Fiber to the premises by country
This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises by country.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 3.1 Andorra
- 3.2 Bulgaria
- 3.3 Croatia
- 3.4 Cyprus
- 3.5 Czech Republic
- 3.6 Denmark
- 3.7 Estonia
- 3.8 Finland
- 3.9 France
- 3.10 Greece
- 3.11 Hungary
- 3.12 Iceland
- 3.13 Ireland
- 3.14 Italy
- 3.15 Latvia
- 3.16 Lithuania
- 3.17 Macedonia
- 3.18 Moldova
- 3.19 Netherlands
- 3.20 Norway
- 3.21 Portugal
- 3.22 Romania
- 3.23 Russia
- 3.24 Serbia
- 3.25 Slovakia
- 3.26 Slovenia
- 3.27 Spain
- 3.28 Sweden
- 3.29 Switzerland
- 3.30 Turkey
- 3.31 Ukraine
- 3.32 United Kingdom (and dependencies)
- 4 Middle East
- 5 North America
- 6 South America
- 7 Oceania
- 8 See also
- 9 References
In Kenya, the home entertainment and communication services provider, Zuku, offers fiber-based broadband residential and small or home office packages at speeds of 1, 8 and 20 Mbit/s in Nairobi. Triple-Play bundles (Internet, TV and phone) are available.
Link Africa (formerly i3 Africa) announced plans to construct a FTTH network in South Africa covering 2.5 million premises in six cities (Durban, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria) by 2016 with minimum connection speeds of 100Mbit/s. The "open-access" network will allow third-party Internet service providers (ISPs) to sell services. Link Africa will not sell services directly to customers. Telkom, South Africa's primary fixed line operator, is currently conducting a 100Mbit/s FTTH trial and aiming to launch a commercial FTTH service in December 2014 for a limited number of areas.
Telekom Brunei Berhad, the incumbent telecommunications operator in Brunei, commenced construction of a FTTH network in 2010 to replace their copper infrastructure, contracting with Huawei for construction. It will offer initial speeds up to 150Mbit/s.
During APOC 2003 (Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications) held in Wuhan, Chinese telecom experts discussed FTTH in China. Topics included FTTH opportunities and challenges, FTTH applications, FTTH network architecture and cost analysis.
As of April 2006, Hong Kong Broadband Network (HKBN, Chinese: 香港寬頻網絡有限公司), wholly owned subsidiary of City Telecom (H.K.) Limited, was offering its customers Internet access via fiber to the building and FTTH. Speeds ranged from 10-1000 Mbit/s, although the speed to non-Hong Kong destinations was capped at 20 Mbit/s.
In October 2007, the largest telecom company in Hong Kong, PCCW Limited (Chinese: 電訊盈科有限公司), the holding company of HKT Group Holdings Limited, a Hong Kong based Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) company, started to offer both 100 Mbit/s and 1000 Mbit/s FTTH Internet consumer plans.
Fiber service is available from several providers:
Sterlite is providing FTTH services in 6 cities in India (Delhi/NCR, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai & Ahmedabad).
India's first FTTH network was launched in December 2008 by New Delhi based Radius Infratel Private Limited.
FTTH service from ACT in Bangalore was launched in 2012.
An FTTH-based network project was commissioned at INS Shivaji, Lonavla on 29 Jul 2013.
FTTH services were launched in chennai in the year May 2013 by OODOO communications
Biznet Networks deployed FTTH service in Indonesia, the first in Southeast Asia. Biznet Metro's FTTH network uses Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GE-PON) based networking technology. Supported by Nokia Siemens, the network is capable of delivering Triple Play services that consist of aata (Internet or intranet), voice (VoIP), and video (interactive TV and multimedia) in a single infrastructure. This network is capable of supporting up to 1 Gbyte/s data transfer.
First Media, a company born from Lippo group's new $650 million investment in Internet in Indonesia, as well as cable television, began offering FTTH (using coaxial cable, not Optical fiber), branded as FastNet, on 8 September.[year needed]
FTTH was introduced in 1999 and substantial growth began in 2001. In 2003–2004, FTTH accelerated, while DSL stagnated. DSL peaked in March 2006. 10.5 million FTTH connections were reported in September 2007. On 17 September 2008, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications reported that FTTH connections (13.08 million connections) eclipsed DSL (12.29 million connections and declining) and became the most popular method of broadband connection at 45% of the total.
FTTH started with a 10 Mbit/s (end-user rate) passive optical network (PON) by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) and 100 Mbit/s (end-user rate) with GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet-PON) or broadband PON in 2006. PON is NTT's major FTTH system but some competitive services offer 1 Gbit/s (at end-user rate) with SS (Single Star).
As of April 2013, Sony ISP known as So-Net released a new fibre service to tokyo for small businesses and homes and also made available to six surrounding prefectures of speeds at 2Gbit/s Download and 1Gbit/s Upload, making it the worlds fastest home internet connection as to date..
Telekom Malaysia (TM) officially launched FTTH on 24 March 2010. TM High Speed Broadband (HSBB) was released to end users in stages. The product name is UniFi and offers speeds of 5, 10 and 20 Mbit/s. The fiber network is also leased out to competitors Maxis Communications and Packet One Networks. Maxis Communications offers speed of 10, 20 and 30 Mbit/s under the Maxis Home Broadband brand, while Packet One Networks offers speeds identical to that of UniFi, but with a WiMAX USB modem and mobile bundled under the Fiber by P1 brand. The network also carries two IPTV providers, HyppTV and Astro IPTV. The former is only available bundled with UniFi while the latter is only available bundled with Maxis Broadband.
FTTH services entered Pakistan in July 2002 by NayaTel. Currently, FTTH services by Nayatel covers most parts of the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. NayaTel has plans to start FTTH services in other cities of Pakistan. The FTTH plans by Nayatel range from 2 Mbit/s to 12 Mbit/s.
Initial tests done by PLDT showed download speeds of up to 94.86 Mbit/s and upload rates of 69.39 Mbit/s. Pilot areas for PLDT's service included Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Forbes Park, Urdaneta Village, Dasmariñas Village in Makati City, Ayala Heights in Quezon City, Wack Wack in San Juan, Valle Verde in Mandaluyong and certain areas covered by PLDT in Subic and Clark freeports.
Globe Telecom deployed GPON pilot projects in 2009 for areas in Bonifacio Global City, Forbes park, Bel-Air and Urdaneta Village.
FTTP in South Korea is offered by various Internet service providers including KT (formerly Korea Telecom), SK Broadband (formerly Hanaro Telecom) and LG U+ (formerly LG Powercom). The connection speed for both downloading and uploading is set to be 100 Mbit/s.
Sri Lanka Telecom offers FTTH/FTTB in Sri Lanka.
- CAT Telecom offers service using GEPON in Bangkok and other major cities in Thailand.[when?] Speeds range from 12-32 Mbit/s.
- TOT Public Company, a state-owned telecommunications company, is starting to offer service.[when?] TOT stands for Telephone Organization of Thailand.
Beeline Uzbekistan offers service in Tashkent, Zarafshan and Uchquduq with bandwidth of 100 Mbit/s for TAS-IX and 2 Mbit/s for other connections. UzOnline, a state-run ISP, and Sarkor Telecom also offer service in Tashkent.
Andorra Telecom operates a country-wide fiber optic network delivering internet, TV, movies on demand and telephone service. Internet access operates at 100 Mbit/s. The FTTH network is being used to replace copper loops, with telephony only subscribers being offered FTTH boxes to replace their copper PSTN line. Almost 100% of the country is covered. Andorra has some remote residences situated beyond the distance supported by DSL.
FTTH in Bulgaria is being deployed by ITD Network. Service is available in Plovdiv, Veliko Tarnovo and some areas in Sofia. The offering is a service-neutral switched environment, based on an intelligent 3-tier platform, serving up to 14,000 nodes in each deployment, using the same fiber infrastructure as the corporate backbone, with fully automated services provisioning, 24x7 monitoring and customer care. Diverse double-play and triple-play packages feature:
- Internet access (up to 40 Mbit/s symmetrical bandwidth) with wireless options featuring high-grade protection and automated equipment configuration
- Up to two phone lines and up to 10 reserved DIDs for easy SOHO service upgrades
- Value-added voice services such as fax-to-email
- Digital TV featuring over 80 channels including HD, customized middleware and multiple, high-quality STBs
- Video-on-demand with music and film libraries available.
- Online services management
As of January 2013 Mtel became a major provider, covering more than 10 major markets with max speeds of 100 Mbit/s via GPON. Vivacom is expanding coverage for Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas and Stara Zagora with speeds up to 100 Mbit/s.
Other ISP's that were used local area networks to deliver broadband are upgrading their networks and now offer fiber-to-the-curb.
The first provider to offer FTTH in Croatia was Vodatel. In September 2006, Vodatel service was available in Zagreb. The service offered symmetrical 2/5/10 Mbit/s speeds in Triple Play packages. As of mid 2009 T-com.hr partly equipped a 28 floor building in Rijeka with fiber. The building was a test site and the service was initially offered free of charge.
FTTH services include in Prague, a FTTH 1/10/100 Mbit/s service called ViaGia provided by T-Systems is available in newer homes built by CentralGroup. UPC provides Triple Play Services over FTTH in new buildings.[dated info]
As of 2006, FTTH was being installed in Denmark in the northern parts of Zealand north and west of Copenhagen. The installation was being performed by the power company DONG Energy as part of a project to convert their airborne power infrastructure into one consisting of underground cables. Their plans called for a completion date of 2010, after which they expected to expand FTTH installation to areas that fell outside of the scope of the power infrastructure conversion project. However, DONG Energy does not provide access to Internet, television, or telephone services by themselves – other providers rent the cable to provide the end customer with anything ranging from simple POTS-like telephony to triple play. As of 2014, FTTH is available through Waoo which is a consortium of 13 regional electric companies throughout the country. Stofa also offers fiber to the home service. Several apartment complexes also offer FTTH. DONG Energy sold its fiber to TDC which leases access to Waoo.
As of 2010, FTTH networks are fully developed and commercially available in select locations in Estonia. Speeds up to 300 Mbit/s downstream and 300 Mbit/s upstream are commercially available for €33 a month. The same network delivers digital television and is usually marketed as a "home package" (Internet, digital television and landline phone). The price for ADSL2 connection operating at 12/1 Mbit/s is €21 a month. In all cases, TV and Internet share the overall bandwidth, so the more active TV tuners in use at a given time, the less bandwidth is available for Internet use. Since 2013 AS Starman has been offering connections with 200 Mbit/s downstream and 20 Mbit/s upstream, at a cost of approximately €26 per month.
- On 1 March 2007, Orange released their first commercial FTTH offer in Paris at €45 a month for a 100 Mbit/s Internet connection (flat rate) and a set of services including telephone over IP and television. The fiber installation is free.
- In June 2006, Orange launched a test program for FTTH in some arrondissements of Paris. It proposed up to 2.5 Gbit/s downstream and 1.2 Gbit/s upstream per 30 users using PON for €70 a month.
- In September 2006, Free announced a €30 a month triple play offer including 100 Mbit/s Internet connection, free phone calls to 42 countries and high-definition television. The roll-out of this service was planned for May 2007, but wide offering was postponed to September. It will be available first in Paris, then other French towns including Montpellier, Lyon and Valenciennes as well as certain Paris suburbs.
- A residential fibre service had been deployed in the 15th Arrondissement (borough) of Paris by Cité Fibre. Bandwidth allocated to each user was 100 Mbit/s with 30 Mbit/s reserved for Internet traffic. The package included digital television and VoIP telephone services along with unlimited Internet starting at €49 per month. The 15th Arrondissement was probably selected for its comparatively high residential population. Cité Fibre was bought by Free in October 2006 and merged into Free's own FTTH project.
- In 2003 Erenis launched an offer of FTTB at 100 Mbit/s in January 2007 including triple play. Erenis was bought by Neuf on 2 April 2007 and this company is planning to offer a 50 Mbit/s triple play service for €29.90 starting at once.
- In July 2007 Neuf announced it will only use FTTH in new deployments and that the existing Erenis FTTB users would be switched to FTTH at some time in the future. Neuf also acquired Mediafibre, a company which sold fibre optic access is Pau, France, in January 2007.
- In La Reunion island : In June 2013, Zeop launched a 35Mbit/s FTTH service on a first zone on the island. In April 2014, the bandwidth has been upgraded up to 100Mbit/s. ·  ·  · 
- In October 2013 Free and SFR have upgraded their FTTH bandwidth to 1000 Mbit/s download and 200 Mbits/s upload.
- In April 2014, Orange commercialised a higher package with 500 Mbits/s download and 200 Mb/s upload. Bouygues Telecom, who tested FTTH in some cities since 2012, officially announced 1000/200 FTTH packages at 25,99 €/month in November. There are available in biggest cities for now.
The ARCEP (Electronic Communications and Post-office Regulation Authority) announced in September 2014 3,7 million homes are now able to subscribe to FTTH.
In September 2008, Transport and Communications Minister Kostas Hatzidakis announced plans to provide FTTH to 2 million homes in Athens, Thessaloniki and 50 other cities across Greece by 2013, at a cost of €2.1 billion and at speeds of "at least" 100 Mbit/s.
In 2009, Magyar Telekom was the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are available in the inner districts of Budapest and other major cities such as Győr and Sopron. By 2011 the fiber-optic network will be extended to 800,000 households.
FTTH is being deployed by Gagnaveita Reykjavikur (GR), a subsidiary of Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik Power Company). By March 2006, they had begun connecting the towns of Seltjarnarnes, Akranes and parts of the Capital Region. At that time they expected to have 50% of Reykjavik connected by 2008 and all of the Capital Region, Seltjarnes, Akranes, Mosfellsbær, Þorlákshöfn and Hveragerði connected by 2012. However, deployment in other areas was pending waiting for agreements with city officials. GR only owned the FTTH network; ISP services were provided by HIVE, Skýrr and Vortex. As of July 2006, VoIP service were available from HIVE. By March 2007, Vodafone Iceland was providing ISP and VoIP services and had introduced video via its Digital Iceland broadcasting system, while Skýrr had stopped providing ISP services. The FTTH connections are 100 Mbit/s, but as of March 2007 the ISP services only offered speeds of 6, 8, 10, 20 and 30 Mbit/s.
In March 2006, the monthly cost of FTTH was 1.990 ISK (approx 26 US dollars), not including any services. This was somewhat more expensive than having a phone line in the house which at the time cost 1.340 ISK (approx 18 US dollars). By June 2009, the monthly cost of FTTH had risen to 2.390 ISK (approx 19 US dollars at the time), not including any services. By comparison, having a phone line in the house had dropped to 1.147 ISK (approx $9 US dollars) by that time.
Other smaller FTTH providers are Míla which operates in recently developed areas in the Capital Region, Gagnveita Skagafjarðar which operates in Sauðárkrókur and Tengir in Akureyri and its vicinity.
Ireland has an FTTH network under development by Eircom and Magnet. Eircom is the incumbent telco and Magnet is a cable / DSL / fiber provider. The fiber service provides up to 200 Mbit/s down and 30 Mbit/s up. It is being rolled out on a phased basis across the country, serving both business and residential customers and the network is open to other service providers.
In Italy, FTTH has been deployed by FASTWEB since 1999 in selected areas of Milan, Rome, Naples, Genova, Bologna and a few other cities, however they aren't planning to deploy any more FTTP as DSL deployment is far cheaper. Where FTTP is available, they have offered a triple play service on a 10/10 Mbit/s Internet connection since 2010. Fastweb started offering FTTP customers the option to upgrade to 100/10 Mbit/s at a small additional fee. Telecom Italia announced, in March 2008, they would deploy FTTH in 140,000 homes in Milan, by the end of 2008 and in 10 cities the following year at speeds up to 1 Gbit/s.
In Q1 2009, Lattelecom launched FTTH services with up to 100 Mbit/s speeds, initially available in Riga. By November 2009, the speed was increased to 500 Mbit/s in selected areas, however by October 2013 it was increased to 1 Gbit/s. In Q1 2013, the company's FTTH service covered 450,000 households across Latvia.
FTTH is provided in all major and smaller cities (~30 of them) of Lithuania, mainly by Teo LT and some smaller local providers. Teo LT is a former state telecom operator now owned by TeliaSonera and according to the local regulatory agency their data communications business accounts for ~69% of the total data service revenue in Lithuania for 2009. They sell FTTH under the brand ZEBRA, there were 63,000 subscribers connected via FTTH at the end of 2009, and there are plans for most residents in the three largest cities, Vilnius (95%), Kaunas (70%) and Klaipėda (95%), to be able to connect to FTTH by the end of 2010. According to the FTTH European Rankings] of the FTTH Council Europe published 24 February 2010, Lithuania leads Europe in FTTH connectivity with 18% penetration, followed by Sweden, Norway and Slovenia.
In Macedonia, as of 2010 Makedonski Telekom is the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are currently available in the inner districts of Skopje and it's expected to expand to the larger cities in the country. The service offers symmetrical 40/50/60/1000 Mbit/s speeds in triple play and double play packages.
In Moldova FTTB has been deployed by StarNet and Arax since 2006 and Moldtelecom since 2008 in the city of Chișinău at first and other towns and regional centers later. Since then the fiber network grew very fast due to intense competition between two dominant ISP's in the country – StarNet and Moldtelecom. The result of this competition is that FTTB holds more than 50% of the broadband market in the country and is continuing to increase, slowly pushing back ADSL as the main Internet access technology. As of 2012 there are multiple local and only two country-wide ISP's (StarNet and Moldtelecom) that offer Internet access via FTTB. StarNet and Moldtelecom both offer 300/300Mbit (symmetrical) Internet connection via FTTB in the city of Chișinău and some regional centers with prices around €15 per month for 100/100Mbit plan.
In The Netherlands in the city of Eindhoven and a nearby village of Nuenen, there is a large network with 15 000 connections. Triple play is offered. Houses and companies are connected with single-mode fibre. The network is owned by the members themselves, who formed a corporation. The first European FTTH project was also in Eindhoven in a neighborhood known as the "Vlinderflats". This was a multi-mode fibre but was in 2005 changed to single-mode fibre. FTTH resulted in new broadband services; the inhabitants started their own broadband TV station called VlinderTV.
Since October 2006 fibre optic connections are being deployed in the city of Amsterdam. In the first phase of the deployment there are some 40,000 connections planned with the first ones being available for connection to end users in February 2007. The network is rolled out in the boroughs of Zeeburg, Oost and Osdorp. The owner of the network is GNA CV, the operator is BBned, a subsidiary of Telecom Italia. BBned operates as a non-discriminating wholesaler of capacity to service providers. This setup, with a structural separation of ownership of the network and the delivery of services, ensures that the network is open to all.
Also, another company is building new FTTH networks in Arnhem, Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Hilversum, Soest, Leiden and Utrecht. These networks are almost completed. The first home was connected around March 2005. If all goes according to plan, the last home in these networks will be connected in June 2007. These networks also provide triple play services. Internet connection speed varies from 24, 48 and 100 Mbit/s (up and down).
The city of Deventer will be the first city in The Netherlands which will be fully connected with FTTH, at the end of 2009. Already in the first quarter of 2009, more than half of the roughly 100,000 citizens are able to use the FTTH services. Single play, double play and triple play are offered, with speeds of 35 and 50 Mbit/s. In the near future, these speeds will be upgraded to 50 and 100 Mbit/s respectively.
In Portugal, ZON was created from the old TVCabo spin-off of its mother company PT. Subsequently a large group of smaller cable operators was bought into the new company. TVTEL was the first Portuguese ISP to offer FTTH services initially in Oeiras (near Lisbon) and also in Porto, Pluricanal is another ISP that offers this kind of access in some neighborhoods on the outskirts of Lisbon. Both TVTel and Pluricanal are now a part of ZON. ZON based its current expansion program not on the FTTH network, but in upgrading the HFC (cable) network to Eurodocsys3.0 at 200 Mbit/s on cable and 1 Gbit/s using FTTH.
Sonaecom with Optimus Clix Fibra was the arguably the first to invest in a large-scale fiber optical network, to cover 1,000,000 people by 2011, the triple-play packages includes maximum speeds of 360/36 Mbit/s (down/upstream), TV with +150 channels over FTTH and IPTV. The company was first to offer such service in Portugal.
Portugal Telecom launched the FTTH service in May 2009, Meo Fibra offers a triple-play service at a maximum speed (for now) of 400/40 Mbit/s (download/upload), more than 100 TV channels over IPTV and VoIP phone; the coverage is still limited to major cities, but the expansion of the fiber is underway across the country. A special notice should be mentioned about the late development of PT FTTH network since due to previous "unbundling" problems of the copper DSL network only after getting a guarantee from the respective authorities (Anacom) that they would not be mandated to give free/open access to other companies in their network.
In Romania, FTTH was first deployed in Timişoara by RDS. Currently, it is available in every major city. The name of the service is FiberLink. There are 4 subscription plans: FiberLink 50, FiberLink 100, FiberLink 500 and FiberLink 1000.
- Cable Television «Divan-TV»
- High-speed broadband Internet Access «DOM.RU»
- IP-telephony «GORSVYAZ»
- Services for corporations («home office» service, videoconference connection, telemetry collecting service etc.).
In Serbia Targo Telekom offers FTTH access to residents in Stara Pazova and New Belgrade. The offer includes both Internet access and television. Speed ranges from 10/5Mbit/s, 20/10Mbit/s, 40/20Mbit/s, 80/40Mbit/s and 120/60Mbit/s. Thunder and Warp plans include speeds of up to 2.5/1.5Gbit/s.
In Kosovo, FTTN (N=Neighborhood) has been deployed by Telecom Kosovo since 2000 in selected areas of Priština, Peć, Prizren, Kosovska Mitrovica, Uroševac, Gjilane and other cities in Kosovo and Metohija. More than 800 km connects 50 locations in MASH topology, in 2010 Telecom Kosovo introduced Triple-Play for its customers.
In Slovenia, FTTH was first deployed in Kranj by T-2. Currently optical fiber infrastructure for FTTH is being built by Gratel and Telekom Slovenije in Šenčur, Ljubljana, Koper, Portorož, Novo Mesto, Murska Sobota, Maribor, Slovenska Bistrica, Velenje, Nova Gorica and Jesenice. The plan by both companies is to cover all the major and smaller towns first before they roll out fiber to suburbs. T-2 FTTH speed ranges from 10/10Mbit/s (€23/month), 20/20Mbit/s (€30/month), 50/50Mbit/s (€41/month), 100/10Mbit/s (€29/month), 100/100Mbit/s (€51/month), 200/200Mbit/s (€200/month), 500/500Mbit/s (€500/month), and up to 1 Gbit/s (€1,000/month). Telekom Slovenije (national ISP) offers FTTH speeds from 20/20Mbit/s (€33/month), 60/60Mbit/s (€87/month) and 100/100Mbit/s (€147).
In mid 2011, T-2 finished negotiations with Gratel to greatly expand FTTH penetration in its home city Maribor, where the T-2's main offices are located. The expanditure is rumored to connect more than 25,000 new households including skyscrapers in the city's south center area Tabor (the right/south side of the river). The construction started immediately and is continuing rapidly.
In Spain the first FTTH network commercially deployed is in the mining valleys of Asturias. The network has an Open Access FTTH Network architecture allowing end users to select from several different service providers.
Sweden has a vast number of installed FTTH connections both in rural and suburban areas. Municipalities and private companies are using blown fiber and cable in metro networks. For metro networks, fibre cable are used with fibre counts ranging from eight to 96 SM and blown fibre with bundles of 8 fibers or less, for connecting houses and apartments. Competitors to Telia, the Swedish incumbent, helped to drive the early development of fiberbased broadband installations made by Bredbandsbolaget and others. For instance by municipality owned power companies and housing corporations.
Stokab, Stockholm’s city-owned network company, is the owner of one of the largest dark fiber city networks in Europe. Ribbon cables, new micro cables and blown fiber used by Stokab, are facilitating the installation. New smart network designs, cuts construction costs and eliminates the need to dig up streets and sidewalks to connect building properties one by one. Stokab installs a fibre optic cable from its metro network into the basement of a building where it terminates all the fibres from the street. From the termination box Stokab then installs a multiduct with micro ducts that goes through all the basements on the block to form a ring. Each building has a ‘delivery point’ from which Stokab can connect a micro duct when the building owner wants fibre.
Stokab connected 10 city blocks in central Stockholm during 2006, each with about 250 apartments. Stokab plans to connect 100 more blocks in 2007–2008. Some of the biggest scale projects are now built in Stockholm, where housing corporations use micro duct to blow cable and fiber to connect tenants. In Stockholm, housing corporations (Svenska Bostäder, Stockholmshem, Familjebostäder) will connect more than 100,000 apartments over the coming years forming the worlds largest Open Fiber To The Home network. Tenants can chose among competing service providers of Internet, telephony and TV.
The dominating active FTTH technology used in Sweden is AON, some few PON based projects are also up and running. A standard for national certification of fiber installers has been formed in order to keep high installation quality and lower maintenance costs. As of March 2009, Sweden has 8% of households connected with fiber, making Sweden number one in Europe FTTH-wise.
In Autumn 2010, Sweden is due to launch 1 Gbit/s in some areas for 999SEK per month.
In Switzerland, fiber is available in major cities and some other municipalities. Currently, most fiber users have 100 Mbit/s connections, and by the end of 2013, 700,000 fiber customers will be eligible for gigabit FTTH access through Swisscom. By 2015, 1 million of Swisscom's customers will have FTTH, 500,000 will have FTTS or FTTB, with a further 800,000 customers having at least 100 Mbit/s through vectored DSL. 80% of households are scheduled to have at least 100 Mbit/s by 2020, however it is not yet clear which technology will be used. Swisscom is currently the leading investor having invested 1.75 billion CHF in 2013, however there are currently over 80 other registered fiber optic providers, composed of national providers, and smaller community/regional ones that also plan to expand the fiber network.
Superonline (an ADSL operator) acquired Tellcom on 5 January 2009 and continued the fiber internet service on highly populated buildings, along with its ADSL service. The name of the fiber Internet service is "Superonline Fiber Internet". Currently offered tariffs are 10/1 Mbit/s (99 TL/month ~= 65 $/month), 20/5 Mbit/s (199TL ~= 135 $/month), 50/5 Mbit/s (399TL ~= 265 $/month and 100/5 Mbit/s (599TL ~=400 $/month). Tariffs include low priced fiber packages with download quotas and after quota limits are reached, extra downloads cost fees depending on the amount of the download (9.4 TL / GB =~ 6.$3 / GB). Finally there are packages with "fair use policy" which limit the fiber speed to 512/128 kbit/s once download caps are reached. The download caps are set at 5 times the download speed and 10 times the upload speed in terms of GB (As an example, 10/1 Mbit/s "fair use" tariff has 50 GB/10 GB fair usage quotas).
Superonline's "fair use policy" tariffs, price increases for the unlimited tariffs (73 $/month to 400 $/month for the 100 Mbit unlimited tariff) and the reduced upload speeds from symmetrical upload speed to 5 Mbit upload speed have created a controversy among its users and a protest group was formed condemning Superonline for its actions.
Superonline announced on its April 2010 monthly bill that after 15 June 2010, all upload speeds will be decreased to 1 Mbit/s for the fiber internet tariffs. This includes the 20/5 Mbit/s, 50/5 Mbit/s, and 100/5 Mbit/s tariffs, thus after 15 June 2010, these tariffs will be 20/1 Mbit/s, 50/1 Mbit/s and, 100/1 Mbit/s. The 100/1 service with a download to upload ratio of 100:1 is the most asymmetrical fiber connection in the world. However on 15 May 2010, Superonline sent an e-mail to its customers stating that the announcement on the bills was a "technical glitch" which should be ignored. This incident decreased Superonline's credibility among its fiber internet customers.
Superonline announced on 9 July 2010 that customers would be discriminated according to their internet service starting dates. Customers who started using fiber internet before 15 March 2010 will not be affected by the "fair usage policy", thus they will be able to download unlimited data while paying half the price of unlimited tariffs or in other words paying the same price as a fair usage limited user and downloading unlimited data.
Superonline tariffs in 2013 are 25/5, 50/5, 100/5 and 1000/20Mbit/s. The cheapest prices are 49 TL ($27) for 25Mbit/s, 89 TL ($45) for 50Mbit/s, 109 TL ($55) for 100Mbit/s and 999TL ($504) for 1Gbit/s. The 1Gbit/s packet is unlimited in any means. The fair usage policy affects all packages except the 1Gbit/s tariff. The company has been heavily criticised for fair usage policy. The network's main drawback is it is coverage. No significant expansions were made by far. Although residents can fill the form for the fibre coverage, there is really low chance that this will affect future plans of the company.
In the Ukraine the first FTTH project was launched in Odesa in 2006 by Comstar-Ukraine, LLC, a local branch of Comstar-UTS, Russia. The project aimed to prepare a basic network for TriplePlay service deployment. Along with the broadband internet service on April 2008 Comstar-Ukraine presented to the market the first Ukraine commercial IPTV project, which presently supports HDTV and Dolby 5.1 sound.
Later in 2007 a FTTP project in Kyiv was deployed by Svitonline/Golden Telecom. Svitonline proposed tariffs: "Hourly": 20₴ (€2,70)/month, 25 hours included, ₴1 (€0,01)./hour above included. "Standard": 80₴ (€10,81)/month, 11 GiBs included, ₴0,01 (€0,001)/MiB above included. "Unlimited": 200₴ (€27)/month. Speed for all of the tariffs is 100 Mbit/s.
United Kingdom (and dependencies)
In the United Kingdom:
- In the autumn of 2008, H2O Networks part of the i3 Group, rolled out Fibrecity, offering Residential FTTH in Bournemouth, Northampton and Dundee.
- During 2011, KC (part of the KCOM Group) began deploying fibre to the premise to locations across its Hull and East Yorkshire network.
- In October 2012, British operator Gigler UK launched a 1 Gbit/sec down and 500 Mbit/sec up FTTH service in Bournemouth using the CityFibre network.
- In 2012, Openreach, a division of BT, started a pilot at Ebbsfleet in Kent, Highams Park in London and Milton Keynes offering speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s and have plans to make FTTP available to 2.5 million homes and businesses later in the year.
As of May 2012, JT Global offers gigabit fibre-to-the-home (1000Mbit/s downstream, 100Mbit/s upstream) internet connections became available to customers in Grouville, Jersey, with a phased roll-out planned.
Israel's state-owned electricity company is deploying a FTTP network across the country. Target maximum speeds are between 100Mbit/s and 1Gbit/s. The network will be funded 49% by the Government electric company, and 51% by private sector partners. Construction will begin in 2012, with a target of 10% coverage by 2013 and 66% by 2019.
Jordan Cable Services (JCS) was founded in 2003 as a private company and it has a view to realize a cable TV and Internet network using FTTH technology in Jordan. On 11 April 2007 Jordan Cable TV and Internet Services obtained from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission the individual license to build communications networks.
In 2005 the Kuwait Ministry of Communications (MOC) selected Alcatel to supply a gigabit passive optical network (GPON) that will allow the MOC to offer triple-play services (voice, video and data) to subscribers via a fiber to the user (FTTU) architecture.
In South Surra, in four cities, Alsalam, Hutteen, Alshuhada, and future Seddeek. The project started in 2003 and service is complete, but with many errors in installations (mixed up phone numbers, inactive additional services like CallerId). The equipment is from Alcatel. A typical installation has four RJ32 female sockets and two RJ45 female sockets. Starting on 2 May 2007 Internet service is offered for premises with fibre.
In Lebanon in April 2009, Minister of Communications Gebran Bassil unveiled a study calling for FTTH to be provided to 40,000 subscribers residing on Hamra Street and to 35,000 others residing in Achrafieh, both located in Beirut. If approved by the cabinet, the system will take 10 months to complete and would make Internet access speeds of 70 Mbit/s possible.[dated info]
Qatar’s government established Qatar National Broadband Network (Qnbn), a shareholding company wholly owned by the government, with a mandate to accelerate the rollout of a nationwide, open, and accessible high-speed (100+ Mbit/s) broadband Fiber to the Home (FTTH) network infrastructure. Qnbn focuses solely on the deployment of a passive network infrastructure, providing equal and open access to operators to offer choice for the end-user and efficiently leveraging existing and new infrastructure in Qatar. Qnbn operates within the existing laws and under license conditions issued by Supreme Council of Information and Communication Technology (ictQATAR).
United Arab Emirates
The first FTTH project in the United Arab Emirates went live in September 2002. The network initially served subscribers within Emaar Properties PJSC developments such as Dubai Marina, Emirates Lakes, Hills, Springs, and the Arabian Ranches. The network was operated by SAHM Technologies, a subsidiary of Emaar Properties. The network was designed by Marconi and used equipment from Marconi, Riverstone, WWP, 3Com and Tandberg.
International City developed by Nakheel Properties offers FTTH built and managed by du. Subscribers are offered voice, IPTV and broadband Internet. All services were transported over IP. The network is now operated by du.
- O-NET, by Olds Fibre, Ltd., is Canada's first community-owned Gigabit FTTH and FTTB carrier in Canada. Gigabit download and upload speeds are provided throughout the community of Olds, Alberta, on a community-owned GPON and Active-E fibre infrastructure. Costs for Gigabit services, unbundled, are approximately $100/month for residential users. Other available services include IPTV, Remote-Storage DVR, Home Phone, Long-Distance, and Wholesale Gateway and Data Centre services.
- Novus provides FTTB services in Vancouver, British Columbia. The carrier provides TV (cable, digital, and HD), digital phone, and 25/10, 50/10, 100/10, 300/15 Internet access with lifetime of free installation to residential customers and 25/25, 50/50, 100/100, and 300/300 Mbit/s Internet access to SOHO and business customers in its service area, as well as providing dark fibre to local businesses.
- Wightman Telecom offers FTTH in Mount Forest, Harriston, Listowel, Hanover, Walkerton and Palmerston in southwestern Ontario. Services include phone, symmetric 20 Mbit/s Internet access, and digital TV (SD and HD) services. There is no fibre installation fee for subscribes during the initial installation period in an area.
- Hurontel Telecommunications Co-operative Limited is offering FTTH services in Goderich, Ripley, Ontario, and Lucknow in Ontario and is extending service to Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, and Ashfield-Colborne-West Wawanosh, including Port Albert, Dungannon, and the Point Clark.
- Saugeen Driftwood offer's FTTH services in the Saugeen First Nation. The Project is funded by Broadband Canada, OMAFRA, Aboriginal Affairs, and The Saugeen Band Council and built using Zhone equipment providing 10 Mbit/s symmetrical (Up and down) Internet access.
- Bell Aliant is offering FTTH which they call Bell Aliant FibreOP and state it's Canada's first 100% fibre-to-the home network to cover an entire city. Available in the Halifax, Kentville, Wolfville, Truro, New Glasgow, and Sydney areas of Nova Scotia; Fredericton, Saint John, Shediac, Miramichi, Bathurst, and Moncton areas of New Brunswick; Charlottetown and Summerside on Prince Edward Island (PEI); and St. John's, Mount Pearl, Paradise, Conception Bay South, Corner Brook, and Grand Falls-Windsor in Newfoundland and Labrador. Speeds are 50/30, 80/30, 175/30 and 250/30 Mbit/s download/upload. This service also provides IPTV services through internal VLANs, which reduce Internet slowdowns.[irrelevant citation]
- Eastlink, a direct competitor to Bell Aliant, in most of its service territory, offers fibre-only service to apartment buildings already served with fibre to every apartment, and to corporate and other campuses. It offers comparable service speeds to Bell Aliant using fibre that generally comes further out towards the subscriber than in Bell copper DSL areas, but which completes the connection using coax. Eastlink operates fibre networks on PEI, in NB and NS.
- The Atlantic First Nation Fibre Optic Project reaches every First Nation in Atlantic Canada and offers fibre to some multi-unit residential and all office buildings in native sovereign territories.
- Execulink Telecom offers FTTP service in select areas of southern Ontario, phone and television services can be bundled with Fibre Internet Access.
- SaskTel is offering FTTP in Saskatchewan called infiNET. It is available in parts of 3 major centres with the intentions of spreading to 10 major centers throughout the province. SaskTel offers speed packages varying from 2/1 to 260/30 with an add-on package available to "Double Up" a users upload speed.
- WTC Communications of Westport, Ontario has completed full fibre-to-the-home installations in Inverary and Newboro and is completing construction of a full FTTP network in Perth. WTC offers phone, internet access, and IPTV over their fibre network.
In the Dominican Republic:
- Claro offers Fibre to the Premises to multiple areas in Santo Domingo and Santiago de los Caballeros and is in the process of rolling out to more areas in these cities.
- Tricom is in the process of rolling out a fibre network in the country, focusing on the Northern and Eastern regions of the country as well as San Cristóbal.
- Axtel offers FTTH under the name Axtel X-tremo, providing service in Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Mexico City at speeds up to 200 Mbit/s. In 2012 there were 61,000 customers using FTTH technology.
- TotalPlay offers FTTH in Mexico City and Toluca at speeds up to 100 Mbit/s.
- Telmex Fibra Optica offers FTTH at speeds up to 20 Mbit/s.[where?]
In the United States:
- The largest fiber to the premises (FTTP) deployment to date is Verizon's FiOS. Verizon is the only Regional Bell Operating Company thus far to deploy FTTP on a large scale. Verizon's initial FTTP offering was based on Broadband Passive Optical Network (BPON) technology. Verizon has already upgraded to Gigabit PON or GPON, a faster optical access technology capable of providing 1 Gbit/s speeds to consumers.
- Several carriers, municipalities, and planned communities across America are deploying smaller fiber networks. Among them are the cities of Bristol, Virginia; Burlington, Vermont; Lafayette, Louisiana; Johnson City, Tennessee; Orono, Maine; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the six counties around Chattanooga, Tennessee served by its Electric Power Board (which ran the fibre, motivated in part by electricity distribution needs. The city of San Francisco, California has released a feasibility study for government and public broadband via fiber optics.
- Service providers using active FTTP technologies include PAXIO Inc. San Francisco Bay Area; SureWest; iProvo; Grant County, Washington; Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency (UTOPIA); and Broadweave Networks, now Veracity Networks (Utah). Service providers using passive optical networks include FiOS, AT&T U-verse, and several greenfield development networks. Fastmetrics Inc. provides fiber Internet to businesses and home offices of the San Francisco Bay Area.
- Google is deploying a gigabit home network called Google Fiber in the Kansas City metropolitan area and various other locations, including Austin, Texas, and Provo, Utah.
- CenturyLink is deploying a gigabit speed internet service using fiber technology in Omaha, Nebraska.
- Peak Internet (http://www.peakinter.net/) is deploying a gigabit fiber to the home/business network in Woodland Park, CO.
- cSpire is deploying a gigbit fiber network to the southern Mississippi area.
- Pend Oreille PUD (http://www.cnsfiber.com) has connected Fiber Optic to over 4,000 residences in south Pend Oreille County (Washington State).
In Argentina, since its launch in 2000 the telecommunications firm IPlan has offered a fiber optic backbone throughout the city of Buenos Aires, and extending into the provincial capitals of Rosario, La Plata, and Córdoba. They provide Internet, telephone, and value-added services using Cisco's Long Reach Ethernet and Catalyst switches. IPlan's network reaches over 3,000 connected buildings.
Other providers of FTTH or Fiber to the premises include Claro, Metrotel, Sion Business, and Phonevision. Providers offer simetric connections of up to 100Mbit/s, for as little as 35 USD for a 30Mbit/s connection and as much as 100USD for an asymmetric 100Mbit/s one and 250USD for a symmetric one.
Moreover, state-owned company ArSat has been building a national public access fiber backbone that will cross the whole country. The first half of the backbone will be done by late 2013, while the whole program will be finished by 2015 (16.000 km of fiber optics, for a total backbone of more than 60.000 km), providing subsidized fiber access to disenfranchised communities and ensuring fiber access to most of the country.
- Vivo, a company acquired by Telefónica in 2013, launched in São Paulo, its FTTH service in 3Q 2007 with initial speeds of 30, 60, and 100 Mbit/s downstream, and 5 Mbit/s upstream. Also available is an IPTV on-demand service and a convergent POTS and mobile pack. In June 2007 Telefónica was reported to have fibre coverage of a potential 400,000 households with 20,000 signed up for service. By the end of 2011, Telefónica plannied to increase coverage to roughly one million households and boost its FTTH user base to 70,000, with a long term plan to have one million fibre customers before 2015. Currently Vivo offers plans with speeds up to 200 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s upstream.
- The second provider to offer FTTH is Brasil Telecom (bought by Oi Telecomunicações in January 2009), offering speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 5 Mbit/s upstream. The service is now marketed in ten states. Oi is now offering its own FTTH operation, in its original service area, completing the Brasil Telecom operation. Oi planned to finish 2011 with 30,000 households connected to its FTTH network.
- Global Village Telecom (GVT) launched, in August 2009, FTTH service in 56 cities, including the major markets of Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador. GVT offer speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 10 Mbit/s upstream. In October 2010 GVT reported a broadband subscriber base of one million users, around 60% of whom are hooked up to 10Mbit/s or higher Internet connection.
- TIM Brasil launched in 2012 its FTTC service called Live Tim, in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, currently offering speeds up to 50 Mbit/s downstream and 35 Mbit/s upstream.
- Net Serviços de Comunicação launched in 2014 its FTTH service Net Vírtua in addition to its cable service in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, offering speeds up to 500 Mbit/s downstream and 100 Mbit/s upstream.
- The first provider to offer FTTH was GTD-Manquehue (a subsidiary of Grupo GTD) in a 2006 pilot. This service offers symmetrical 100 Mbit/s and is available only in some sectors of the capital city Santiago. In 2008, following the success of the FTTH pilot, Gtd Manquehue committed to deploy a commercial FTTH network, in certain areas of Vitacura, Santiago. The network will enable Gtd Manquehue to migrate its traditional voice services to Voice over IP (VoIP) and to deliver advanced services such as High Definition Television (HDTV), IP Television (IPTV), Video on Demand (VoD) and high speed Internet access. The network is based on GPON technology (Passive Optical Network Gigabit-capable).
- The second provider is Surnet (a subsidiary of Grupo GTD) that offers Triple Play Plans with speeds up to 100 Mbit/s.[when?] This service is available in the major cities[which?] of the southern regions of Chile.
In Peru, Misticom deployed the first FTTH network in 2013. Starting from the city of Arequipa, the company is also expanding into Lima and the provinces. Misticom operates a 10 Gigabit GPON network with end user speeds ranging from 6 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. The company provides both business and residential services. Misticom is also the country's first IPTV provider.
State telecommunications company Antel started deploying FTTH in Montevideo in 2012, aiming to switch 240,000 clients that year with a cost of US$180 million. Previous DSL subscribers keep their contract, or may switch to faster Internet Vera plans: 120/12 Mbit/s for US$65/month, 80/10 Mbit/s for US$52/month, 50/10 Mbit/s for US$40/month, or 20/2 Mbit/s for US$28/month, with lower speeds after a 350 / 250 / 200 GB cap. IP television, voice over IP and connections in the department capitals are expected for 2013 and 2014.
The first FTTH network deployed in Australia was delivered in 2001 by Bright Telecommunications – a subsidiary of Western Power, the state power company owned by the Government of Western Australia. Bright Telecommunications initially deployed Fibre to the Curb by Marconi and a point-to-point FTTH solution from Entrasys, but later progressed to a GEPON product from Alloptic. Bright telecommunications was sold to Silk Telecom (now Nextgen Networks) in 2007.
The previous Australian Government was in the process of rolling out an A$36.9 billion open-access National Broadband Network comprising GPON-based FTTP services to 93% of the Australian population at speeds up to 1 Gbit/s, with the remainder of the population to be serviced by fixed-wireless and satellite technologies. The network was to be built and operated by a Government Business Enterprise, NBN Co Limited.
Construction began with trial sites in Tasmania in 2009, with the first services commencing in July 2010. The network was scheduled for completion in December 2021. The Tasmanian NBN trial sites were operated by Opticomm on behalf of NBN Co.
Under this NBN, customers would have been able to access 5 speed tiers, starting with 12/1Mbit/s, 25/5Mbit/s, 25/10Mbit/s, 50/20Mbit/s and going up to 100/40Mbit/s. Future upgrades to 1000/400Mbit/s are possible with the same network, but with upgrades to the transmission technology at either end of the connection.
Prior to 7 September 2013 Federal Election, the incoming Liberal Party Prime Minister, Tony Abbott declared that "We are absolutely confident 25 megs is going to be enough — more than enough — for the average household" promising to terminate the roll-out of the NBN CO's FTTH network in favour of upgrading Telstra's DSL network.
The Coalition government elected in 2013 changed the ratio of FTTH, FTTN and wireless for the population. FTTH will be serviced to 22%, primary Greenfield developments, or areas with serviceable copper or business areas. FTTN will be deployed to 71%, with fibre being deployed to nodes and the existing copper network handling the last mile. Wireless and satellite will serve the remaining 7% who are unable to be serviced by FTTN or FTTH.
In 2009, the Government announced a NZ$1.35 billion public-private Ultra-Fast Broadband partnership with four companies to roll out fibre-to-the-home connection in all main towns and cities with population over 10,000. The programme aims to deliver ultra-fast broadband capable of at least 100 Mbit/s upload and 50Mbit/s download to 75% of New Zealanders by 2019. FTTH will also be rolled out to large users (including hospitals and schools) outside these areas. Chorus, responsible for the majority of the rollout, later announced the introduction of a 200Mbit/s offer.
Chorus' fibre offerings includes a Gigabit business option, Chorus also has an ongoing competition to name a "Gigatown" to which they will provide Gigabit fibre. Residential Gigabit fibre broadband has been deployed by Ultra Fast Fibre in the several cities which they provide with UFB.
Telecom New Zealand, the major telecommunications company in New Zealand, started a FTTP trial dubbed Next Generation Broadband (NGB) in Flat Bush, a new subdivision in South Auckland in May 2006. The NGB provides up to 30 Mbit/s downstream speeds over a Passive Optical Network (PON) with the only cost to the customers during the trial being a NZ$50 activation fee. This trial network was merged into the UFB network in 2013. Vector Communications provides business grade FTTP in wider regions of Auckland CBD and Wellington CBD, and extended network of over 770 km. FTTP services are available from Citylink in Wellington and the pricing makes it suitable for businesses only.
- Fiber in the loop
- Fiber to the x
- Global Internet access
- Hybrid fibre-coaxial
- Internet access
- Next-generation access
- "About us", Zuku Amazing! web site. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "Zuku gets even cheaper fibre broadband Internet". Moses Kemibaro. Blog. 16 November 2010
- "33 Counties Already on Government Fibre Optic Network", Marybeth Wangui, The Star, 19 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI) Routes 27-6-2011", Steve Song, Scribd, 27 June 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Telkom Kenya’s NOFBI management extended", Nick Sato, HumanIPO, 10 July 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "i3 Africa announces plans to connect 2.5 million homes to fibre within five years". Telegeography. 10 March 2011.
- "20 suburbs to get Telkom FTTH connectivity by Dec". Telegeography. 13 June 2014.
- "Spark Website"
- "Huawei and Telekom Brunei in FTTH deal". Global Telecoms Business. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
- "Welcome To Beam Fiber". Beamtele.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Airtel FTTH plans". telecomadda. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Number of Broadband Service Contracts, Etc.", Press Release, Telecommunications Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), 18 December 2007
- "Connections to Broadband Networks", Press Release, Telecommunications Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC)[dead link][dead link]
- "PLDT to launch fiber-optic broadband service", ABS-CBN News, 28 May 2009
- "SingTel Fibre Broadband", SingTel website
- "Fibre Broadband", MyRepublic website
- Andorra Telecom, website. (Catalan) (English translation)
- "Високоскоростен оптичен интернет за дома" ("High-speed optical Internet home"), MobilTel. (Bulgarian) (English translation)
- "FiberNet map coverage", VivaOnline, Vivacom
- "Ericsson has signed the first GPON contract in Europe with CYTA in Cyprus". Marketwire (SYS-CON Media). 11 July 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
- Skutečné FTTH poprvé v Praze (Real FTTH first time in Prague) (Czech), Raycom Telekomunikace, Paul Elias, 2006. (English translation)
- "NETBOX" (in Czech). Netbox.cz. 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- "Valitse laajakaistapalvelusi Soneralta!" (Select broadband services Sonera), Sonera. (English translation)
- "Anvia bygger kundorienterat fibernät" ("Anvia based customer-oriented fiber"), 27 April 2010. (Swedish) (English translation)
- A user reports in fact a debit of 35/10 Mbit/s
- (French) http://www.linfo.re/Societe/510345-Le-1er-reseau-FTTH-de-La-Reunion-inaugure « Le premier réseau FTTH de la Réunion inauguré » sur linfo.re 19
- (French) http://reunion.la1ere.fr/2013/06/19/mont-roquefeuille-premier-quartier-d-outre-mer-equipe-dun-reseau-tres-haut-debit-en-fibre-optique-42735.html « Mont Roquefeuille, premier quartier d'outre-mer équipé d'un réseau très haut débit en fibre optique ! » sur Réunion Template:1re 19
- (French) http://www.zinfos974.com/Zeop-deploie-la-fibre-optique-a-domicile-une-premiere-a-la-Reunion_a58210.html « Zeop déploie la fibre optique à domicile, une première à la Réunion » sur Zinfos974 19
- (French) http://www.ipreunion.com/actualites/reportage/2013/06/19/internet-un-nouveau-pas-vers-le-tres-haut-debit-a-la-reunion,20792.html « Un nouveau pas vers le très haut débit à La Réunion» sur ipreunion.com 19
- "Εργο 2,1 δισ. ευρώ για υποδομές σε δίκτυα οπτικών ινών νέας γενιάς (HeErgo 2.1 billion for infrastructure in new fiber networks geniasllo, world!) 0". Το Βήμα (in Greek). 4 September 2008.[dead link][dead link]
- "Next Generation Access", Eircom Wholesale
- "Ireland's Fibre Pilot", Eircom Wholesale
- Lattelecom Operator Profile
- "Saulkalnē pieejams Lattelecom optiskais internets (Lattelecom's fibre internet is available in Saulkalne)" (in Latvian). 16 January 2013.
- http://www.teo.lt/en/oper_figures-1969.html[dead link][dead link]
- "FTTH European Ranking 2009 (Slides 22 and 23)", Fiber to the Home Council: Europe, 24 February 2010
- "Max Optic Packages" (Macedonian), Makedonski Telekom. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "Chart 7. Structure of Broadband Service Market, by Access Technology" in Market Evolution: data transport and Internet access sector, National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communication and Information Technology of the Republic of Moldova
- "FTTx Plans", Moldtelcom. (English translation)
- "FTTx Plans", StarNet.
- http://www.concepts.nl/glasvezel-deventer[dead link][dead link]
- "Jobs: Nord-Trøndelag Electricity Works (NTE)". Karriereguiden.no. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- "Pura Fibra" (Pure Fiber), Optimus Clix
- "Meo Fiber". (English translation)
- Targo Telekom, website. (Serbian) (English translation)
- "" SBB NAJAVLJUJE FIBER POWER – PAKETE NA OPTIČKOJ INFRASTRUKTURI ZA REZIDENCIJALNE KORISNIKE" (SBB announces Fiber Power offer on optical infrastructure for residential users)". Serbia Broadband (SBB. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2012. (english translation)
- Bostjan Batagelj (2013): Deployment of Fiber-to-the-Home in the Slovenian Telecommunications Market, Fiber and Integrated Optics, 32:1, 1-11 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01468030.2012.760686
- "La Red Asturcón" (Astur Optical Communications Network Neutral), GIT – Gestión de Infraestructuras Públicas de Telecomunicaciones del Principado de Asturias (Management of public telecommunications infrastructures of Asturias)]. (English translation)
- "Fiber From The "X" approach (FFTX)", Bottom Up Broadband (BuB) for Europe. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Telia Bredband" (Telia Broadband), Telia. (English translation)
- "Optical fiber deployment", Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM), Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC). Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Swisscom invests in Switzerland's future: superfast broadband expansion and surfing speeds of up to 1 Gbps", Swisscom Press Release, 12 September 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- "Deployment of optical fiber in Switzerland", Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM), Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC), 14 June 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- http://www.donanimhaber.com/tm.asp?m=19889303[dead link][dead link]
- "Fiber İnternet Nedir?" (What is a Fiber Optic Internet?), Turkcell Superonline. (English translation)
- http://img.donanimhaber.com/upfiles/25877/098579C1C54448C2B95937E9B78E578E.jpg[dead link][dead link]
- http://www.sikayetvar.com/sikayet/no/617911/g/SUPERONLINE%20Adil%20Kullanim%20Denildi%20Fakat%20Aldatildik[dead link][dead link]
- "Ücretlendirme | Yardım - Turkcell Superonline". SuperOnline.net. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- "i3 Group Official site". I3-group.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- Wakefield, Jane (23 January 2008). "UK homes to get super-fast fibre". BBC News. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "1Gbit/sec broadband lands in London", Stewart Mitchell, PC Pro (Dennis Publishing), 19 October 2011.
- "Gigler launches Gigabit fibre service in Bournemouth", Andrew Ferguson, Think Broadband, 4 October 2012
- "BT superfast home fibre plans fall behind schedule. Again", Kelly Fiveash, 6 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "BT reveals ultra-fast cable blowing plan for homes, biz", Kelly Fiveash, The Register, 3 February 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "When is fibre coming to you". jtglobal.com. Retrieved 8 Sep 2012.
- "Israel sets its sites on its own National Broadband Network". The Australian. AP. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- "Kuwait selects Alcatel for Broadband Fiber Network", TVover.net weblog, 23 August 2005
- "Fiber to the Home in Kuwait – Part 2", Don Veto – Reviews and Words of Wisdom, blogspot.com, 21 September 2006
- "Bassil unveils study to install high speed fiber-optic Internet cables", The Daily Star (Lebanon), 28 April 2009
- "Qatar’s Digital Highway to the Future". Supreme Council of Information & Communication Technology – Qatar. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Mohammed Al Mannai Named CEO of Qatar National Broadband Network". Supreme Council of Information & Communication Technology – Qatar. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "Qnbn Holds First Meeting". Press Release. Qnbn. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Odiabat, Husam (27 March 2010). "STC provides its customers with 100 megabyte internet through FTTH technology". AME Info. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Norvu FibrNet", Norvus. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "Dark Fibre", Novus. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "Fibre to the Home", Wrightman Telecom. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "The HuronTel Home: Fibre to the Home and Fibre to the Curb initiative", HuronTel. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "Bell Aliant FibreOP for Your Home" and "Bell Aliant FibreOP for Business", Bell Aliant. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- "EastLink questions province’s fibre optic investment", Ryan Ross, The Guardian, 12 October 2010.
- "Atlantic First Nation Fibre Optic Project", Atlantic Canada's First Nation Help Desk and Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
- "Fibre High Speed Internet", Execulink Telecom. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Fibra Óptica", Claro (in Spanish), retrieved April 18, 2013
- "Tricom con nueva red de Fibra Óptica", Claro (in Spanish), retrieved April 18, 2013
- "Nuestra Empresa" (Our Company) (Spanish), AXTEL. Retrieved 3 September 2012. (English translation)
- "Totalplay home page" (Spanish), Totalplay. Retrieved 3 September 2012. (English translation)
- "La Red de Fibra Óptica más grande del país, llega a tu hogar" (The Country's Largest Fiber Optic Network is coming to your home) (Spanish), Telmex. Retrieved 3 September 2012. (English translation)
- "EPB Deploys America’s Fastest Fiber-optic Smart Grid", Lee Baker, Electric Energy Online, Electric Energy Publications Inc. (Jaguar Media)
- "PAXIO Inc. homepage". Paxio, Inc. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Corporate History". Veracity Networks. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Welcome to Fiber Cities". Google Incorporated. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Christopher Freeburn (2013-05-02). "CenturyLink Joins Gigabit Internet Game". InvestorPlace Media, LLC. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Acerca de IPLAN" (About IPLAN) (Spanish), IPLAN website. Retrieved 3 September 2012. (English translation)
- "Son más de 3 mil los edificios cableados por iPlan en el microcentro" (More than 3000 buildings wired by iPlan in downtown) (Spanish), CanalAR, 2 August 2006. (English translation)
- "Fibra Óptica" (Spanish), Claro. Retrieved 24 July 2013. (English translation)
- "Nueva conexión a Internet Simétrica por Óptica" (Spanish), Metrotel. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Enlaces Dedicados" (Dedicated links) (Spanish), Sion Business. Retrieved 24 July 2013. (English translation)
- "Internet Residencial" (Spanish), PhoneVision. Retrieved 24 July 2013. (English translation)
- "Federal Fiber-Optic Network", Arsat. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- "Telefonica expands Brazilian FTTH coverage", TeleGeography, 27 June 2011
- "Brazil’s Oi makes a net profit in Q4", EMAT-ELEVATE in Latin America, 8 March 2011
- "Global Village Telecom boasts one million broadband users", TeleGeography, 12 October 2010
- "Our History", Grupo Gtd. Retrieved 3 September 2012
- Antel llevará fibra óptica a 240.000 hogares en 2012 – El País, 1 February 2012
- Planes de Internet – Antel
- "Alloptic deploys Venezuelan FTTH network", TeleGeography, 2 October 2006
- Rodgers, Emma (12 August 2010), Big gig: NBN to be 10 times faster, ABC News, retrieved 27 April 2011
- NBN Co (15 December 2010), Corporate Plan 2011–2013, NBN Co Limited, p. 12, retrieved 1 June 2011
- "OptiComm scores Tas NBN deal", Liam Tung, ZDNet, 14 December 2009]
- NBN Co. "Wholesale Speeds / NBN Co". Archived from the original on 2014-09-20. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
- "Abbott: 25Mbps broadband 'more than enough' for Australia", AAP, published by ZDNet, 9 April 2013]
- Malcolm Turnbull MHR (15 April 2013), The Coalition's Plan for Fast Broadband and An Affordable NBN, Liberal Party of Australia, p. 6, retrieved 7 October 2013
- "Ultra-Fast Broadband Initiative". Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Snap and Chorus deliver double quick UFB at 200mbps". UFB.org.nz. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Gigabit fibre in Hamilton, Tauranga and more". UFB.org.nz. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Deployment progress". Ministry of Economic Development. December 2013.
- "Telecom to learn from small fibre to houses pilot", Juha Saarinen and Stephen Bell, Computerworld New Zealand, 2 September 2006
- "Fibre Subdivisions". Chorus. Retrieved 6 March 2014.