Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a condition characterized by the presence of fibropapillomas, neoplasms consisting of both the epidermal and dermal skin layers.
||This article only describes one highly specialized aspect of its associated subject. (September 2010)|
 In sea turtles
Fibropapillomatosis of sea turtles is probably caused by a herpes-type virus, and is causing an epidemic amongst sea turtles. Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) was first discovered in 1938. FP is a disease marked by proliferation of benign but debilitating cutaneous fibropapillomas and occasional visceral alien.
In 20% of the cases, FP and herpesvirus are both present. All cases report a max. 2 cm between the FP and herpes spots. These results lead to the conclusion that a chelonian herpesvirus is regularly associated with fibropapillomatosis and is not merely an incidental finding in affected turtles.
In the 1990s, it was thought that this was a deadly condition for sea turtles and would quickly lead to the extinction of the green turtle, and possibly all species of marine turtles. Research eventually showed that some turtles can recuperate from the disease, with recovery chances increasing with age and size.
The histopathologic characteristics that distinguish these tumors from other forms of neoplasia are a proliferation of both the epidermal and dermal skin layers. Fibropapillomas occur in other species besides sea turtles, such as cattle, camelids, cervids, and sheep. These tumors are benign and may spontaneously regress. Treatment consists of surgical removal, though tumors may recur if the tumors are not entirely and fully removed from the turtle's external covering. But, if the tumors are internal (growing on the lungs and trachea and also inside the throat) the turtle will not recover and will sooner or later die from the deadly disease.
A single stranded DNA virus with a circular genome - sea turtle tornovirus 1 - has been isolated from a sea turtle with fibropapillomatosis. It is sufficiently unrelated to any other known virus that it may belong to a new family. The closest relations seem to be the Gyrovirinae.
 In other species
- Herbst, Lawrence H. (September 2000). "Marine Turtle Fibropapillomatosis: Hope Floats in a Sea of Ignorance". Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology 19: 39–40. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-443.
- Moncada, Felix; Adela Prieto (September 2000). "Incidence of Fibropapillomas in the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) in Cuban Waters". Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology 19: 40–41. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-443.
- Bennett, P., U. Keuper-Bennett, and G. H. Balazs. "Photographic evidence for the regression of fibropapillomas afflicting green turtles at Honokowai, Maui, in the Hawaiian Islands." Proceedings of the 19th Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Conservation and Biology, p. 37-39. U.S. Dep. Commer. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-443, 2000.
- Ng TF, Manire C, Borrowman K, Langer T, Ehrhart L, Breitbart M (2009) Discovery of a novel single-stranded DNA virus from a sea turtle fibropapilloma by using viral metagenomics. J Virol 83(6):2500-2509
- Jelinek, F., and R. Tachezy. "Cutaneous Papillomatosis in Cattle." J. Comp. Path. 132(2005): 70-81.
- McGavin, M. Donald and James Zachary. Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 4th Edition. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2007.
- Schulman, F. Y., A. E. Krafft, T. Janczewski, R. Reupert, K. Jackson, and M. M. Garner. “Camelid Mucoutaneous Fibropapillomas: Clinicopathologic Findings and Association with Papillomavirus.” Vet Pathol 40(2003): 103-107.
- Site with many articles on FP
- Fibropapillomas in the Hawaiian Green Sea Turtle
- Murakawa-Balazs Marine Turtle Fibropapilloma Bibliography