately after; the car switches back to petrol only if it runs out of CNG or by driver input via a dedicated button on the dashboard.
Launched in late 2012, the Trekking is a two wheel drive model offering the looks and features of the Panda 4x4. It is distinguished from the 4x4 by the absence of skid plate inserts on bumpers, no "4x4" inlay in the bodyside molding and alloy wheels painted silver instead of a darker grey. Available on this model are the 0.9 TwinAir turbocharged petrol, TwinAir Natural Power turbocharged petrol/methane and PS 1.3 Multijet II turbodiesel. Despite being front wheel drive only, the Trekking still offers some offroad capability thanks to the standard M+S tires and "Traction +" ESC-based electronically simulated front locking differential.
The third generation all wheel drive Panda was introduced at the 2012 Paris Motor Show. The engine lineup includes the TwinAir turbocharged petrol engine and Multijet II turbodiesel. The TwinAir engine is linked to a six-speed transmission with a short ratio first gear and the Diesel is linked to a 5-speed transmission.
The Panda 4x4 receives model specific bumpers with extra cladding, body side moldings, plastic wheelarch extensions and 175/65 M+S tires on 15" dark grey alloy wheels. The full-time all wheel drive system is composed by two open differentials front and rear and a rear mounted electronically controlled coupling, which sends torque to the two axles in proportion depending on road conditions. At the rear there's a specially developed torsion beam semi-independent suspension, a change from the previous generation's trailing arms. An electronically simulated locking differential (termed ELD,Electronic Locking Differential) supplements the open-type differentials. The ELD works automatically by braking the wheel(s) where the ESC sensors detect excessive wheel slip, thus making the differentials more torque to the wheels in better traction conditions; this functionality is useful on low-grip surfaces, and is activated by the driver via a console switch.
Launched at the 2014 Geneva Motor Show, it's the range topping, offroad-styled Panda. Mechanically it's based on the Panda 4x4, offering the same choice of powertrains. As in the previous generation the Cross is recognizable by its wider 185/65 tyres on specific alloy wheels, new fascias with prominent skid plates and unique broken up head- and taillights arrangement. The new bumpers, together with an increased ground clearance, give the car better approach and departure angles.
Panda 4x4 Steyr
Austrian market only special edition, announced in 2012. Its Steyr Tractor theme celebrates the several collaborations throughout the years between Fiat and former Steyr-Daimler-Puch, such as the development of the original Panda's four wheel drive system. Built on the basis of the Panda 4x4 1.3 Multijet II with richer interior standard equipment, it was available in red or white with contrasting colour side stripes and Steyr logo decals.
Panda 4x4 Antarctica
This limited, 200 cars edition was premiered at the 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show, commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Panda 4x4. It was too based on the Panda 4x4 1.3 Multijet II, featuring several normally extra cost options like automatic climate control, parking sensors and Blue&Me Bluetooth connectivity as standard. The exterior was characterized by a white with black roof two-tone paint scheme accented by orange wheel centers and side mirror caps.
|Euro NCAP test results|
|Fiat Panda (2011)|
The third generation Panda was tested by Euro NCAP towards the end of 2011, and achieved a four star result. One star was dropped mainly because the Panda's electronic stability control wasn't available on all trim levels, such as the one of the tested car. Fiat clarified on the same day that ESC would be offered on the entire Fiat Panda range in the first months of 2012.
Collision avoidance system
Fiat's City Brake Control low-speed crash avoidance system is available as optional on the Panda. The system works by readying and if necessary automatically executing an emergency stop whenever an imminent collision is detected by its laser sensor. In 2013 City Brake Control attained the Euro NCAP Advanced reward.
At 5:28pm on Monday, 11 February 2013, Philip Young and Paul Brace broke the world record drive, in either direction, from Cape Town in South Africa to London in Great Britain with a Fiat Panda 0.9 TwinAir. The drive started the 1 February and ended 10 days, 13 hours and 28 minutes later, shaving over a day off the previous record, achieved by a Land Rover Defender two years earlier.
- Panda 4x4: Top Gear Magazine's "SUV of the Year 2012".
- Panda TwinAir Turbo Natural Power: "Das grünste Auto der Schweiz 2013" ("Greenest car in Switzerland"), part of Swiss Car of the Year 2013.
|Engine||Year of introduction||Type||Displacement||Power at rpm||Torque at rpm||CO2||0–100 km/h (0–62 mph)||Top speed|
|straight-2, petrol||964 cc||60 PS (44 kW; 59 hp) @6250||88 N·m (65 lb·ft) @3500||99 g/km||15,7 s||159 km/h (99 mph)|
|0.9 TwinAir Turbo||2011,
|straight-2, petrol||875 cc||85 PS (63 kW; 84 hp) @5500||145 N·m (107 lb·ft) @1900||99 g/km||11,2 s||177 km/h (110 mph)|
|0.9 TwinAir Turbo Dualogic||2011,
|straight-2, petrol||875 cc||78 PS (57 kW; 77 hp) @5500||100 N·m (74 lb·ft) @2000||95 g/km||11,2 s||177 km/h (110 mph)|
|1.2 Fire 8v||2011,
|straight-4, petrol||1,242 cc||69 PS (51 kW; 68 hp) @5500||102 N·m (75 lb·ft) @3000||120 g/km||14,2 s||164 km/h (102 mph)|
|1.3 Multijet II||2011,
|straight-4, Diesel||1,248 cc||75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp) @4000||190 N·m (140 lb·ft) @1500||104 g/km||12,8 s||168 km/h (104 mph)|
|0.9 TwinAir Turbo Natural Power||2012||straight-2, petrol-methane||875 cc||80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) @5500||140 N·m (100 lb·ft) @2500||86 g/km||12,0 s||170 km/h (110 mph)|
|1.2 EasyPower||2012||straight-4, petrol-LPG||1,242 cc||69 PS (51 kW; 68 hp) @5500||102 N·m (75 lb·ft) @3000||116 g/km||14,2 s||164 km/h (102 mph)|
- "Fiat Produces 1,000,000th Panda". Car Scoop. Google Blogspot. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
- "New Panda 2012 third generation". Fiatpress.com. August 30, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2011.
- "Fiat Panda (1980)". autozine.org. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- 30 anni di Fiat Panda e 6.000.000 di auto prodotte (in Italian), IT: Autoblog
- "Curiosidades Tipo". Fiat Tipo Portugal. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- "eBay watch: historic Fiat Panda electric car for sale". greencarreports.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Fenu, Michele (2 February 1980). "«Con la Delta e la nuova Panda un modo diverso di vivere l'auto»". La Stampa (in Italian). p. 13. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Ferrari, Alessandro (September 1984). "Anteprima: La "Mini" si toglie il cilindro: Tutte le bicilindriche" [Preview: The Mini loses a cylinder: All of the bicylinders]. Quattroruote (in Italian) (Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus) 29 (347): 70–71.
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1985). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1985 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 290. ISBN 88-7212-012-8.
- "Cohort Classic: Fiat Panda 4×4 – Simply Simple". curbsideclassic.com. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Toen al groen: Fiat Panda Elettra" (in Dutch). FIATblog.nl. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- 1999: Fiat Panda sales drop down as people say it is "old fashioned", according to a survey[dead link]
- "Previous Cars". caroftheyear.org. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
- "Fiat Panda". panda-marbella.webs.com. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- "Compasso d'oro alla Fiat Panda". La Stampa (in Italian). 13 September 1981. p. 13. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- Erich Böhme (managing editor) (11 February 1980). "Legitimer Erbe: Mit einem neuen Kleinwagen will Italiens gebeutelter Auto-Riese Fiat auf dem deutschen Markt vergraulte Kunden zurückgewinnen". Der Spiegel (7/1980). Spiegel-Online. p. 215. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
Stylist Giorgio Giugiaro: "Für mich war dies die reizvollste Arbeit meines Lebens." Chefkonstrukteur Felice Cornacchia: "Am meisten bin ich stolz auf die Architektur des Wagens." Mit einem "Schuhkarton" verglich "Bild"-Autotester Peter Glodschey den neuen Panda. Aber Schuhkartons sind schöner."
- "Bardzo smutna data w historii "polskiej" motoryzacji". interia.pl. December 20, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
- "One millionth Fiat Panda rolls off the production lines". italiaspeed.com. September 5, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- "Fiat Panda number 1,500,000 rolls off the lines at Tychy". italiaspeed.com. July 24, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- "Two millionth second generation Fiat Panda is built at Tychy". italiaspeed.com. July 5, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Survey". topgear.com. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- Reference 2004
- "Fiat builds 2,000,000 Panda in Polish plant". European Car News.
- "Fiat panda Classic" (in Italian). Quattroruote.it. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- "Fiat Panda Terramare 4 makes it across the English Channel". autoblog.com. Retrieved February 15, 2009.
- "Fiat Panda Aria Concept Debut". worldcarfans.com. Retrieved September 23, 2007.
- re. "13.12.2006 FIAT IS CONSIDERING TAKING LEGAL ACTION TO STOP GREAT WALL'S PANDA CLONE BEING SOLD IN EUROPE". ItaliaSpeed.com. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "Fiat Successfully Sues Chinese Automaker for Panda Clone". Left Lane News. August 11, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "Fiat Faces Lawsuit from Great Wall Motor Co". Auto Evolution. August 19, 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2010.
- "The Fiat Panda is available in four versions: 4x4, Trekking, Natural Power and EasyPower". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). October 16, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Panda 4x4". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- "Fiat Panda 4x4 debuts in world preview at the Paris Motor Show". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). August 29, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- "2014 Geneva Motor Show: début of the Fiat Panda Cross and Fiat Freemont Cross". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). February 18, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Fiat Panda 4x4 Steyr". FGA EMEA Press site (press release) (in German). October 1, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2014.
- "Panda 4x4 Antartica together with the symbol of the South Pole". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). October 21, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Euro NCAP results for Fiat Panda". euroncap.com. 2011.
- "Fiat Panda EuroNCAP result". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). November 23, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- "Euro NCAP Advanced: FIAT City Brake Control". Euro NCAP official site. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
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- "Panda TwinAir Turbo Natural Power earns title of 'Most eco-friendly car' of 2013 in Switzerland". FGA EMEA Press site (press release). November 23, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
- "Schweizer Auto des Jahres, Das sind die Gewinner". schweizer-illustrierte.com. November 23, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fiat Panda.|
|« previous — Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. car timeline, European market, 1980s–present|
|City car||126||Cinquecento||Seicento / 600|
|Panda I||Panda II||Panda III|
|Supermini||Hatch||127||Uno||Punto I||Punto II|
|Palio||Grande Punto||Punto Evo||Punto|
|Small family car||Hatch||Ritmo||Tipo||Bravo I / Brava||Stilo||Bravo II|
|Large family car||132||Argenta||Croma I||Croma II|
|Cabriolet||Ritmo Cabrio||Punto Cabrio||500C|
|LCV/LAV||Fiorino I||Fiorino II||Fiorino III / Qubo|
|Doblò I||Doblò II|
|Large MPV||Ulysse I||Ulysse II||Freemont|
|Van||Daily||Scudo I||Scudo II|
|Ducato I||Ducato II||Ducato III|