The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member binds both acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and is involved in limb induction.
Mutations in this gene have been associated with Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Antley-Bixler syndrome, osteoglophonic dysplasia, squamous cell lung cancer (14) and autosomal dominant Kallmann syndrome. There is also strong evidence from sequencing studies of candidate genes involved in clefting that mutations in the FGFR1 gene may be associated in the pathogenesis of cleft lip and/or palate. A few DNA sequence variants, including one nonsense mutation, have been reported in isolated or non-syndromic cleft lip and palate. Both cleft lip with or without a cleft palate and cleft palate only features have been seen in families with a FGFRI mutation. Cleft palate is a relatively common feature of Kallman syndrome as well. Somatic chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with stem cell myeloproliferative disorder and stem cell leukemia lymphoma syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized.
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