Fibrillin

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fibrillin 1
2W86 (Fibrillin).png
Crystallographic structure of the cbEGF9-hybrid2-cbEGF10 region of human fibrillin 1.[1]
Identifiers
Symbol FBN1
Alt. symbols FBN, MFS1, WMS
Entrez 2200
HUGO 3603
OMIM 134797
PDB 2W86 (RCSB PDB PDBe PDBj)
RefSeq NM_000138
UniProt P35555
Other data
Locus Chr. 15 q21.1
fibrillin 2
Identifiers
Symbol FBN2
Alt. symbols CCA
Entrez 2201
HUGO 3604
OMIM 121050
RefSeq NM_001999
UniProt P35556
Other data
Locus Chr. 5 q23-q31
fibrillin 3
Identifiers
Symbol FBN3
Entrez 84467
HUGO 18794
OMIM 608529
RefSeq NM_032447
UniProt Q75N90
Other data
Locus Chr. 19 p13

Fibrillin is a glycoprotein, which is essential for the formation of elastic fibers found in connective tissue.[2] Fibrillin is secreted into the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts and becomes incorporated into the insoluble microfibrils, which appear to provide a scaffold for deposition of elastin.[3]

Types[edit]

Fibrillin-1[edit]

Fibrillin-1 is a major component of the microfibrils that form a sheath surrounding the amorphous elastin. It is believed that the microfibrils are composed of end-to-end polymers of fibrillin. To date, 3 forms of fibrillin have been described. The fibrillin-1 protein was isolated by Engvall in 1986,[4] and mutations in the FBN1 gene cause Marfan syndrome.[5]

This protein is found in humans, and its genes are found on chromosome 15. At present more than 600 different mutations have been described.[1]

Structure[edit]

There is no complete, high-resolution structure of fibrillin-1. Instead, short fragments have been produced recombinantly and their structures solved by X-ray crystallography or using NMR spectroscopy. A recent example is the structure of the fibrillin-1 hybrid2 domain, in context of its flanking calcium binding epidermal growth factor domains, which was determined using X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.8 Å.[1] The microfibrils that are made up of fibrillin protein are responsible for different cell-matrix interactions in the human body.

Fibrillin-2[edit]

Fibrillin-2 was isolated in 1994 by Zhang[6] and is thought to play a role in early elastogenesis. Mutations in the fibrillin-2 gene have been linked to Beal's Syndrome.

Fibrillin-3[edit]

More recently, fibrillin-3 was described and is believed to be located mainly in the brain.[7] Along with the brain, fibrillin-3 has been localized in the gonads and ovaries of field mice.

Fibrillin-4[edit]

Fibrillin-4 has only very recently been discovered in zebrafish, and has a sequence similar to fibrillin-2.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c PDB 2W86; Jensen SA, Iqbal S, Lowe ED, Redfield C, Handford PA (May 2009). "Structure and interdomain interactions of a hybrid domain: a disulphide-rich module of the fibrillin/LTBP superfamily of matrix proteins". Structure 17 (5): 759–68. doi:10.1016/j.str.2009.03.014. PMC 2724076. PMID 19446531. 
  2. ^ Kielty CM, Baldock C, Lee D, Rock MJ, Ashworth JL, Shuttleworth CA (February 2002). "Fibrillin: from microfibril assembly to biomechanical function". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 357 (1418): 207–17. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1029. PMC 1692929. PMID 11911778. 
  3. ^ Singh (2006). Textbook of human histology. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-81-8061-809-3. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  4. ^ Sakai LY, Keene DR, Engvall E (December 1986). "Fibrillin, a new 350-kD glycoprotein, is a component of extracellular microfibrils". J. Cell Biol. 103 (6 Pt 1): 2499–509. doi:10.1083/jcb.103.6.2499. PMC 2114568. PMID 3536967. 
  5. ^ Dietz HC; Guttmacher, Alan E.; Dietz, Harry C. (August 2010). "New therapeutic approaches to mendelian disorders". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (9): 852–63. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0907180. PMID 20818846. 
  6. ^ Zhang H, Apfelroth SD, Hu W, et al. (1994). "Structure and expression of fibrillin-2, a novel microfibrillar component preferentially located in elastic matrices". J. Cell Biol. 124 (5): 855–63. doi:10.1083/jcb.124.5.855. PMC 2119952. PMID 8120105. 
  7. ^ Corson GM, Charbonneau NL, Keene DR, Sakai LY (March 2004). "Differential expression of fibrillin-3 adds to microfibril variety in human and avian, but not rodent, connective tissues". Genomics 83 (3): 461–72. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2003.08.023. PMID 14962672. 
  8. ^ Gansner JM, Madsen EC, Mecham RP, Gitlin JD (October 2008). "Essential role for fibrillin-2 in zebrafish notochord and vascular morphogenesis". Dev. Dyn. 237 (10): 2844–61. doi:10.1002/dvdy.21705. PMID 18816837. 

External links[edit]